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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administration are available for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI), the most recent of which are capsules. AIM: To assess the efficacy of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and nasogastric tube (NGT) FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI. METHODS: We reported clinical outcomes of colonoscopy, capsule, enema, and NGT FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. During January 2000 to January 2018, three databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Primary outcome was overall cure rate which was assessed using a random effects model; secondary outcomes included adverse effects as well as subgroup analyses comparing donor relationship, sample preparation, and study design. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (1309 patients) were included in the study. FMT was administered using colonoscopy in 16 studies (483 patients), NGT in five studies (149 patients), enema in four studies (360 patients), and capsules in four studies (301 patients). The random effects of pooled FMT cure rates were colonoscopy 94.8% (CI 92.4-96.8%; I2 15.6%), capsule 92.1% (CI 88.6-95.0%; I2 7.1%), enema 87.2% (CI 83.4-90.5%; I2 0%), and NGT/NDT 78.1% (CI 71.6-84.1%; I2 0%). On subgroup analysis of colonoscopy FMT, sample preparation methods had comparable cure rates: fresh 94.9% compared to 94.5%. Similarly, cure rates were unaffected by donor relationship: mixed 94.5% compared to unrelated donor 95.7%. CONCLUSION: CDI cure rates with FMT performed with colonoscopy are superior to enema and NGT FMT, while those with FMT with colonoscopy and capsule are comparable.

2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the USA, fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) accounts for 1-2% of all cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. FLC remains poorly understood. AIM: We aim to investigate the incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients with FLC. METHODS: Data on FLC between 2000 and 2016 were extracted from the SEER database and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients with FLC were identified where 126 were male. Median age at diagnosis was 27 ± 22 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence of FLC between 2000 and 2016 was 0.02 per 100,000 per year. A bimodal distribution was observed where the highest incidences occurred between 15-19 years and 70-74 years. Most tumors on presentation were moderately differentiated (20.7%), while the most common stage at presentation was stage 1 (21.7%) followed by stages 3 and 4 (20.0% and 20.3%, respectively); 50.3% of these tumors were surgically resected, while 8.0% received radiation and 45.3% received chemotherapy. One- and 5-year cause-specific survival for FLC was 72.0% and 32.9%, respectively, with a median survival of 32.9 months. HCC had a median survival time of 11.7 months. Patients who were not treated with surgical intervention had about 3 times increased risk for death (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.68-4.72, P = 0.000). Radiation and chemotherapy did not significantly affect outcomes. CONCLUSION: FLC presents with a bimodal distribution in both early and elderly individuals. Compared to HCC, FLC has a higher recurrence rate but better survival outcome. Surgical intervention is superior to chemotherapy and radiation.

3.
Endoscopy ; 52(4): 251-258, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is increasingly being used as the endoscopic treatment option for achalasia. Data are limited as to the comparative efficacy of anterior vs. posterior myotomy. METHODS: We searched multiple databases from inception to August 2019 to identify studies reporting on POEM. We selected studies that reported on the outcomes of POEM, along with information on myotomy approach. We performed a comparative analysis of clinical success, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and adverse events with anterior and posterior myotomy in POEM by meta-analysis. RESULTS: 1247 patients from 18 studies were analyzed: 623 patients (11 cohorts) were treated via anterior myotomy and 624 patients (12 cohorts) via posterior myotomy. The pooled rate for clinical success gave an odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.52 - 2.0; I 2 0; P = 0.9); for GERD by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was OR 1.02 (95 %CI 0.62 - 1.68; I 2 0; P = 0.9), and for GERD by pH was OR 0.98 (95 %CI 0.59 - 1.63; I 2 34; P = 0.9). The individual pooled rates of clinical success at 12 months and > 12 months, GERD (by symptoms, EGD, pH), and adverse events (mild, moderate, severe) were comparable. The pooled total procedure time with anterior myotomy was 82.7 minutes (95 %CI 69.0 - 96.4; I 2 98) and with posterior myotomy was 62.1 minutes (95 %CI 48.5 - 75.7; I 2 90). CONCLUSION: Anterior and posterior myotomy in POEM seem comparable to each other in terms of clinical success, GERD, and adverse events. The total procedure time with posterior myotomy seems to be shorter than with anterior myotomy.

