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2.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data regarding clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in cancer versus non-cancer patients, particularly from India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational, single-centre, retrospective analysis of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 hospitalised in our institution between 22 May 2020 and 1 December 2020. We compared baseline clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and outcomes of COVID-19 (overall mortality, time to discharge) between cancer and non-cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 200 COVID-19 infection episodes were analysed of which 109 (54.5%) were patients with cancer and 91 (45.5%) were patients without cancer. The median age was 43 (interquartile range [IQR]:32-57), 51 (IQR: 33-62) and 38 (IQR: 31.5-49.3) years; of whole cohort, cancer and non-cancer patients, respectively. Comparison of outcomes showed that oxygen requirement (31.2% [95% CI: 22.6-40.7] vs. 17.6% [95% CI: 10.4-26.9]; p = 0.03), median time to discharge (11 days [IQR: 6.75-16] vs. 6 days [IQR: 3-9.75]; p < 0.001) and mortality (10.0% [95% CI: 5.2-17.3] vs. 1.1% [95% CI: 0.03-5.9]; p = 0.017) were significantly higher in patients with cancer. In univariable analysis, factors associated with higher mortality in the whole cohort included diagnosis of cancer (10.1% vs. 1.1%; p = 0.027; odds ratio [OR]: 7.04), age ≥60 (17.4% vs. 2.6%; p = 0.001; OR: 7.38), oxygen requirement (22% vs. 0.6%; p < 0.001; OR: 29.01), chest infiltrates (19.2% vs. 1.4%; p < 0.001; OR: 22.65), baseline absolute lymphocyte count <1 × 109 /L (10.8% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.023; OR:5.1), C-reactive protein >1 mg% (12.8% vs. 0%; p = 0.027; OR: 24.69), serum procalcitonin >0.05 ng/ml (22.65% vs. 0%; p = 0.004; OR: 4.49) and interleukin-6 >6 pg/ml (10.8% vs. 1.3%; p = 0.036; OR: 3.08). In multivariable logistic regression, factors significantly associated with mortality were oxygen requirement (p = 0.005; OR: 13.11) and high baseline procalcitonin level (p = 0.014; OR: 37.6). CONCLUSION: Cancer patients with COVID-19 have higher mortality and require longer hospital stay. High procalcitonin levels and oxygen requirement during admission are other factors that affect outcomes adversely.

3.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(3): 030705, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658646

RESUMO

Introduction: MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that are becoming popular biomarkers in several diseases. However, their low abundance in serum/plasma poses a challenge in exploiting their potential in clinics. Several commercial kits are available for rapid isolation of microRNA from plasma. However, reports guiding the selection of appropriate kits to study downstream assays are scarce. Hence, we compared four commercial kits to evaluate microRNA-extraction from plasma and provided a modified protocol that further improved the superior kit's performance. Materials and methods: We compared four kits (miRNeasy Serum/Plasma, miRNeasy Mini Kit from Qiagen; RNA-isolation, and Absolutely-RNA MicroRNA Kit from Agilent technologies) for quality and quantity of microRNA isolated, extraction efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Bioanalyzer-based Agilent Small RNA kit was used to evaluate quality and quantity of microRNA. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by detection of four endogenous control microRNA using real-time-PCR. Further, we modified the manufacturer's protocol for miRNeasy Serum/Plasma kit to improve yield. Results: miRNeasy Serum/Plasma kit outperformed the other three kits in microRNA-quality (P < 0.005) and yielded maximum microRNA-quantity. Recovery of endogenous control microRNA i.e. hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-191-5p, hsa-miR-423-5p and hsa-miR-484 was higher as well. Modification with the inclusion of a double elution step enhanced yield of microRNA extracted with miRNeasy Serum/Plasma kit significantly (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated that miRNeasy Serum/Plasma kit outperforms other kits and can be reliably used with a limited plasma quantity. We have provided a modified microRNA-extraction protocol with improved microRNA output for downstream analyses.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Biomarcadores , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
4.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476808

