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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672768

RESUMO

The progression of multiple myeloma (MM), a hematologic malignancy characterized by unregulated plasma cell growth, is associated with increasing innate and adaptive immune system dysfunction, notably in the T-cell repertoire. Although treatment advances in MM have led to deeper and more durable clinical responses, the disease remains incurable for most patients. Therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and activating the host immune system have recently shown promise in MM, particularly in the relapsed and/or refractory disease setting. As the efficacy of T-cell-dependent immuno-oncology therapy is likely affected by the health of the endogenous T-cell repertoire, these therapies may also provide benefit in alternate treatment settings (e.g., precursor disease; after stem cell transplantation). This review describes T-cell-associated changes during the evolution of MM and provides an overview of T-cell-dependent immuno-oncology approaches under investigation. Vaccine and checkpoint inhibitor interventions are being explored across the MM disease continuum; treatment modalities that redirect patient T cells to elicit an anti-MM response, namely chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and bispecific antibodies (including BiTE [bispecific T-cell engager] molecules), have been primarily evaluated to date in the relapsed and/or refractory disease setting. CAR T cells and bispecific antibodies/antibody constructs directed against B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) have generated excitement, with clinical data demonstrating deep responses. An increased understanding of the complex interplay between the immune system and MM throughout the disease course will aid in maximizing the potential for T-cell-dependent immuno-oncology strategies in MM.

2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1243-1256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597850

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell neoplasm that is incurable despite significant progress in treatment over the past several decades. The incorporation of novel agents and combinations into the MM treatment paradigm has resulted in improved survival and tolerability, as well as deeper responses including achieving a minimal residual disease negative state. The addition of new treatment options and combinations has added complexity in treatment selection for myeloma patients. The current strategy for newly diagnosed myeloma involves induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy. However, nearly all myeloma patients will develop refractory disease. This highlights the need for more effective therapies targeting the myeloma cells and their microenvironment. In this article, we summarize current management of transplant eligible and ineligible newly diagnosed patients in both the upfront and relapsed refractory setting, highlighting risk adapted strategies. We also summarize emerging therapies, such as immune and targeted approaches, as well as drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Emerging strategies offer individualized treatment options and may ultimately offer the possibility of a cure for myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1154-1165, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590151

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma provide recommendations for diagnosis, workup, treatment, follow-up, and supportive care for patients with monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, solitary plasmacytoma, smoldering myeloma, and multiple myeloma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight some of the important updates and changes in the 1.2020 version of the NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(6): e302-e312, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162104

