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1.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), patients' clinical course may progress to clinical improvement, clinical failure, or nonresolving pneumonia. The epidemiology and outcomes of patients with CAP according to clinical course has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence and outcomes for each clinical course of hospitalized patients with CAP. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of the University of Louisville Pneumonia Study. Clinical course was classified as improvement, failure, and nonresolving. Objective criteria were used to define improvement and failure during the first week of hospitalization. If neither group of criteria were met, the course was classified as nonresolving. Incidence for each clinical course was calculated. Mortality was evaluated at different time points through the first year. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 7,449 patients were hospitalized with CAP during the study period. Improvement was documented in 5,732 patients (77%), failure was documented in 1,458 patients (20%), and nonresolving CAP was documented in 259 patients (3%). Mortality at 30 days was 6% for those who improved, 34% for those who failed, and 34% for those with nonresolving pneumonia. Mortality at 1 year was 23%, 52%, and 51%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that > 75% of hospitalized patients with CAP will reach clinical improvement. One of two patients with clinical failure or nonresolving CAP may die 1 year after hospitalization. Understanding the pathogenesis of long-term mortality is critical to developing interventions.

2.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-3, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589540

RESUMO

Purpose: To report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Case report: 26-year-old female patient presented with CME in both eyes. CME became refractory and TCZ-IV was initiated. After 12 infusions was stopped because grade 1 neuropenia developed. On examination,visual acuity of the right eye was 20/80. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the right eye revealed CME. Subcutaneous (TCZ-SC) was initiated. After six injections of TCZ-SC, ophthalmic examination revealed no signs of active inflammation, and central foveal thickness decreased. Conclusion: TCZ-SC seems to have a role in the treatment of CME secondary to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis.

3.
Cytokine ; 126: 154874, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-positive patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of developing many non-AIDS related chronic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compared to HIV-negative individuals. While the mechanisms are not clear, a persistent pro-inflammatory state appears to be a key contributing factor. The aims of this study were to investigate whether HIV-positive patients without COPD present evidence of potentially predisposing abnormal pulmonary cytokine/chemokine environment and to explore the relationship between pulmonary and systemic cytokine levels. METHODS: This study included 39 HIV-seropositive and 34 HIV-seronegative subjects without COPD. All were subjected to outpatient bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) aspiration and blood sample collection. The levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma and BALF using a bead-based multi-analyte assay. RESULTS: In plasma, HIV-infected patients showed significantly increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory (TNFα) and Th1-associated cytokines (IL-12p70) as well as several chemokines (CXCL11 and CX3CL1). However, no statistically significant differences were found in the numbers of cells, the concentrations of protein and urea as well as cytokine levels in the BALFs of HIV-positive patients when compared to controls. Correlation analysis indicated a potential modulatory effect of the BMI in HIV-seropositive individuals. CONCLUSIONS: While our results are consistent with the existence of a systemic pro-inflammatory state in HIV-infected patients, they did not detect significant differences in cytokine levels and other inflammatory markers in the lungs of HIV-positive individuals when compared to HIV-negative controls.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_1): S33-S39, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early clinical response (ECR) is a new endpoint to determine whether a drug should be approved for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in the United States. The Omadacycline for Pneumonia Treatment In the Community (OPTIC) phase III study demonstrated noninferiority of omadacycline to moxifloxacin using this endpoint. This study describes the performance of the ECR endpoint and clinical stability relative to a posttreatment evaluation (PTE) of clinical success. METHODS: ECR was defined as symptom improvement 72-120 hours after the first dose of study drug (ECR window), no use of rescue antibiotics, and patient survival. Clinical success at PTE was an investigator assessment of success. Clinical stability was defined based on vital sign stabilization, described in the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America community-acquired pneumonia treatment guidelines. RESULTS: During the ECR window, ECR was achieved in 81.1% and 82.7% of omadacycline and moxifloxacin patients, respectively. Similar numbers of patients achieved clinical stability in each treatment group (omadacycline 74.6%, moxifloxacin 77.6%). The proportion of patients with improved symptoms who were considered clinically stable increased across the ECR window (69.2-77.6% for omadacycline; 68.0-79.7% for moxifloxacin). There was high concordance (>70%) and high positive predictive value (>90%) of ECR and clinical stability with overall clinical success at PTE. CONCLUSIONS: Omadacycline was noninferior to moxifloxacin, based on a new ECR endpoint. Clinical stability was similarly high when measured in the same time frame as ECR. Both ECR and clinical stability showed high concordance and high positive predictive value with clinical success at PTE. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02531438.

