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1.
Lab Chip ; 20(9): 1658-1675, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270149

RESUMO

Present approaches to assess cancer treatments are often inaccurate, costly, and/or cumbersome. Functional testing platforms that use live tumor cells are a promising tool both for drug development and for identifying the optimal therapy for a given patient, i.e. precision oncology. However, current methods that utilize patient-derived cells from dissociated tissue typically lack the microenvironment of the tumor tissue and/or cannot inform on a timescale rapid enough to guide decisions for patient-specific therapy. We have developed a microfluidic platform that allows for multiplexed drug testing of intact tumor slices cultured on a porous membrane. The device is digitally-manufactured in a biocompatible thermoplastic by laser-cutting and solvent bonding. Here we describe the fabrication process in detail, we characterize the fluidic performance of the device, and demonstrate on-device drug-response testing with tumor slices from xenografts and from a patient colorectal tumor.

2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1090: 114-124, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655636

RESUMO

Pyrene-phenylglycinol tangled ratiometric sensor (R)-1 was developed for the detection of Al3+ ion over other metal ions. Ratiometric behaviour of (R)-1 for Al3+ ion explained through monomer emission and excimer quenching leads to avoiding the π-π interactions of bis-pyrene rings. Pull-push to push-pull binding mechanism is successfully explained by DFT and sensing of Al3+-ions demonstrated in living cells. The LOD of (R)-1 for Al3+ downs to nanomolar concentrations which is lower than the allowed concentration of drinking water set by the (World Health Organization) WHO.


Assuntos
Alumínio/análise , Etanolaminas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Pirenos/química , Linhagem Celular , Etanolaminas/síntese química , Etanolaminas/toxicidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Pirenos/síntese química , Pirenos/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 246: 547-556, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202019

RESUMO

Chitosan-magnetic-graphene oxide (CMGO) nanocomposite was prepared for arsenic adsorption. The nanocomposite was characterized through BET, FTIR, FESEM, EDX, and VSM analyses. These characterizations confirmed the formation of CMGO nanocomposites with high specific surface area (152.38 m2/g) and excellent saturation magnetization (49.30 emu/g). Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the nanocomposite in the adsorption of arsenic from aqueous solution. The effects of operational parameters, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamics were evaluated. The removal efficiency of arsenic increased with increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time. However, the effect of pH followed a different pattern, with the removal efficiency increasing from acidic to neutral pH, and then decreasing at alkaline conditions. The highest adsorption capacity (45 mg/g) and removal efficiency (61%) were obtained at pH 7.3. The adsorption kinetic followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The analysis of adsorption isotherm shows that the adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm model, indicating a homogeneous process. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the adsorption of As(III) is exothermic and spontaneous. The superparamagnetic properties of the nanocomposite enabled the separation and recovery of the nanoparticles using an external magnetic field. Thus, the developed nanocomposite has a potential for arsenic remediation.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Quitosana , Grafite , Nanocompostos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Óxidos
4.
Environ Technol ; 40(12): 1508-1516, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300679

RESUMO

A magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) was developed for the adsorption of As(III) from aqueous solution. The characteristics of MGO were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope-E/energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. Batch adsorption experiments were designed using central composite design, and the effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and concentration of As(III) were investigated. The MGO showed an excellent performance, removing up to 99.95% of As(III) under the following condition: initial As(III) concentration = 100 mg/L, pH = 7, adsorbent dosage = 0.3 g/L and contact time = 77 min. MGO dosage and initial pH were the most significant parameters influencing the process performance. FTIR analysis of the used adsorbent confirms the adsorption of As(III) through complexation between surface functional groups of the MGO and the oxyanions of As(III). The adsorbent maintained a significant level of performance even after four cycles of adsorption. Thus, the developed MGO has the potential to be used for the abatement of arsenic pollution.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Grafite , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Óxidos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Front Genet ; 9: 264, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079080

RESUMO

The red junglefowl Gallus gallus is the main progenitor of domestic chicken, the commonest livestock species, outnumbering humans by an approximate ratio of six to one. The genetic control for production traits have been well studied in commercial chicken, but the selection pressures underlying unique adaptation and production to local environments remain largely unknown in indigenous village chicken. Likewise, the genome regions under positive selection in the wild red junglefowl remain untapped. Here, using the pool heterozygosity approach, we analyzed indigenous village chicken populations from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Sri Lanka, alongside six red junglefowl, for signatures of positive selection across the autosomes. Two red junglefowl candidate selected regions were shared with all domestic chicken populations. Four candidates sweep regions, unique to and shared among all indigenous domestic chicken, were detected. Only one region includes annotated genes (TSHR and GTF2A1). Candidate regions that were unique to each domestic chicken population with functions relating to adaptation to temperature gradient, production, reproduction and immunity were identified. Our results provide new insights on the consequence of the selection pressures that followed domestication on the genome landscape of the domestic village chicken.

