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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443423

RESUMO

Chronic liver inflammation has become a major global health concern. In the absence of clinical surrogate markers to diagnose inflammatory liver disease, the intervention with effective drugs in modern medicine tends to be late. In Sri Lanka, traditional medical practitioners prescribe herbal preparations from Osbeckia octandra for the prevention and treatment of liver disorders. To test the efficacy of such treatments, we have administered thioacetamide (TAA) to male Wistar rats to induce chronic liver damage (disease control; DC) and examined how various leaf extracts: crude leaf suspension (CLS), boiled leaf extract (BLE), sonicated leaf extract (SLE), methanol leaf extract (MLE) and hexane leaf extract (HLE) of O. octandra ameliorate TAA-induced liver disease. The CLS, BLE and SLE treatments in cirrhotic rats significantly attenuated disease-related changes, such as liver weight and hepato-enzymes. The mRNA levels of Tnf-α were significantly decreased by 3.6, 10 and 3.9 times in CLS, BLE and SLE compared to DC. The same treatments resulted in significantly lower (19.5, 4.2 and 2.4 times) α-Sma levels compared to DC. In addition, Tgf-ß1 and Vegf-R2 mRNA expressions were significantly lower with the treatments. Moreover, BLE expressed a strong anti-angiogenic effect. We conclude that CLS, BLE and SLE from O. octandra have potent hepatic anti-fibrotic effects in TAA-induced liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melastomataceae/química , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tioacetamida , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Água , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Vet World ; 11(10): 1376-1379, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532489

RESUMO

Aim: The objective of this study was to describe and characterize the postmortem and histopathological findings of putative esophageal chondrosarcoma associated with Spirocerca lupi. Materials and Methods: Spirocerca-associated esophageal nodules were collected from 54 dogs at postmortem examination and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Of the cases examined, 15 were selected randomly for further investigation, of which 11 were classified as non-neoplastic nodules while 4 had changes reflecting a neoplastic process. Results: In all four neoplastic cases, the wall of the esophageal nodules contained islands and nests of highly proliferative atypical chondroblasts within a cartilaginous matrix. However, there was no statistically significant association between gender (p=0.228), age (p=0.568), and breeds (p>0.05) with the occurrence of spirocercosis. Moreover, all esophageal nodules identified were located near the caudal segment, and their diameters ranged from 1 to 6 cm (4.7±1.5 cm). A number of worms in each nodule varied from 5 to 25 (11.3±5). Conclusion: Histopathology and cytology revealed that the wall of the esophageal nodules contained islands and nests of highly proliferative atypical chondroblasts within a cartilaginous matrix, a rare finding, and clinical challenge in spirocercosis.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 418, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades intra-aural tick infestation (otoacariasis) has been a common occurrence in the hilly central region in Sri Lanka. Very occasional detection of isolated unilateral facial nerve palsy associated with otoacariasis attributed to toxin damage of the nerve prompted us to study the clinico-epidemiology and aetio-pathology of the problem. METHODS: All cases having isolated unilateral facial nerve palsy associated with otoacariasis presented to, Ear Nose and Throat clinic at General Hospital Kandy, Sri Lanka from 2001 to 2016 were included in the study. The facial palsies were assessed with nerve conduction studies and, harvested ticks were identified. RESULTS: There were 29 patients with mean age of 46 years (range 22-76 years) with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. First 12 patients without specific treatment took 1-55 months for recovery and 4 had axonal degeneration. Last 5 patients were treated with doxycycline and recovered in 4 weeks. They had strong sero-conversion of immunofluorescence antibodies against spotted fever rickettsioses and the tick harvested from the last patient was PCR positive for rickettsial DNA. Identified ticks belonged to Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma species. CONCLUSIONS: On contrary to popular toxin theory, we were able to demonstrate treatable rickettsial aetio-pathology as the cause of otoacariasis associated lower motor facial palsy in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Meato Acústico Externo/parasitologia , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/complicações , Infecções por Rickettsia/fisiopatologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Paralisia Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Paralisia Facial/microbiologia , Paralisia Facial/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rickettsia/imunologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/tratamento farmacológico , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/tratamento farmacológico , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 29(1): 94-101, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361387