6.
Rheumatol Int ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396686

RESUMO

With the aim to develop and validate a clinical + ultrasound (US) inflammation score in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for use in clinical practice, a mixed-method study was conducted. The theoretical development of the index was achieved with qualitative methodology (discussion group and Delphi survey). Subsequently, a cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse issues related to scoring and validation of the new index. RA patients underwent clinical [28 swollen and tender joints count, patient and physician global assessment (PhGA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP)], and US assessments [synovitis or tenosynovitis by grey-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) of 42 structures]. An index was created based on statistical models and expert interaction. Construct validity was tested by correlation with DAS28, SDAI, CDAI, and PhGA. Reliability was evaluated in a subgroup of patients with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). US assessment, CRP, and swollen joints were the items that passed the prioritization phase (Delphi study). For the cross-sectional study, 281 patients were randomly divided into design (n = 141) and validation samples (n = 140). The combination of US sites chosen (7 bilaterally) detected the maximum proportion of synovitis and PD present. Three scoring methods were tested: semiquantitative (0-3 GS + 0-3 PD), dichotomous (0/1 GS + 0/1 PD), and qualitative (0/1 based on algorithm). All showed strong correlation with activity measures (ρ ≥ 0.60), and reliability (ICC 0.89-0.93). The index with best parameters of validity, feasibility, and reliability was the qualitative. The final index chosen was the sum of swollen joint count, US qualitative score, and CRP. The UltraSound Activity score is a valid and reliable measure of inflammation in RA equal to the sum of 28 SJC, a simplified (0/1) US assessment of 11 structures and CRP. It is necessary further investigation to demonstrate additional value over existing indices.

7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 143: 55-61, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369840

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is prevalent in patients infected with HIV. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that systemic oxidation correlates with loss of lung function in subjects with COPD, and that HIV infection can contribute to creating such an environment. Subjects were recruited at the University of Louisville in the following groups: HIV-infected (n = 36), COPD (n = 32), HIV and COPD (n = 28), and uninfected controls with normal lung function (n = 34). HIV infection was assessed by viral load and CD4 cell counts. Pulmonary function was determined by spirometry, and plasma was collected for measurement of cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), glutathione (GSH) and GSH disulfide (GSSG) by HPLC followed by estimation of redox potentials (Eh) using the Nernst equation. Results showed that patients with COPD had more oxidized plasma Eh Cys/CySS than patients with normal lung function, but plasma Eh GSH/GSSG was unaltered. In addition, there was a correlation between the extent of plasma Eh Cys/CySS oxidation and loss of lung function, and this correlation remained even after correcting for age, sex, race and body mass index. HIV infection per se was not associated with increased oxidation of plasma Eh Cys/CySS, but plasma Eh Cys/CySS was more oxidized in patients with lower CD4-positve T cell counts. In patients with both HIV infection and COPD, there was a significant correlation between CD4 cell counts and lung function. Thus, systemic oxidation correlated with decreased lung function in subjects with COPD and decreased CD4 counts in subjects infected with HIV. Thus, factors contributing to plasma Eh Cys/CySS may represent novel mechanisms underlying the increased prevalence of COPD in people living with HIV.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence of pre-existing palindromic rheumatism (PR) in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluate whether these patients have a distinctive clinical and serological phenotype. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in patients with established RA. Pre-existing PR was determined using a structured protocol and confirmed by retrospective review of medical records. Demographic, clinical, radiological, immunological and therapeutic features were compared in patients with and without PR. RESULTS: 158 patients with established RA (78% female) with a mean disease duration since RA onset of 5.1 ± 2.7 years were included. Pre-existing PR was recorded in 29 patients (18%). The median time from the onset of PR to progression to RA was 1.2 years. No between-group differences in demographic features, current disease activity radiographic erosive disease or disability were observed. Patients with PR had a higher prevalence of smoking (72% vs. 40%). Positive rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies were numerically higher in patients with PR. No differences in treatment were observed except for greater hydroxychloroquine use in patients with PR (38% vs. 6%). Palindromic flares persisted in a significant proportion of patients during the RA course, including patients in clinical remission or receiving biological DMARDs. CONCLUSION: Eighteen percent of patients with RA had a history compatible with PR previous to RA onset. No specific clinical or serological phenotype was identified in these patients, although higher hydroxychloroquine use and smoking prevalence were identified. Palindromic flares may persist during the RA disease course despite treatment.