6.
Chemosphere ; 193: 1004-1017, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874727

RESUMO

Graphene-based adsorbents have attracted wide interests as effective adsorbents for heavy metals removal from the environment. Due to their excellent electrical, mechanical, optical and transport properties, graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO) have found various applications. However, in many applications, surface modification is necessary as pristine graphene/GO may be ineffective in some specific applications such as adsorption of heavy metal ions. Consequently, the modification of graphene/GO using various metals and non-metals is an ongoing research effort in the carbon-material realm. The use of organic materials represents an economical and environmentally friendly approach in modifying GO for environmental applications such as heavy metal adsorption. This review discusses the applications of organo-functionalized GO composites for the adsorption of heavy metals. The aspects reviewed include the commonly used organic materials for modifying GO, the performance of the modified composites in heavy metals adsorption, effects of operational parameters, adsorption mechanisms and kinetic, as well as the stability of the adsorbents. Despite the significant research efforts on GO modification, many aspects such as the interaction between the functional groups and the heavy metal ions, and the quantitative effect of the functional groups are yet to be fully understood. The review, therefore, offers some perspectives on the future research needs.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Metais Pesados/química , Nanocompostos/química , Adsorção
7.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 5(4): 668-677, 2017 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284700

RESUMO

Poor blood pressure control results in tremendous morbidity and mortality in India where the leading cause of death among adults is from coronary heart disease. Despite having little formal education, community health workers (CHWs) are integral to successful public health interventions in India and other low- and middle-income countries that have a shortage of trained health professionals. Training CHWs to screen for and manage chronic hypertension, with support from trained clinicians, offers an excellent opportunity for effecting systemwide change in hypertension-related burden of disease. In this article, we describe the development of a program that trained CHWs between 2014 and 2015 in the tribal region of the Sittilingi Valley in southern India, to identify hypertensive patients in the community, refer them for diagnosis and initial management in a physician-staffed clinic, and provide them with sustained lifestyle interventions and medications over multiple visits. We found that after 2 years, the CHWs had screened 7,176 people over age 18 for hypertension, 1,184 (16.5%) of whom were screened as hypertensive. Of the 1,184 patients screened as hypertensive, 898 (75.8%) had achieved blood pressure control, defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 140 and a diastolic blood pressure less than 90 sustained over 3 consecutive visits. While all of the 24 trained CHWs reported confidence in checking blood pressure with a manual blood pressure cuff, 4 of the 24 CHWs reported occasional difficulty documenting blood pressure values because they were unable to write numbers properly. They compensated by asking other CHWs or members of their community to help with documentation. Our experience and findings suggest that a CHW blood pressure screening system linked to a central clinic can be a promising avenue for improving hypertension control rates in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Organizações , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Environ Manage ; 204(Pt 1): 75-81, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865309

RESUMO

The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising many persistent organic pollutants which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. This study investigated the treatment of raw landfill leachate using electrocoagulation process. An electrocoagulation system was designed with iron as both the anode and cathode. The effects of inter-electrode distance, initial pH and electrolyte concentration on colour and COD removals were investigated. All these factors were found to have significant effects on the colour removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was also conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Under optimum conditions (initial pH: 7.73, inter-electrode distance: 1.16 cm, and electrolyte concentration (NaCl): 2.00 g/L), the process could remove up to 82.7% colour and 45.1% COD. The process can be applied as a pre-treatment for raw leachates before applying other appropriate treatment technologies.


Assuntos
Eletrocoagulação/métodos , Ferro/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
10.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 39(8): 1213-4, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098671
11.
Appl Ergon ; 53 Pt B: 357-63, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482893

RESUMO

Thirty six volunteer air force personnel were sequentially exposed in a randomized balanced order in a hypobaric chamber to 30 min of baseline (sea level) and mild hypoxia induced by a specified altitude (sea level, 8000 ft and 12,000 ft), followed immediately by breathing 100% oxygen from an oro-nasal mask. Mood and complex cognition were assessed. Analysis of variance indicated that mood (fatigue and vigour) remained the same at 8000 ft but fatigue was increased (p = 0.001) and vigour reduced (p = 0.035) at 12,000 ft and was restored by supplementary oxygen. Complex cognition was not significantly altered by the test conditions. The results of this study do not support prior evidence that mild hypoxia equivalent to either 8000 or 12,000 ft, impairs complex cognition, but suggests that some aspects of mood may be affected at 12,000 ft and can be restored by breathing 100% oxygen.


Assuntos
Afeto , Doença da Altitude/psicologia , Cognição , Militares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Pressão do Ar , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/terapia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Oximetria , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxigenoterapia , Testes Psicológicos , Método Simples-Cego , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Econ Entomol ; 108(4): 1646-54, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26470305

RESUMO

Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development.