5.
Surg Endosc ; 34(3): 1417-1424, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ileocecal valve (ICV) lesions are difficult to resect endoscopically and patients are often referred for laparoscopic colectomy. ICV involvement has been shown to be related to technical failure and tumor recurrence after endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and represents a challenge for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Few publications have focused specifically on endoscopic management of ICV lesions. METHODS: We developed a novel ESD technique, the "doughnut resection," for circumferential ICV adenomas with terminal ileum involvement. Two circumferential mucosal incisions are performed, one in the ileum and the other in the cecum, followed by submucosal dissection of the disk of tissue between the two incisions around a guiding stent placed across the valve that helps guide the dissection as it crosses the valve orifice. The lesion is removed en bloc in the shape of a "doughnut" with two concentric assessable lateral margins. The underwater ESD technique and a gastroscope were used to facilitate the resection. RESULTS: Seven patients received the doughnut resection. The median patient age was 67 years. All patients had prior biopsy and three had prior endoscopic resection (1-6 times). The median specimen diameter was 4.5 cm (range 3-8). All resections were en bloc and R0. There was no perforation, delayed bleeding, or other clinically significant adverse events. After a median follow-up of 21 months (range 12-32), there was no tumor recurrence. CONCLUSION: The "doughnut resection" is a feasible, safe, and effective method to remove circumferential ICV lesions endoscopically even for patients with multiple prior tumor manipulations.

6.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759875

RESUMO

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

7.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 7(5): 367-370, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687157

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal infection caused by the parasitic nematodes of the Strongyloides species, most commonly Strongyloides stercoralis. We report a case of a 66-year-old immigrant male from Haiti who presented with complaints of diarrhea and an unintentional 80-lb weight loss over the past 5 years. Stool examination was positive for strongyloidiasis. Following albendazole therapy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed a unique ampullary lesion. Histopathology of the ampullary lesion showed reactive epithelium with Strongyloides larva. In addition, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) detected a large pancreatic cyst. Both these findings were absent on EGD 5 years previously, prior to the onset of his symptoms. This paper documents a rare case of an ampullary lesion and pancreatic cyst secondary to hepatobiliary strongyloidiasis in a non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patient. We review the epidemiology, life cycle, clinical presentation and treatment of strongyloidiasis.

9.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 53(9): 627-634, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403982

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer represents one of the most lethal forms of malignancy. The growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma represents an emerging public health concern. This review article summarizes current diagnostic, management, and therapeutic practices of premalignant conditions of the esophagus including Barrett's esophagus, tylosis, granular cell tumors, achalasia, and the ingestion of caustic substances. Our report provides clinicians and academics with a global clinical perspective regarding presentation, surveillance guidelines, and therapeutic management of these esophageal conditions.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(9): 1496-1501, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) is a rare form of primary liver cancer with features of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival of patients with CHC. METHODS: Data on CHC between 2004 and 2014 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry and analyzed. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-nine patients with CHC were identified; 367 were male. Median age at diagnosis was 62.5 ± 12 years. The overall incidence of CHC between 2004 and 2014 was 0.05 per 100,000 per year. Incidence increased with age, with the highest incidence in men occurring between 60 and 64 years and 75-79 years for women. Women had a higher incidence of CHC compared to men (0.08 vs 0.03 per 100,000 per year). Most tumors were poorly differentiated (30.8%) while the most common stage at presentation was stage 4 (26.8%). 39.5% of these tumors were resected while 6.8% received radiation and 34% received chemotherapy. One- and 5-year cause-specific survival for CHC was 41.9% and 17.7%, respectively, with a median survival of 8 months. Worse outcomes were noted among patients with tumor stage 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.87, P = 0.000), stage 4 (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.06-2.75, P = 0.027), those not treated with surgery (HR 4.94, 95% CI 3.64-6.68, P = 0.000), those who did not receive radiation (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.08-2.70, P = 0.021), those who did not receive chemotherapy (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20-1.99, P = 0.001), and those with increasing tumor size on chemotherapy (HR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.00, P = 0.013). DISCUSSION: CHC is the combined presentation of 2 malignancies. Incidence appears to be increasing and is associated with age and male gender. While surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are associated with improved outcomes, patients who did not undergo surgery are at highest risk for death.