9.
Respir Med ; 155: 61-65, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple criteria have been proposed to define community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity and predict ICU admission. Validity studies have found differing results. We tested four models to assess severe CAP built upon the criteria included in the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines, hypothesizing that a model providing different weights for each individual criterion may be of better predictability. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study of adult hospitalizations for CAP at nine hospitals in Louisville, KY from June 2014 to May 2016. Four models were tested. Model 1: original 2007 IDSA/ATS criteria. Model 2: modified IDSA/ATS criteria by removing multilobar infiltrates and changing BUN threshold to ≥30 mg/dL; adding lactate level >2 mmol/L and requirement of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). CAP was severe with 1 major criterion or 3 minor criteria. Model 3: same criteria as model 2, CAP was severe with 1 major criterion or 4 minor criteria. Model 4: multiple regression analysis including the modified criteria as described in models 2 and 3 with a score assigned to each variable according to the magnitude of association between variable and need for ICU. RESULTS: 8284 CAP hospitalizations were included. 1458 (18%) required ICU. Model 4 showed highest prediction of need for ICU with an area under the curve of 0.91, highest accuracy, specificity, positive predictive value, and agreement among models. CONCLUSION: Assigning differential weights to clinical predictive variables generated a score with accuracy that outperformed the original 2007 IDSA/ATS criteria for severe CAP and ICU admission.

10.
Vaccine ; 37(25): 3352-3361, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have measured the burden of adult pneumococcal disease after the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the US infant vaccination schedule. Further, most data regarding pneumococcal serotypes are derived from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which represents only a fraction of all adult pneumococcal disease burden. Understanding which pneumococcal serotypes cause pneumonia in adults is critical for informing current immunization policy. The objective of this study was to measure the proportion of radiographically-confirmed (CXR+) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by PCV13 serotypes in hospitalized US adults. METHODS: This observational, prospective surveillance study recruited hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years from 21 acute care hospitals across 10 geographically-dispersed cities in the United States between October 2013 and September 2016. Clinical and demographic data were collected during hospitalization. Vital status was ascertained 30 days after enrollment. Pneumococcal serotypes were detected via culture from the respiratory tract and normally-sterile sites (including blood and pleural fluid). Additionally, a novel, Luminex-based serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay was used to detect serotypes included in PCV13. RESULTS: Of 15,572 enrolled participants, 12,055 eligible patients with CXR+CAP were included in the final analysis population. Mean age was 64.1 years and 52.7% were aged ≥65 years. Common comorbidities included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (43.0%) and diabetes mellitus (28.6%). PCV13 serotypes were detected in 552/12,055 (4.6%) of all patients and 265/6347 (4.2%) of those aged ≥65 years. Among patients aged 18-64 years PCV13 serotypes were detected in 3.8-5.3% of patients depending on their risk status. CONCLUSIONS: After implementation of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program in US children, and despite the herd protection observed in US adults, a persistent burden of PCV13-type CAP remains in this population.

11.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 49(2): 197-203, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Denosumab is an antiresorptive drug with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, discontinuation of this agent is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, and more recently, with the development of vertebral fractures (VF) in some patients. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the clinical characteristics, bone metabolism parameters and evolution of a group of patients who developed vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation. In addition, we reviewed the literature on this subject. METHODS: During a period of 28 months (September 2015-January 2018) 7 women presenting spontaneous vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation were attended in the Rheumatology Department of our centre. We analyzed their clinical characteristics, bone metabolism parameters and evolution and reviewed the literature related to this subject. RESULTS: The patients had received denosumab during 24-58 months (median 38), and developed a median of 5 VF per patient at 8-20 months (median 10) since the last dose of denosumab. Only 2 patients presented previous VF, and most (5 patients) received previous bisphosphonate treatment. After VF all restarted antiosteoporotic treatment with no further fractures during follow-up (median 19 months). CONCLUSIONS: In this short series, previous bisphosphonate treatment does not seem to be a protective factor for the development of VF. The possible development of VF following discontinuation of denosumab must be taken into account in the clinical practice of physicians and dentists. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to improve the identification of patients at risk and the most adequate sequential treatment options.