Assuntos
Botrytis/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/microbiologia , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Micélio/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/microbiologia
13.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 784, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26466991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data. RESULTS: An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integration sites per bird were identified, which collectively group into 279 intervals of which 5 % are common to 90 % of the genomes analysed and are suggestive of pre-domestication integration events. More than a third of intervals are specific to individual genomes, supporting active circulation of EAV-HP in modern chickens. Interval density is correlated with chromosome length (P < 2.31(-6)), and 27 % of intervals are located within 5 kb of a transcript. Functional annotation clustering of genes reveals enrichment for immune-related functions (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate a non-random distribution of EAV-HP in the genome, emphasising the importance it may have played in the adaptation of the species, and provide a platform from which to extend investigations on the co-evolutionary significance of endogenous retroviral genera with their hosts.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Retroviridae/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/genética , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Retroviridae/patogenicidade , Integração Viral/genética
14.
Nanoscale ; 7(41): 17289-98, 2015 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228582

RESUMO

Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Fagos Bacilares , Vírus Miúdo do Camundongo , Vírion , Adenoviridae/química , Adenoviridae/ultraestrutura , Animais , Fagos Bacilares/química , Fagos Bacilares/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Vírus Miúdo do Camundongo/química , Vírus Miúdo do Camundongo/ultraestrutura , Eletricidade Estática , Vírion/química , Vírion/ultraestrutura
15.
J Surg Educ ; 72(5): 778-85, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26002536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of our study was to examine the ability of novices to learn selected aspects of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) in training conditions that did not incorporate simulation compared to those that contained low- and high-fidelity simulation activities. We sought to determine at what level additional educational opportunities and simulation fidelity become superfluous with respect to learning outcomes. METHODS: Totally 39 medical students and physician assistant students were randomly assigned to 4 training conditions: control (lecture only), video-based didactic instruction, low-, and high-fidelity simulation activities. Participants were assessed using a baseline written pretest of ACLS knowledge. Following this, all participants received a lecture outlining ACLS science and algorithm interpretation. Participants were then trained in specific aspects of ACLS according to their assigned instructional condition. After training, each participant was assessed via a Megacode performance examination and a written posttest. RESULTS: All groups performed significantly better on the written posttest compared with the pretest (p < 0.001); however, no groups outperformed any other groups. On the Megacode performance test, the video-based, low-, and high-fidelity groups performed significantly better than the control group (p = 0.028, p < 0.001, p = 0.019). Equivalence testing revealed that the high-fidelity simulation condition was statistically equivalent to the video-based and low-fidelity simulation conditions. CONCLUSION: Video-based and simulation-based training is associated with better learning outcomes when compared with traditional didactic lectures only. Video-based, low-fidelity, and high-fidelity simulation training yield equivalent outcomes, which may indicate that high-fidelity simulation is superfluous for the novice trainee.


Assuntos
Suporte Vital Cardíaco Avançado/educação , Ressuscitação/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
Oral Dis ; 21(3): 314-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The chronic periodontitis (CP) and psoriasis share common risk factors and co-morbidities. This study was designed to explore how frequently CP is associated with patients with psoriasis compared to systemic healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The periodontal clinical parameters probing depth (PD), periodontal attachment level (PAL), and presence or absence of radiographic bone loss (J Periodontol, 78, 2007, 1387) were recorded in 33 psoriasis subjects and 35 healthy subjects. The severity of psoriasis was assessed and recorded by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index as described earlier by Cohen et al (J Dermatolog Treat, 16, 2005, 308). The other oral health characteristics were also recorded. RESULTS: Probing depth and PAL showed significant higher values in psoriasis group compared with healthy group. It was also found that periodontal status was associated with severity of psoriasis. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a link between CP and psoriasis. This suggests the need for a multidisciplinary approach to manage psoriasis patients with chronic periodontitis, especially in relation to current and future treatment.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/etiologia , Psoríase/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal
18.
Nano Lett ; 14(5): 2436-42, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24742056

RESUMO

Mirrors and optical cavities can modify and enhance matter-radiation interactions. Here we report that chemically synthesized Au nanoplates can serve as micrometer-size mirrors that enhance electrodynamic interactions. Because of their plasmonic properties, the Au nanoplates enhance the brightness of scattered light from Ag nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping and optical binding of Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated in interferometric optical traps created from a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle force constant is ≈20-fold more than expected from the increased intensity due to standing wave interference. We show that the additional stability for optical binding arises from the restricted axial thermal motion of the nanoparticles that couples to and reduces the fluctuations in the lateral plane. This new mechanism greatly advances the photonic synthesis of ultrastable nanoparticle arrays and investigation of their properties.

19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 186(6): 3553-66, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24464401

RESUMO

Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Índia , Invertebrados/classificação , Clima Tropical , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Bull Entomol Res ; 104(2): 117-36, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24280006

RESUMO

Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/enzimologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar
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