RESUMO

Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma have increased the need for accurate diagnosis of the disease. The detection of bone and bone marrow lesions is crucial in the investigation of multiple myeloma and often dictates the decision to start treatment. Furthermore, detection of minimal residual disease is important for prognosis determination and treatment planning, and it has underscored an unmet need for sensitive imaging methods that accurately assess patient response to multiple myeloma treatment. Low-dose whole-body CT has increased sensitivity compared with conventional skeletal survey in the detection of bone disease, which can reveal information leading to changes in therapy and disease management that could prevent or delay the onset of clinically significant morbidity and mortality as a result of skeletal-related events. Given the multiple options available for the detection of bone and bone marrow lesions, ranging from conventional skeletal survey to whole-body CT, PET/CT, and MRI, the International Myeloma Working Group decided to establish guidelines on optimal use of imaging methods at different disease stages. These recommendations on imaging within and outside of clinical trials will help standardise imaging for monoclonal plasma cell disorders worldwide to allow the comparison of results and the unification of treatment approaches for multiple myeloma.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 4907-4916, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The oral proteasome inhibitor oprozomib has shown preclinical antitumor activity. Here, we report phase Ib/II study results investigating single-agent oprozomib in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary objectives were to determine the MTD, safety, and tolerability of oprozomib (phase Ib) as well as overall response rate (ORR; phase II). Oprozomib was administered once daily on days 1, 2, 8, and 9 (2/7 schedule) or days 1 to 5 (5/14 schedule) of a 14-day cycle. RESULTS: In patients with multiple myeloma or Waldenström macroglobulinemia (n = 71), the determined MTDs were 300 mg/day (2/7 schedule) and 240 mg/day (5/14 schedule). Median oprozomib treatment duration for patients with multiple myeloma was 11.4 weeks (2/7 schedule, 240/300 mg/day), 5.4 weeks (5/14, 240 mg/day), and 10.1 weeks (5/14, 150/180 mg/day). For patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia, these values were 34.6 weeks (2/7 schedule, 240/300 mg/day) and 8.1 weeks (5/14 schedule, 240 mg/day). The most common grade ≥3 adverse events (AE) in phase Ib included gastrointestinal and hematologic AEs. Three AE-related deaths in phase II prompted enrollment into 2/7 and 5/14 step-up dosing schedules (240/300 mg/day and 150/180 mg/day, respectively). In phase II, ORRs in 95 response-eligible multiple myeloma patients were 41.0%, 28.1%, and 25.0% in the 2/7, 240/300-mg/day; 5/14, 150/180-mg/day; and 5/14, 240-mg/day cohorts, respectively. ORRs in 31 response-eligible Waldenström macroglobulinemia patients were 71.4% and 47.1% for the 2/7 and 5/14 cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated promising efficacy of single-agent oprozomib in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 380(18): 1726-1737, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest that bb2121, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy that targets B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), has potential for the treatment of multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 1 study involving patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, we administered bb2121 as a single infusion at doses of 50×106, 150×106, 450×106, or 800×106 CAR-positive (CAR+) T cells in the dose-escalation phase and 150×106 to 450×106 CAR+ T cells in the expansion phase. Patients had received at least three previous lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory agent, or were refractory to both drug classes. The primary end point was safety. RESULTS: Results for the first 33 consecutive patients who received a bb2121 infusion are reported. The data-cutoff date was 6.2 months after the last infusion date. Hematologic toxic effects were the most common events of grade 3 or higher, including neutropenia (in 85% of the patients), leukopenia (in 58%), anemia (in 45%), and thrombocytopenia (in 45%). A total of 25 patients (76%) had cytokine release syndrome, which was of grade 1 or 2 in 23 patients (70%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (6%). Neurologic toxic effects occurred in 14 patients (42%) and were of grade 1 or 2 in 13 patients (39%). One patient (3%) had a reversible grade 4 neurologic toxic effect. The objective response rate was 85%, including 15 patients (45%) with complete responses. Six of the 15 patients who had a complete response have had a relapse. The median progression-free survival was 11.8 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2 to 17.8). All 16 patients who had a response (partial response or better) and who could be evaluated for minimal residual disease (MRD) had MRD-negative status (≤10-4 nucleated cells). CAR T-cell expansion was associated with responses, and CAR T cells persisted up to 1 year after the infusion. CONCLUSIONS: We report the initial toxicity profile of a BCMA-directed cellular immunotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Antitumor activity was documented. (Funded by Bluebird Bio and Celgene; CRB-401 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02658929.).


Assuntos
Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Relação CD4-CD8 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
9.
N Engl J Med ; 380(22): 2104-2115, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is a standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. We sought to determine whether the addition of daratumumab would significantly reduce the risk of disease progression or death in this population. METHODS: We randomly assigned 737 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation to receive daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Treatment was to continue until the occurrence of disease progression or unacceptable side effects. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 28.0 months, disease progression or death had occurred in 240 patients (97 of 368 patients [26.4%] in the daratumumab group and 143 of 369 patients [38.8%] in the control group). The estimated percentage of patients who were alive without disease progression at 30 months was 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.0 to 75.4) in the daratumumab group and 55.6% (95% CI, 49.5 to 61.3) in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with a complete response or better was 47.6% in the daratumumab group and 24.9% in the control group (P<0.001). A total of 24.2% of the patients in the daratumumab group, as compared with 7.3% of the patients in the control group, had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells) (P<0.001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were neutropenia (50.0% in the daratumumab group vs. 35.3% in the control group), anemia (11.8% vs. 19.7%), lymphopenia (15.1% vs. 10.7%), and pneumonia (13.7% vs. 7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation, the risk of disease progression or death was significantly lower among those who received daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone than among those who received lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone. A higher incidence of neutropenia and pneumonia was observed in the daratumumab group. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MAIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02252172.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
10.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(14): 1228-1263, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of multiple myeloma to practicing physicians and others. METHODS: ASCO and Cancer Care Ontario convened an Expert Panel of medical oncology, surgery, radiation oncology, and advocacy experts to conduct a literature search, which included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and some phase II studies published from 2005 through 2018. Outcomes of interest included survival, progression-free survival, response rate, and quality of life. Expert Panel members used available evidence and informal consensus to develop evidence-based guideline recommendations. RESULTS: The literature search identified 124 relevant studies to inform the evidence base for this guideline. RECOMMENDATIONS: Evidence-based recommendations were developed for patients with multiple myeloma who are transplantation eligible and those who are ineligible and for patients with relapsed or refractory disease.