12.
Univ. med ; 60(1)2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995094

RESUMO

Con el avance de la Seguridad Social en Salud en Colombia y la protección del derecho fundamental a la salud, se ha consolidado la autonomía médica con la expedición de la Ley Estatutaria de Salud, expedida en 2015. En el artículo se presentan conceptos inherentes a dicho ejercicio en Colombia y la actualización de un artículo publicado con anterioridad.


With the advancement of Social Security in Health in Colombia and the protection of the fundamental right to Health, medical autonomy is Consolidated with the Statutory Health Law issued in 2015. The arricie presents inherent concepts to this exercise in Colombia and the update of an arricie published previously.


Assuntos
Prática Profissional , Licença Médica/tendências
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3)2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting up to 30% of patients with psoriasis (Ps). To date, most of the known risk loci for PsA are shared with Ps, and identifying disease-specific variation has proven very challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic variation specific for PsA. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 835 patients with PsA and 1558 controls from Spain. Genetic association was tested at the single marker level and at the pathway level. Meta-analysis was performed with a case-control cohort of 2847 individuals from North America. To confirm the specificity of the genetic associations with PsA, we tested the associated variation using a purely cutaneous psoriasis cohort (PsC, n=614) and a rheumatoid arthritis cohort (RA, n=1191). Using network and drug-repurposing analyses, we further investigated the potential of the PsA-specific associations to guide the development of new drugs in PsA. RESULTS: We identified a new PsA risk single-nucleotide polymorphism at B3GNT2 locus (p=1.10e-08). At the pathway level, we found 14 genetic pathways significantly associated with PsA (pFDR<0.05). From these, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism pathway was confirmed to be disease-specific after comparing the PsA cohort with the cohorts of patients with PsC and RA. Finally, we identified candidate drug targets in the GAG metabolism pathway as well as new PsA indications for approved drugs. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms that are specific for PsA and could contribute to develop more effective therapies.

14.
Reumatol Clin ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522944

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the methodology of REAPSER (Spanish Registry of Recent-onset Psoriatic Arthritis), its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic factors for the clinical and radiographic course in a cohort of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) diagnosed within 2years of symptom evolution. METHODS: Multicenter, observational and prospective study (with 2-year follow-up including annual visits). Baseline visit intended to reflect patient situation before the disease course was modified by treatments prescribed in rheumatology departments. Patients were invited to participate consecutively in one of their routine visits to the rheumatologist. 211 patients were included. Following data were collected: sociodemographic variables; employment situation; family history; personal history and comorbidities; anthropometric data; lifestyle; use of healthcare services; clinical situation at the time of PsA diagnosis; joint involvement and spinal pain; pain and overall assessment; enthesitis, dactylitis and uveitis; skin and nail involvement; functional situation and quality of life; radiographic evaluation; analytical determinations; treatment; axial and peripheral flare-ups. CONCLUSIONS: The REAPSER study includes a cohort of patients with recent-onset PsA, before the disease course was modified by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs prescribed in rheumatology departments. Exhaustive information collected in each visit is expected to be an important data source for future analysis.

15.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 14(6): 346-359, nov.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176028

