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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662357

RESUMO

Body mass index (BMI) is a highly heritable polygenic trait. It is also affected by various environmental and behavioral risk factors. We used a BMI polygenic risk score (PRS) to study the interplay between the genetic and environmental factors defining BMI. First, we generated a BMI PRS that explained more variance than a BMI genetic risk score (GRS), which was using only genome-wide significant BMI-associated variants (R2 = 13.1% compared to 6.1%). Second, we analyzed interactions between BMI PRS and seven environmental factors. We found a significant interaction between physical activity and BMI PRS, even when the well-known effect of the FTO region was excluded from the PRS, using a small dataset of 6,179 samples. Third, we stratified the study population into two risk groups using BMI PRS. The top 22% of the studied populations were included in a high PRS risk group. Engagement in self-reported physical activity was associated with a 1.66 kg/m2 decrease in BMI in this group, compared to a 0.84 kg/m2 decrease in BMI in the rest of the population. Our results (i) confirm that genetic background strongly affects adult BMI in the general population, (ii) show a non-linear interaction between BMI genetics and physical activity, and (iii) provide a standardized framework for future gene-environment interaction analyses.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466452

RESUMO

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy on Chromosomes 21 (T21), 18 (T18) and 13 (T13) is actively used in clinical practice around the world. One of the limitations of the wider implementation of this test is the high cost of the analysis itself, as high-throughput sequencing is still relatively expensive. At the same time, there is an increasing trend in the length of reads yielded by sequencers. Since extracellular DNA is short, in the order of 140-160 bp, it is not possible to effectively use long reads. The authors used high-performance sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) libraries that went through additional stages of enzymatic fragmentation and random ligation of the resulting products to create long chimeric reads. The authors used a controlled set of samples to analyze a set of cfDNA samples from pregnant women with a high risk of fetus aneuploidy according to the results of the first trimester screening and confirmed by invasive karyotyping of the fetus using laboratory and analytical approaches developed by the authors. They evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, PPV (positive predictive value), and NPV (negative predictive value) of the results. The authors developed a technique for constructing long chimeric reads from short cfDNA fragments and validated the test using a control set of extracellular DNA samples obtained from pregnant women. The obtained sensitivity and specificity parameters of the NIPT developed by the authors corresponded to the approaches proposed earlier (99.93% and 99.14% for T21; 100% and 98.34% for T18; 100% and 99.17% for T13, respectively).


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Síndrome da Trissomia do Cromossomo 13/genética , Síndrome da Trissomía do Cromossomo 18/genética , Adulto , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Quimera/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Síndrome da Trissomia do Cromossomo 13/sangue , Síndrome da Trissomia do Cromossomo 13/patologia , Síndrome da Trissomía do Cromossomo 18/sangue , Síndrome da Trissomía do Cromossomo 18/patologia
4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(7): e1228, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by an accumulation of lipofuscin in the body's tissues. NCLs are associated with variable age of onset and progressive symptoms including seizures, psychomotor decline, and loss of vision. METHODS: We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of four Russian patients with NCL (one female and three males, with ages ranging from 4 to 5 years). The clinical features of these patients include cognitive and motor deterioration, seizures, stereotypies, and magnetic resonance imaging signs of brain atrophy. Exome sequencing was performed to identify the genetic variants of patients with NCL. Additionally, we tested 6,396 healthy Russians for NCL alleles. RESULTS: We identified five distinct mutations in four NCL-associated genes of which two mutations are novel. These include a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the CLN6 gene, a compound heterozygous missense mutation in the KCTD7 gene, and previously known mutations in KCTD7, TPP1, and MFSD8 genes. Furthermore, we estimated the Russian population carrier frequency of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 13 genes associated with different types of NCL. CONCLUSION: Our study expands the spectrum of mutations in lipofuscinosis. This is the first study to describe the molecular basis of NCLs in Russia and has profound and numerous clinical implications for diagnosis, genetic counseling, genotype-phenotype correlations, and prognosis.


Assuntos
Mutação , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/genética , População/genética , Aminopeptidases/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/patologia , Canais de Potássio/genética , Federação Russa , Serina Proteases/genética
5.
J Pers Med ; 11(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383665

RESUMO

One of the target drugs for plaque psoriasis treatment is apremilast, which is a selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor. In this study, 34 moderate-to-severe and severe plaque psoriasis patients from Russia were treated with apremilast for 26 weeks. This allowed us to observe the effectiveness of splitting patient cohorts based on clinical outcomes, which were assessed using the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). In total, 14 patients (41%) indicated having an advanced outcome with delta PASI 75 after treatment; 20 patients indicated having moderate or no effects. Genome variability was investigated using the Illumina Infinium Global Screening Array. Genome-wide analysis revealed apremilast therapy clinical outcome associations at three compact genome regions with undefined functions situated on chromosomes 2, 4, and 5, as well as on a single single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 23. Pre-selected SNP sets were associated with psoriasis vulgaris analysis, which was used to identify four SNP-associated targeted therapy efficiencies: IL1ß (rs1143633), IL4 (IL13) (rs20541), IL23R (rs2201841), and TNFα (rs1800629) genes. Moreover, we showed that the use of the global polygenic risk score allowed for the prediction of onset psoriasis in Russians. Therefore, these results can serve as a starting point for creating a predictive model of apremilast therapy response in the targeted therapy of patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

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