11.
Am J Hematol ; 94(7): 794-802, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021005

RESUMO

Twice-weekly carfilzomib (27 mg/m2 ) with lenalidomide-dexamethasone (KRd) is a standard-of-care in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). This phase 1b study evaluated KRd with once-weekly carfilzomib in RRMM. Patients received carfilzomib (30-minute infusion; 56 or 70mg/m2 ) on days 1, 8, and 15; lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1-21; and dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 (day 22 omitted for cycles 9+) of 28-day cycles. Primary objective was safety/tolerability; efficacy was a secondary objective. Fifty-six RRMM patients enrolled: 22 during dose evaluation (56-mg/m2 , n = 10; 70-mg/m2 , n = 12) and 34 during dose expansion (all initiated dosing at 70 mg/m2 ). After 2 fatal adverse events (AEs) during 70-mg/m2 dose expansion, dosage reduction to 56 mg/m2 was permitted. Results are presented for carfilzomib 56-mg/m2 (n = 10) and 70-mg/m2 groups (dose evaluation/expansion; n = 46). Median carfilzomib dose was 53.2 mg/m2 (56-mg/m2 group) and 62.4 mg/m2 (70-mg/m2 group). Grade ≥3 AE rates were 70.0% (56 mg/m2 ) and 69.6% (70 mg/m2 ). Overall response rates were 90.0% (56 mg/m2 ) and 89.1% (70 mg/m2 ); ≥very good partial response rates were 50.0% (56 mg/m2 ) and 73.9% (70 mg/m2 ). Once-weekly KRd was active with acceptable toxicity in RRMM, supporting further evaluation of this regimen.

12.
Blood ; 134(2): 123-133, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862646

RESUMO

This phase 1b dose-escalation study evaluated isatuximab plus pomalidomide/dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Patients who had received ≥2 prior MM therapies, including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor (PI), were enrolled and received isatuximab at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg (weekly for 4 weeks, followed by every 2 weeks), pomalidomide 4 mg (days 1-21), and dexamethasone 40 mg (weekly) in 28-day cycles until progression/intolerable toxicity. The primary objective was to determine the safety and recommended dose of isatuximab with this combination. Secondary objectives included evaluation of pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and efficacy. Forty-five patients received isatuximab (5 [n = 8], 10 [n = 31], or 20 [n = 6] mg/kg). Patients received a median of 3 (range, 1-10) prior lines; most were refractory to their last regimen (91%), with 82% lenalidomide-refractory and 84% PI-refractory. Median treatment duration was 9.6 months; 19 patients (42%) remain on treatment. Most common adverse events included fatigue (62%), and upper respiratory tract infection (42%), infusion reactions (42%), and dyspnea (40%). The most common grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse event was pneumonia, which occurred in 8 patients (17.8%). Hematologic laboratory abnormalities were common (lymphopenia, leukopenia, anemia, 98% each; neutropenia, 93%; and thrombocytopenia, 84%). Overall response rate was 62%; median duration of response was 18.7 months; median progression-free survival was 17.6 months. These results demonstrate potential meaningful clinical activity and a manageable safety profile of isatuximab plus pomalidomide/dexamethasone in heavily pretreated patients with RRMM. The 10 mg/kg weekly/every 2 weeks isatuximab dose was selected for future studies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02283775.

14.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(3): 27, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808868

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) represents approximately 15% of haematological malignancies and most of the patients present with bone involvement. Focal or diffuse spinal osteolysis may result in significant morbidity by causing painful progressive vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and deformities. Advances in the systemic treatment of myeloma have achieved high response rates and prolonged the survival significantly. Early diagnosis and management of skeletal events contribute to improving the prognosis and quality of life of MM patients. The management of patients with significant pain due to VCFs in the acute phase is not standardised. While some patients are successfully treated conservatively, and pain relief is achieved within a few weeks, a large percentage has disabling pain and morbidity and hence they are considered for surgical intervention. Balloon kyphoplasty and percutaneous vertebroplasty are minimally invasive procedures which have been shown to relieve pain and restore function. Despite increasing positive evidence for the use of these procedures, the indications, timing, efficacy, safety and their role in the treatment algorithm of myeloma spinal disease are yet to be elucidated. This paper reports an update of the consensus statement from the International Myeloma Working Group on the role of cement augmentation in myeloma patients with VCFs.