RESUMO

Objetivos: Identificar las comorbilidades prioritarias en la espondiloartritis axial (EspAx) y recomendar cómo hacer su seguimiento desde una perspectiva eminentemente práctica. Métodos: Se seleccionó a un grupo multidisciplinar (10 reumatólogos [6 expertos en EspAx], 2 médicos de familia, una internista, una cardióloga, una gastroenteróloga y una psicóloga). En una primera reunión de discusión, se establecieron el alcance y los usuarios, y se votó una lista de comorbilidades sobre la base de la frecuencia y el impacto. Los panelistas debían defender con argumentos consistentes la inclusión de cada comorbilidad/ítem en el documento. Cuatro panelistas y 2 metodólogos, desarrollaron revisiones sistemáticas en temas controvertidos. En una segunda reunión se presentaron los resultados de las revisiones y los argumentos de todos los ítems a incluir. Tras esta reunión se redactó el documento final. Resultados: El documento final incluye 2 listas de comprobación (checklist), una para profesionales sanitarios y otra para pacientes, que recogen: riesgo cardiovascular, comorbilidad renal, riesgo gastrointestinal, estilo de vida, riesgo de infecciones y vacunación, afectación pulmonar, medicación concomitante, trastornos psicoafectivos, osteoporosis y riesgo de fractura. Además, el documento refleja los argumentos para incluir cada ítem y la manera de recoger los ítems. Asimismo, el panel consideró oportuno establecer unas «prácticas a evitar» aplicables a la comorbilidad de la EspAx. Conclusiones: Se generaron 2 listas de comprobación y un listado de escenarios a evitar para facilitar el manejo de las comorbilidades de la EspAx. En pasos posteriores probaremos su utilidad y su aceptación por un grupo amplio de usuarios que incluya médicos, pacientes y enfermeras


Objectives: To identify priorities among comorbidities in axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) and recommend how to follow them from an eminently practical perspective. Methods: A multidisciplinary group was selected (10 rheumatologists-six of them experts in AxSpA-, 2 general practitioners, an internist, a cardiologist, a gastroenterologist and a psychologist). In a first discussion meeting, the scope and users were established and a list of comorbidities was voted based on frequency and impact. The panelists had to defend the inclusion of each comorbidity/item in the document with consistent arguments. Four panelists and two methodologists developed systematic reviews on controversial topics. In a second meeting, the results of the reviews and the arguments concerning the items to be included were presented. After the meeting, the final document was drafted. Results: The final document includes two checklists, one for health professionals and another for patients; they incorporate cardiovascular risk, renal comorbidities, gastrointestinal risk, lifestyle, risk of infections and vaccinations, pulmonary involvement, concomitant medication, psycho-affective disorders, osteoporosis, and risk of fracture. In addition, the document reflects the arguments favoring the inclusion of each item and how to record the items for subsequent collection. The panel considered it also appropriate to likewise establish «practices to avoid» applicable to comorbidity in AxSpA. Conclusions: Two checklists and a list of situations to avoid were generated to facilitate the management of comorbidities in AxSpA. In a future step, their utility and acceptance will be tested by a broad group of users that includes doctors, patients and nurses


Assuntos
Humanos , Espondilartrite/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Comorbidade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica
16.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 275, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a biomarker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and predicts relapse in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Higher drug trough serum levels are associated with a good response in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Power Doppler ultrasound synovitis is predictive of relapse and structural damage progression in patients in clinical remission. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of serum calprotectin levels, drug trough serum levels (TSL), and power Doppler (PD) activity as predictors of relapse in RA and PsA patients in remission or with low disease activity receiving TNFi. METHODS: This was a longitudinal, prospective, 1-year single-center study of 103 patients (47 RA, 56 PsA) receiving TNFi in remission or with low disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) ≤ 3.2). The predictive value of serum calprotectin, TNFi TSL, and PD were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. To illustrate the predictive performance of calprotectin, TNFi TSL, and PD score, Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed from baseline to relapse. Associations between baseline factors and relapse were determined using Cox regression models. Multivariate models were constructed to analyze the effect of covariates and to fully adjust the association between calprotectin, TNFi TSL, and PD score with relapse. A generalized estimating equation model with an identity link for longitudinal continuous outcomes was used to assess the effect of covariates on TNFi TSL. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients completed 1 year of follow-up, of whom 12 experienced a relapse. At baseline, relapsers had higher calprotectin levels, lower TNFi TSL, and higher PD activity than nonrelapsers. ROC analysis showed calprotectin fully predicted relapse (area under the curve (AUC) = 1.00). TNFi TSL and PD had an AUC of 0.790 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.691-0.889) and 0.877 (95% CI 0.772-0.981), respectively. Survival analyses and log rank tests showed significant differences between groups according to calprotectin serum levels (p < 0.001), TNFi TSL (p = 0.004), and PD score (p < 0.001). Univariate Cox regression models showed that time-to-remission/low disease activity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, p < 0.001), calprotectin levels (HR = 2.38, p < 0.001), TNFi TSL (HR = 0.47, p = 0.018), and PD score (HR = 1.31, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with disease relapse. In the multivariate analysis, only baseline calprotectin levels independently predicted disease relapse (HR = 2.41, p = 0.002). The generalized estimating equation analysis showed that only disease activity by DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly associated with longitudinal changes in TNFi TSL (regression coefficient 0.26 (0.0676 to 0.0036), p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Time-to-remission/low disease activity, calprotectin serum levels, TNFi TSL, and PD score were significantly associated with disease relapse. However, only baseline calprotectin serum levels independently predicted disease relapse in RA and PsA patients under TNFi therapy.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Artrite Psoriásica/sangue , Artrite Psoriásica/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Clin Chest Med ; 39(4): 703-721, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390743