RESUMO

There are 3 species of hump-nosed pit vipers in Sri Lanka: Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale zara, and Hypnale nepa. The latter 2 are endemic to the country. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a known complication of hump-nosed pit viper bites. It was previously documented as a complication of general viper bites and not species specific. We report a series of 3 patients who developed MAHA after being bitten by each species of hump-nosed pit viper. The first patient was bitten by H hypnale and developed a severe form of MAHA associated with acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia falling into the category of thrombotic microangiopathy. The other 2 developed MAHA that resolved without any complications.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica/diagnóstico , Crotalinae , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Anemia Hemolítica/complicações , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade da Espécie , Sri Lanka
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 400, 2017 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study revisits the clinico-epidemiology and serological patterns of rickettsioses in the central region of Sri Lanka and highlights the need of advanced diagnostics for precise identification of species responsible for rickettsioses. METHODS: The patients treated for rickettsioses between November 2009 and October 2011 were recruited for the study from Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya. Clinical characteristics and serology results were used for diagnosis. RESULTS: Study included 210 patients (mean age 44 years ± 3.2) and of them 188 (90%) had positive IgG and/or IgM sero-reactivity for spotted fever group (SFG). Of them, 134 had IgG titre ≥1/256 for SFG and presented with fever and skin rash. They also had headache [n = 119 (89%)], myalgia [n = 103 (77%)], arthralgia [n = 89 (66%)] of large joints, conjunctival injections [n = 83 (62%)], thrombocytopenia (n = 78.58%), anaemia (n = 14.10%), leukocytosis [n = 35 (26%)], leucopenia [n = 17 (13%)], elevated aspartate transaminase [n = 69 (52%)] and alanine transaminase [n = 73 (55%)]. CONCLUSIONS: Predominance of SFG rickettsioses are reiterated, possibly transmitted by ticks. Joint disease is common with occasional fern leaf skin necrosis. Changing socio-economic conditions, vegetations, contact with domestic and wild animals, abundance of vectors would have contributed for emergence and sustenance of SFG in the region. Further research is needed to identify the causative agents and the mode of transmission.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/imunologia , Rickettsia/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(9): e3179, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25232837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characteristic skin lesions play a key role in clinical diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsioses and this study describes these cutaneous manifestations along with basic histological features. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Study was conducted at Medical Unit, Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, from November 2009 to October 2011, where a prospective data base of all rickettsial infections is maintained. Confirmation of diagnosis was made when IgM and IgG immunofluorescent antibody titre of 1/32 and >1/256 respectively. Of the 210 clinical cases, 134 had cutoff antibody titers for Rickettsia conorii antigen for confirmation. All these 134 patients had fever and skin rash, and of them 132(98%) had discrete maculopapular rash while eight (6%) had fern leaf type skin necrosis. Eight patients (6%) had healed tick bite marks. Average size of a skin lesion was 5 mm and rash involved 52% of body surface, distributed mainly in limbs and back of the chest. Generally the facial and leg skin was slightly oedematous particularly in old aged patients. Sixteen patients (12%) had pain and swelling of ankle joints where swelling extended to feet and leg. Biopsies from skin rash of six patients showed evidence of cutaneous vasculitis and of them, 247 bp region of the 17-kDa spotted fever group specific protein antigen was amplified using PCR. CONCLUSIONS: A discrete maculopapular rash and occasional variations such as fern leaf shape necrosis and arthritis are found in spotted fever group. Histology found vasculitis as the pathology of these lesions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rickettsia/patologia , Rickettsia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/patologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Biópsia , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Pele/patologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23077817