11.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(4): 346-351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263356

RESUMO

Bleeding due to primary or metastatic gastrointestinal (GI) tumors remains clinically challenging. Bleeding is further complicated in the setting of underlying friable neovascularization of tumors and coagulopathy. Endoscopic hemostatic therapeutic options have traditionally involved the use of thermal/mechanical therapy in conjunction with injection therapy. This review looks at the role of endoscopy in managing tumor-related GI bleeding, specifically contact and non-contact thermal therapy, radiofrequency ablation, endoloops, epinephrine and ethanol injection, and, most recently, Hemospray. Overall, current data show that endoscopic therapy is limited, with high rebleeding rates and a failure to improve overall outcomes. Larger clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of current techniques and establish therapeutic algorithms, with the goal of achieving primary hemostasis and reducing rebleeding rates.

12.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 47(3): 123-129, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177865

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. We aim to highlight practice measures for controlling and preventing Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the hospital setting. Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Databases were searched for human studies that assessed strategic measures for the prevention of CDI. Bundled interventions can effectively reduce the rates of CDI. Current evidence support the implementation antibiotic stewardship programs, hygiene enhancement, dietary management with probiotics, use of copper surfaces, and the cautious use of PPIs. However, current guidelines do not advocate the use of copper, probiotics, or the discontinuation of PPIs as a means for reducing CDI. We review these practical and evidence-based approaches.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Clostridium difficile , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Higiene
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976719

RESUMO

Obesity represents a growing public health threat. Until recently, surgery was the primary means for treating pharmacotherapy resistant obese patients. However, therapeutic endoscopy has evolved as an effective and safe alternative strategy. Particularly, endoscopic bariatric therapy (EBT) can bridge the gap in patients who do not fit the BMI criteria for surgery and fail conservative or medical therapy. Today there are many tools within the realm of EBT available to endoscopists. While there are no formal guidelines for their use, training and use of these tools are limited by the type of institution, preferences of senior endoscopists, cost, and availability. We review different EBT tools available to trainees and gastroenterologist, and the learning curves associated with them.

14.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 24-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598588

RESUMO

Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEF) are pathologic communications between the trachea and esophagus. TEF can lead to significant respiratory distress that may result in lethal respiratory compromise, often due to recurrent and intractable infections. Through the use of endoscopy, some TEF can be successfully repaired using different approaches depending on the size, location, availability, and experience of the treating endoscopist. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an up-to-date review of the endoscopic management of TEF for gastroenterologists.

15.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 30-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598589

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved into a robust and efficient means for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Our narrative review looks at the donor selection, preparation, delivery techniques and cost-effectiveness of FMT. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Databases, for studies that compared the biological effects of donor selection, fresh or frozen fecal preparation, and various delivery techniques. We also evaluated the cost-effectiveness and manually searched references to identify additional relevant studies. Overall, there is a paucity of studies that directly compare outcomes associated with related and non-related stool donors. However, inferences from prior studies indicate that the success of FMT does not depend on the donor-patient relationship. Over time, the use of unrelated donors has increased because of the formation of stool banks and the need to save processing time and capital. However, longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal freezing time before microbial function declines. Several FMT techniques have been developed, such as colonoscopy, enema, nasogastric or nasojejunal tubes, and capsules. The comparable and high efficacy of FMT capsules, combined with their convenience, safety and aesthetically tolerable mode of delivery, makes it an attractive option for many patients. Cost-effective models comparing these various approaches support the use of FMT via colonoscopy as being the best strategy for the treatment of recurrent CDI.