RESUMO

Influenza and other respiratory viruses are commonly identified in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. Similarly, the radiological findings of viral infection are nonspecific. The advent of polymerase chain reaction testing has enormously facilitated the identification of respiratory viruses, which has important implications for infection control measures and treatment. Currently, treatment options for patients with viral infection are limited, but there is ongoing research on the development and clinical testing of new treatment regimens and strategies.

19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(11): 1247-1255, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382778

RESUMO

Migrants represent a diverse population comprising workers, students, undocumented individuals, and refugees. Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people were considered migrants in 2016. Notably, about 65 million of these migrants were forcibly displaced from their homes, and 20 million were considered refugees. While the geopolitical consequences of such migration continue to be considered, less is known about the impact of these events on the respiratory health of migrants and refugees. In recognition of this knowledge gap, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society brought together investigators with diverse and relevant expertise to participate in a workshop and develop a consensus on research needs on the respiratory health of migrants and refugees. The workshop focused on environmental and occupational hazards, chronic noninfectious diseases, and respiratory infectious diseases, which were presented by experts in three distinct sessions, each culminating with panel discussions. A writing committee collected summaries prepared by speakers and other participants, and the information was collated into a single document. Recommendations were formulated, and differences were resolved by discussion and consensus. The group identified important areas of research need, while emphasizing that reducing the burden of pulmonary, critical care, and sleep disorders in migrants and refugees will require a concerted effort by all stakeholders. Using best research practices, considering how research impacts policies affecting migrant and refugee populations, and developing new approaches to engage and fund trainees, clinical investigators, and public health practitioners to conduct high-quality research on respiratory health of migrants and refugees is essential.

20.
BMC Neurosci ; 19(1): 66, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of any external acoustic stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown promising though heterogeneous therapeutic outcomes for tinnitus. The present study aims to review the recent advances in applications of tDCS for tinnitus treatment. In addition, the clinical efficacy and main mechanisms of action of tDCS on suppressing tinnitus are discussed. METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The databases of the PubMed (1980-2018), Embase (1980-2018), PsycINFO (1850-2018), CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews (1990-2018), Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (1990-2018), and google scholar (1980-2018) using the set search terms. The date of the most recent search was 20 May, 2018. The randomized controlled trials that have assessed at least one therapeutic outcome measured before and after tDCS intervention were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: Different tDCS protocols were used for tinnitus ranging single to repeated sessions (up to 10) consisting of daily single session of 15 to 20-min and current intensities ranging 1-2 mA. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and auditory cortex are the main targets of stimulation. Both single and repeated sessions showed moderate to significant treatment effects on tinnitus symptoms. In addition to improvements in tinnitus symptoms, the tDCS interventions particularly bifrontal DLPFC showed beneficial outcomes on depression and anxiety comorbid with tinnitus. Heterogeneities in the type of tinnitus, tDCS devices, protocols, and site of stimulation made the systematic reviews of the literature difficult. However, the current evidence shows that tDCS can be developed as an adjunct or complementary treatment for intractable tinnitus. TDCS may be a safe and cost-effective treatment for tinnitus in the short-term application. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature shows moderate to significant therapeutic efficacy of tDCS on tinnitus symptoms. Further randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials with large sample sizes are needed to reach a definitive conclusion on the efficacy of tDCS for tinnitus. Future studies should further focus on developing efficient disease- and patient-specific protocols.

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