15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 19(17): 1949-1968, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are among the backbones of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment; however, their long-term use can be limited by parenteral administration and treatment-related toxicities. Ixazomib, the first oral PI to enter the clinic, is approved around the world, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with MM who have received at least one prior therapy. Areas covered: This review summarizes the clinical data leading to approval of ixazomib; its pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Building on the data in relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM), it also reviews the available clinical trial data for ixazomib across the MM treatment algorithm in newly diagnosed MM, RRMM, and as maintenance therapy, and looks ahead to ongoing clinical trials and the expanding role of ixazomib in these indications. Expert opinion: Ixazomib is an efficacious and well-tolerated addition to the treatment armamentarium for RRMM, with benefit as a long-term, continuous therapy for all patients, including 'poor prognosis' patients, such as those with advanced stage disease, high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, and elderly and frail patients. Data from ongoing clinical studies are expected to expand the role of ixazomib across the MM treatment algorithm and in a broader range of combination regimens.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018789990, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAFV600 mutations are frequently found in several glioma subtypes, including pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and ganglioglioma and much less commonly in glioblastoma. We sought to determine the activity of vemurafenib, a selective inhibitor of BRAFV600, in patients with gliomas that harbor this mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The VE-BASKET study was an open-label, nonrandomized, multicohort study for BRAFV600-mutant nonmelanoma cancers. Patients with BRAFV600-mutant glioma received vemurafenib 960 mg twice per day continuously until disease progression, withdrawal, or intolerable adverse effects. Key end points included confirmed objective response rate by RECIST version 1.1, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (median age, 32 years; 18 female and six male patients) with glioma, including malignant diffuse glioma (n = 11; six glioblastoma and five anaplastic astrocytoma), PXA (n = 7), anaplastic ganglioglioma (n = 3), pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2), and high-grade glioma, not otherwise specified (n = 1), were treated. Confirmed objective response rate was 25% (95% CI, 10% to 47%) and median progression-free survival was 5.5 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 9.6 months). In malignant diffuse glioma, best response included one partial response and five patients with stable disease, two of whom had disease stabilization that lasted more than 1 year. In PXA, best response included one complete response, two partial responses, and three patients with stable disease. Additional partial responses were observed in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma and anaplastic ganglioglioma (one each). The safety profile of vemurafenib was generally consistent with that of previously published studies. CONCLUSION: Vemurafenib demonstrated evidence of durable antitumor activity in some patients with BRAFV600-mutant gliomas, although efficacy seemed to vary qualitatively by histologic subtype. Additional study is needed to determine the optimal use of vemurafenib in patients with primary brain tumors and to identify the mechanisms driving differential responses across histologic subsets.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279233

RESUMO

Purpose: The presence of hypoxia in the diseased bone marrow presents a new therapeutic target for multiple myeloma. Evofosfamide (formerly TH-302) is a 2-nitroimidazole prodrug of the DNA alkylator, bromo-isophosphoramide mustard, which is selectively activated under hypoxia. This trial was designed as a phase I/II study investigating evofosfamide in combination with dexamethasone, and in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.Experimental Design: Fifty-nine patients initiated therapy, 31 received the combination of evofosfamide and dexamethasone, and 28 received the combination of evofosfamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone. Patients were heavily pretreated with a median number of prior therapies of 7 (range: 2-15). All had previously received bortezomib and immunomodulators. The MTD, treatment toxicity, and efficacy were determined.Results: The MTD was established at 340 mg/m2 evofosfamide + dexamethasone with dose-limiting mucositis at higher doses. For the combination of evofosfamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone, no patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and the recommended phase II dose was established at 340 mg/m2 The most common ≥grade 3 adverse events (AE) were thrombocytopenia (25 patients), anemia (24 patients), neutropenia (15 patients), and leukopenia (9 patients). Skin toxicity was reported in 42 (71%) patients. Responses included 1 very good partial response (VGPR), 3 partial response (PR), 2 minor response (MR), 20 stable disease (SD), and 4 progressive disease (PD) for evofosfamide + dexamethasone and 1 complete response (CR), 2 PR, 1 MR, 18 SD, and 5 PD for evofosfamide + bortezomib + dexamethasone. Disease stabilization was observed in over 80% and this was reflective of the prolonged overall survival of 11.2 months.Conclusions: Evofosfamide can be administered at 340 mg/m2 twice a week with or without bortezomib. Clinical activity has been noted in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 1-9. ©2018 AACR.