16.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 39-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598590

RESUMO

With the increase in the use of cross-sectional diagnostic imaging, there has been a concomitant rise in the rate of detected pancreatic cystic lesions. Recent years have seen the rise of newly developed therapeutic modalities to treat pancreatic lesions via ablation. Specifically, through the use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapy, endoscopists can potentially ablate these lesions safely and with minimally invasive techniques. In this manuscript we review 4 major endoscopic ultrasound-guided ablative therapies: radiofrequency ablation, ethanol injection, chemo ablation, and cryoablation. We also review the efficacy and safety of these techniques and future directions in the management of cystic pancreatic lesions.

18.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(2): 166-167, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488679

RESUMO

Ofosu A, Ramai D, John F, Reddy M, Adler DG. Signet ring cancer of the gall bladder: a SEER database analysis. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2019;65:166-7. DOI: 10.23736/S1121-421X.18.02540-0.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(2): 85-90, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ampullary cancer accounts for only 0.2% of gastrointestinal cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival of patients with ampullary tumors. METHODS: Data on ampullary cancer between 2004 and 2013 was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Registry. The clinical epidemiology of these tumors was analyzed using SEER*Stat. RESULTS: A total of 6803 patients with ampullary cancer were identified. Median age at diagnosis was 71±13 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence of ampullary cancer was 0.59 per 100,000 per year. A higher incidence of ampullary cancer was observed in males compared to females (0.74 vs. 0.48 per 100,000 per year). Most tumors were moderately differentiated (39.5%). The most common stage at presentation was Stage I (21%), followed by Stage II (20%). The majority (63%) of these tumors were surgically resected while 20% of patients received radiotherapy. One and 5-year cause-specific survival for ampullary cancer was 71.7% and 38.8% respectively, with a median survival of 31 months. On Cox regression analysis, black race, increasing cancer stage and grade, N1 stage, and non-surgical treatment were associated with poorer prognosis. Those who were not treated with surgical intervention were at 4.5 times increased risk for death (hazard ratio 4.5, 95% CI: 3.93-5.09, P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of ampullary cancer has been fairly constant, though males are more likely to be affected. While its incidence increases with age, patients who are treated by surgical intervention have significantly better outcomes. Additionally, through the use of endoscopic techniques, ampullary cancer can be detected and treated much earlier.


Assuntos
Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/terapia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 65(1): 70-76, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic hemostasis in patients with non-variceal bleeding (NVGIB) with standard therapy has improved outcomes. However, persistent bleeding and re-bleeding continues to drive morbidity and mortality. Use of over-the-scope clips (OTSC) is an emerging treatment modality for managing gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of OTSC to achieve primary hemostasis and re-bleeding rates as primary therapy and rescue endoscopic interventions in patients with NVGIB. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched articles in PubMed, Ovid Medline In- Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from inception to July 2017 using keywords such as "OTSC" and "NVGIB." EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 16 studies which involved 475 patients met the inclusion criteria. 288 patients were treated with OTSC as primary therapy while 187 patients were treated with OTSC as rescue therapy. Primary hemostasis rate achieved with primary endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96). Similarly, primary hemostasis rate achieved with rescue endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95). Re-bleeding rates after primary endoscopic therapy with OTSC was 0.21 (95% CI:0.08-0.43) and 0.25 (95% CI:0.17-0.34) with rescue therapy. There was a decreased risk of re-bleeding in patients treated with OTSC as primary therapy versus rescue therapy. RR=0.52 (95% CI: 0.31-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates success on the use of OTSC as primary and rescue therapy in the management of NVGIB. Further trials should clarify the ideal setting for the use of OTSC and assess the cost of these devices as compared to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hemostase Endoscópica/instrumentação , Humanos
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