RESUMO

High-sensitivity multicolour flow cytometry (MFC)-based B-lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) measurable residual disease (BMRD) assay is increasingly being used in clinical practice. Herein, we describe six consistently present low-level populations immunophenotypically mimicking abnormal B-ALL blasts in 441 BMRD samples from 301 children. These included CD19+ CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentiating from lymphoid precursors, CD10+ transitional B cells with CD10+ /CD38dim-to-negative/CD20bright/CD45bright phenotype, CD19+ natural killer (NK) cells, CD73bright/CD10+ mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, CD73bright/CD34+ endothelial cells, and a CD34+ CD38dim-to-negative/CD10- /CD20bright/CD45bright subset of mature B cells. We provide the proportions, comprehensive immunophenotype, and practical clues for proper identification of these low-level populations. Knowledge regarding the presence and immunophenotype of these mimics is essential for accurate interpretation in high-sensitivity MFC-BMRD analysis.

5.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582592

RESUMO

Recent studies have highlighted multiple immune perturbations related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection-associated respiratory disease [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)]. Some of them were associated with immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19. However, reports on immunological indicators of severe COVID-19 in the early phase of infection in patients with comorbidities such as cancer are scarce. We prospectively studied about 200 immune response parameters, including a comprehensive immune-cell profile, inflammatory cytokines and other parameters, in 95 patients with COVID-19 (37 cancer patients without active disease and intensive chemo/immunotherapy, 58 patients without cancer) and 21 healthy donors. Of 95 patients, 41 had severe disease, and the remaining 54 were categorized as having a nonsevere disease. We evaluated the association of immune response parameters with severe COVID-19. By principal component analysis, three immune signatures defining characteristic immune responses in COVID-19 patients were found. Immune cell perturbations, in particular, decreased levels of circulating dendritic cells (DCs) along with reduced levels of CD4 T-cell subsets such as regulatory T cells (Tregs ), type 1 T helper (Th1) and Th9; additionally, relative expansion of effector natural killer (NK) cells were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. Compared with patients without cancer, the levels of terminal effector CD4 T cells, Tregs , Th9, effector NK cells, B cells, intermediate-type monocytes and myeloid DCs were significantly lower in cancer patients with mild and severe COVID-19. We concluded that severely depleted circulating myeloid DCs and helper T subsets in the initial phase of infection were strongly associated with severe COVID-19 independent of age, type of comorbidity and other parameters. Thus, our study describes the early immune response associated with severe COVID-19 in cancer patients without intensive chemo/immunotherapy.

6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14311, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932309

RESUMO

It is unclear if the use of a molecular transport medium (MTM) containing guanidine isothiocyanate (GITC) would be advantageous over the CDC recommended, commonly used viral transport medium (VTM). We retested 70 SARS-CoV2 cases by RT-PCR in varying stages of follow-up using MTM and VTM in parallel and found discrepant results of RNase P, E and N genes. Majority (81%) patients tested positive with MTM as compared with VTM (27.1%). Even patients who were sampled 3 weeks after diagnosis demonstrated a significant discrepancy in the positivity rates between MTM vs VTM raising concerns about the clinical utility of VTM.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , RNA Viral
7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(5): 104191, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753323

RESUMO

Familial periodic fever (FPF) is an uncommonly diagnosed autosomal dominant disorder caused by a genetic alteration in the TNFRSF1A gene. These patients usually present with fever which is usually under-investigated and under-diagnosed. In untreated cases, amyloidosis is a frequent complication. We present a 24 years male who had a history of fever from childhood, however, remained undiagnosed short of genetic testing. He has recurrent episodes of fever. During the episodes of fever, he was found to have leukocytosis (total leukocyte count- 25.7 x10^9/L) and neutrophilia (absolute neutrophil count- 22.7 x10^9/L) both of which came back to normal limits as the fever subsided. On further evaluation for neutrophilia, the exclusion of common causes of neutrophilia was done. Next-generation sequencing detected a missense variant in TNFRSF1A: c.215G > A (p.Cys72Tyr) which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This variant has been described in the literature in anecdotal cases of FPF. This is a first case report from the Indian subcontinent reporting TNFRSF1A: c.215G > A (p.Cys72Tyr) variant in a patient of FPF. Short of genetic testing, the fever would remain a diagnostic dilemma in this patient. This report highlights the importance of targeted resequencing in clinching diagnosis in such patients.