RESUMO

To help formulate a local intervention for leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, we determined the serogroups of leptospiral species among 97 patients diagnosed with leptospirosis at the University of Peradeniya Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. Ninety-two point eight percent of the patients were men; nearly two-thirds were > or = 35 years old; the majority had secondary or higher education level, half were farmers or laborers; and 57.7% presented in the acute-phase of the illness. Twenty-five patients (25.8%) were confirmed to have leptospirosis by a positive laboratory method; 17 and 8 cases were confirmed with a positive test by quantitative MAT and nested PCR, respectively. Of the 17 MAT positive cases, infection occurred in a variety of serogroups, but the predominant groups were Sejroe and Tarassovi. Of the 8 nested PCR positive cases, 7 were seen among those with a MAT titer <200 and 1 occurred in a patient with a MAT titer > or = 200 but <400. Of the 8 PCR positive cases, 7 were infected with the leptospiral species L. interrogans. Approximately 26% of the clinically diagnosed patients were confirmed by the two laboratory methods. Laboratory positivity was based on the time of blood collection after the onset of fever. Further studies are warranted to refine the clinical diagnostic criteria and to develop more efficient and accurate diagnostic tests for leptospirosis in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
8.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 11(8): 1041-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21284522

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease globally and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Other than human leptospirosis, little information is available on leptospirosis in domestic and feral animals in Sri Lanka. Thus, this study attempted to determine the prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in smallholder dairy cattle and peridomestic rodents to understand the impact of the disease on public health in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Cattle and rodent samples were collected from the Yatinuwara and Udunuwara divisional secretaries in Kandy. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antileptospiral antibodies using microscopic agglutination test. DNA was extracted from cattle urine and rodent kidney tissue samples, in which polymerase chain reaction was carried out to detect the Leptospira flaB gene. The cattle in 19 (38.8%) of the 49 farms harbored antileptospiral antibodies. Out of 113 cattle serum samples, 23 (20.3%) were positive; 17 (73.9%) and 6 (26.1%) reacted with serogroups Sejroe and Hebdomadis, respectively. Out of the 74 rodent samples, 13 (17.5%) were positive; 8 (61.5%) and 4 (30.8%) had reactions to serogroups Javanica and Icterohaemorrhagiae, respectively. Leptospiral DNA was detected in one cattle urine sample and identified as Leptospira interrogans. This study revealed a high prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle and rodents in Kandy. These animals were infected with a wide array of leptospiral serogroups, which are consistent with the research findings observed in humans in Kandy. Overall, serological data indicate that relative to rodents, cattle may be a more significant reservoir for human transmission and a greater source of potential risk to local agricultural communities.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Portador Sadio , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Roedores/sangue , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
9.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 64(1): 72-5, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21266762

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence of leptospirosis and hantaviral infections, and the socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of infected patients, in Kandy, Sri Lanka. This report discusses the serological evidence of hantavirus infections among 105 suspected leptospirosis patients, 8 of whom had hantavirus antibodies. Serotyping ELISA showed that these 8 patients had high optical density values for Thailand virus. Most of the sera showed that the focus reduction neutralization test titer against Thailand virus was higher than that against Seoul virus, thereby suggesting that the hantaviral antibodies found in Sri Lanka are different from Seoul virus but closely related to Thailand virus. These findings imply that the hantaviral infection found in Kandy, Sri Lanka appears to be due to a virus similar to Thailand virus. Epidemiological analysis revealed that the association between hantavirus infection and socio-demographic characteristics was not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Hantavirus/imunologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Hantavirus/classificação , Infecções por Hantavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 72(12): 1629-32, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20651466

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the effect of Sophy ß-glucan on immunity and growth performance in broilers. One group was treated with 1% ß-glucan ad libitum with water and the other group was kept as the control. Vaccination for Infectious Bursal Disease was carried out on days 16 and 21. Blood samples were collected from birds, and antibody titres against IBD were measured. The mean body weight of the ß-glucan treated group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the control group. The mean antibody titres measured on days 25, 36 and 42 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in 1% ß-glucan treated group than that of the control group, suggesting the presence of immune stimulating effect of ß-glucan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Água/química
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