18.
Skeletal Radiol ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of low-dose whole-body CT (WBCT) in the management of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and precursor states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 116 patients (mean age: 68 ± 11 years, 48% women) who underwent WBCT for the work-up or surveillance of MM or MM precursor disease. WBCTs were reviewed for the presence of MM-related bone disease and incidental findings requiring therapy. The medical records, results from bone marrow aspirations and biopsies and follow-up imaging studies were reviewed to assess the influence of WBCT on patient management. RESULTS: Whole-body CT led to a change in management in 32 patients (28%). Of those, 17 patients with MM precursor disease were found to have MM-related bone disease, 13 patients had progression of MM, requiring a change in treatment, in one patient hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed, requiring a change in therapy, and one patient had a rib lesion requiring intervention. In 65 patients (56%), WBCT was performed for surveillance of MM precursor disease or stable treated MM, and did not detect new lesions, thereby providing reassurance to the hematologist on disease status and management. In 15 patients (13%) WBCT was performed as a new baseline before a change or new therapy. In 4 patients (3%), WBCT was performed for a change in symptoms, but did not detect lesions that would lead to a change in management. CONCLUSION: Whole-body CT provides important information for disease monitoring and detection of incidental findings, thereby improving the management of patients with MM.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093448

RESUMO

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, are expressed in a variety of tissues throughout the body; their primary role is in the regulation of bone remodeling and development of the immune system. Consistent with these functions, evidence exists for a role of RANK/RANKL in all stages of tumorigenesis, from cell proliferation and carcinogenesis to epithelial-mesenchymal transition to neoangiogenesis and intravasation to metastasis to bone resorption and tumor growth in bone. Results from current studies also point to a role of RANK/RANKL signaling in patients with multiple myeloma, who have increased serum levels of soluble RANKL and an imbalance in RANKL and osteoprotegerin. Current therapies for patients with multiple myeloma demonstrate that RANKL may be released by tumor cells or osteoprogenitor cells. This article will review currently available evidence supporting a role for RANK/RANKL signaling in tumorigenesis, with a focus on patients with multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 1-9. ©2018 AACR.

20.
JAMA Oncol ; : e183267, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128502

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing evidence suggests the significance of the role of the immune system in the progression of smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Boosting the immune system via vaccination in the earlier, asymptomatic SMM stage may provide a novel strategy to prevent or slow progression to active MM. Objective: To determine the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and anti-MM activity of the PVX-410 multipeptide vaccine with or without lenalidomide. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 3-cohort phase 1/2a multicenter dose-escalation study accrued 22 adults (≥18 years) with SMM with normal organ/marrow function who were human leukocyte antigen A2-positive and at moderate or high risk of progression to MM. Interventions: Patients received 6 doses of PVX-410 emulsified in Montanide ISA 720 VG, 0.4 mg total (0.1 mg/peptide) (n = 3) or 0.8 mg total (0.2 mg/peptide) (n = 9), biweekly via subcutaneous injection. In the combination cohort (n = 10), patients also received three 21-day cycles of lenalidomide, 25 mg, orally daily every 28 days. All patients received 0.5 mL (1 mg) poly-ICLC (2 mg/mL) via intramuscular injection with each PVX-410 dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03. PVX-410-specific T lymphocytes by flow cytometry to assess tetramer and interferon (IFN)-γ response. Disease response was assessed by investigators using the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) and modified European Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria. Results: Overall, 14 (64%) patients were men and the median age at enrollment was 56 years in the monotherapy and 57 years in the combination cohorts (overall range, 39-82 years). Six of 12 patients in the monotherapy and 9 of 10 in the combination cohorts were at moderate risk. The PVX-410 vaccine was well tolerated. The most common AEs were mild-to-moderate injection site reactions and constitutional symptoms. Of note, PVX-410 was immunogenic as monotherapy (10 of 11 patients) and in combination with lenalidomide (9 of 9 patients), as demonstrated by an increase in percentage of tetramer-positive cells and IFN-γ cells in the CD3+CD8+ cell population. The combination resulted in greater mean fold increases in proportions of CD3+CD8+ T cells that were tetramer-positive and IFN-γ-positive, statistically significant for IFN-γ-positive cells after 2 and 4 vaccinations. An increase and persistence of vaccine-specific effector memory cells was noted. In total, 7 of 12 patients in the PVX-410-alone cohort had stable disease with 2 of 3 (low-dose cohort) and 1 of 9 of the target-dose cohort progressing (median TTP, 36 weeks), whereas 5 of 12 patients in the combination cohort showed, clinical response, with 1 patient progressing (median TTP not reached). Conclusions and Relevance: Overall, these results suggest that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic in this patient population and support continued study of PVX-410 in SMM. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01718899.

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