Assuntos
Febre/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Transtornos Leucocíticos/congênito , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Febre/patologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/patologia , Humanos , Transtornos Leucocíticos/genética , Transtornos Leucocíticos/patologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto Jovem
9.
Leukemia ; 35(5): 1392-1404, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558666

RESUMO

We accrued 201 patients of adult AML treated with conventional therapy, in morphological remission, and evaluated MRD using sensitive error-corrected next generation sequencing (NGS-MRD) and multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM-MRD) at the end of induction (PI) and consolidation (PC). Nearly 71% of patients were PI NGS-MRD+ and 40.9% PC NGS-MRD+ (median VAF 0.76%). NGS-MRD+ patients had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (p = 0.003), inferior overall survival (p = 0.001) and relapse free survival (p < 0.001) as compared to NGS-MRD- patients. NGS-MRD was predictive of inferior outcome in intermediate cytogenetic risk and demonstrated potential in favorable cytogenetic risk AML. PI NGS-MRD- patients had a significantly improved survival as compared to patients who became NGS-MRD- subsequently indicating that kinetics of NGS-MRD clearance was of paramount importance. NGS-MRD identified over 80% of cases identified by flow cytometry at PI time point whereas FCM identified 49.3% identified by NGS. Only a fraction of cases were NGS-MRD- but FCM-MRD+. NGS-MRD provided additional information of the risk of relapse when compared to FCM-MRD. We demonstrate a widely applicable, scalable NGS-MRD approach that is clinically informative and synergistic to FCM-MRD in AML treated with conventional therapies. Maximum clinical utility may be leveraged by combining FCM and NGS-MRD modalities.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 100(3): 331-344, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myeloid neoplasm with blasts showing mast cell (MC)-differentiation and MC-component less than 10% of all nucleated cells but not fulfilling the criteria for systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm (SM-AHN) or myelomastocytic leukemia (MML) has not been described in the literature. Herein, we report a study of diverse myeloid malignancies with blasts showing MC-differentiation but not meeting the criteria for SM-AHN or MML. We also evaluated the utility of flow-cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) in the characterization of immature-MCs (iMCs). METHODS: We identified nine patients of myeloid neoplasms and studied their morphological, FCI, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetic and molecular characteristics. We also compared the immunophenotypic features of MCs from patient samples with control samples. RESULTS: The study included patients with newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1), and chronic myeloid leukemia on follow-up (n = 4) showing MC differentiation in leukemic-blasts. These patients had mildly increased MCs (range, 0.5%-3%) in bone-marrow morphology, including immature-forms and did not meet the criteria for either SM-AHN or MML. On FCI, iMCs were positive for bright-CD117, heterogeneous-CD34, dim-to-negative-HLADR, and moderate-CD203c expression. Expression-levels of CD123 and CD38 were higher (p < 0.001) but CD33 and CD45 were lower in iMCs compared to mature-MC from control samples (p = 0.019 and p = 0.0037). CONCLUSION: We reported a rare finding of MC differentiation of leukemic blasts in diverse myeloid neoplasms and proposed it as a potential pre-myelomastocytic leukemia condition. We described the distinct immunophenotypic signature of immature-MCs using commonly used markers and highlighted the utility of FCI for the diagnosis of this entity.

13.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 35(3): 489-495, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388262

RESUMO

Elevated levels of coagulation factor VIII have been associated with increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The role of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) in VTE is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of raised levels of VWF and factor VIII in patients with VTE. 100 patients of VTE and 100 age and gender matched controls were tested for levels of VWF antigen, coagulation factor VIII:C, Protein C, Protein S, antithrombin, antiphospholipid antibodies and for the presence of Factor V Leiden mutation. The mean level of VWF was significantly higher amongst patients of VTE (177.3 IU/dl) when compared to controls (129.7 IU/dl) (P < 0.001). Similarly, the mean level of FVIII:C was significantly higher amongst patients of VTE (199.1 IU/dl) when compared to controls (145.2 IU/dl) (P < 0.001). On logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for FVIII:C, Protein S, factor V Leiden and trauma, the association of raised VWF with VTE remained significant (P = 0.001). Similarly higher levels of FVIII:C persisted to have an independent association with VTE (P = 0.004). Both, higher levels of VWF and FVIII:C levels, are independently associated with VTE.

16.
Oman Med J ; 34(1): 66-69, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671187

RESUMO

A 30-year-old man presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and a rash over his lower limbs (palpable purpura). Evaluation revealed pancytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. A subsequent bone marrow examination and serology confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), while the biopsy of skin lesion suggested leukocytoclastic vasculitis. No alternate cause of vasculitis was forthcoming, and the patient was treated with conventional amphotericin B for 14 days after which resolution of symptoms (including the rash) was noted. Cutaneous vasculitis is an extremely rare complication following visceral leishmaniasis with no known cases reported thus far. Hence, a high index of suspicion is warranted in achieving timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy.

17.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 34(3): 524-529, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127565

RESUMO

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an uncommon bleeding disorder infrequently reported among Indians. The present retrospective data comprises eight cases of AHA over a period of 15 years. The mean age of patients was 59.7 years. The activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged in all cases and the inhibitor screen showed the presence of inhibitors. Factor VIII: C assay was performed in 7 cases and all cases demonstrated low levels. Lupus anticoagulant was negative. Six patients were managed with steroids and symptomatic supportive care. These patients were followed up for a mean period of 3.5 years (range 1-5 years). Of these, there was one fatality prior to initiation of therapy and one patient continues to have inhibitors.

19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20182018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930179

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that classically presents with rapidly enlarging lymph nodes. We present a 59-year-old man with unusual clinical presentation of numb chin syndrome (NCS) as the first symptom of disease. On evaluation, he was found to have diffuse extranodal skeletal involvement in the form of lytic-sclerotic lesions and minimal lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated tumour with infarction and extensive myelofibrosis. This was subsequently proven to be DLBCL of germinal centre type on immunohistochemical stain. NCS should alarm the clinician to investigate for an advanced underlying malignancy. Extensive myelofibrosis, though described in carcinomas and low grade lymphomas, may also be seen in high grade DLBCL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Hipestesia/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico por imagem , Mielofibrose Primária/etiologia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
20.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 27(1): 58-63, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340461

RESUMO

Studies have shown elevated levels of certain coagulation factors as risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, we investigated the levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), FIX and FXI in north Indian patients with VTE. A total of 123 patients with VTE were screened prospectively for FVIII, FIX and FXI levels and the conventional risk factors - deficiencies of protein C, S and antithrombin, positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies and the factor V Leiden mutation. Age-matched and sex-matched controls were included. VTE was secondary to known circumstantial and thrombophilic risk factors in 66 (53.7%) patients. In 46.3% (idiopathic VTE) patients, no cause was identified. The mean FVIII levels in idiopathic (187 IU/dl) and secondary VTE patients (185.4 IU/dl) were significantly higher compared with controls (129.6 IU/dl; P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of FIX and FXI between patients and controls (P = 0.214 and 0.198, respectively). Patients with elevated FVIII levels had increased risk of VTE compared with controls (odds ratio: 9.4, 95% confidence interval: 4.7-18.79). On logistic regression analysis after adjusting for surgery and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, this risk remained unchanged (odds ratio: 9.54, 95% confidence interval: 4.68-19.44). A dose-response relationship was observed with progressive increase in FVIII levels. Elevated FVIII levels constitute an independent risk factor for VTE in the north Indian population. Elevated levels of FIX and FXI were not associated with increased risk of VTE.


Assuntos
Fator IX/análise , Fator VIII/análise , Fator XI/análise , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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