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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful implementation of medical technologies applied in life-threatening conditions, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requires appropriate preparation and training of medical personnel. The pandemic has accelerated the creation of new ECMO centers and has highlighted continuous training in adapting to new pandemic standards. To reach high standards of patients' care, we created the first of its kind, National Education Centre for Artificial Life Support (NEC-ALS) in 40 million inhabitants' country in the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The role of the Center is to test and promote the novel or commonly used procedures as well as to develop staff skills on management of patients needing ECMO. METHOD: In 2020, nine approved and endorsed by ELSO courses of "Artificial Life Support with ECMO" were organized. Physicians participated in the three-day high-fidelity simulation-based training that was adapted to abide by the social distancing norms of the COVID-19 pandemic. Knowledge as well as crucial cognitive, behavioral and technical aspects (on a 5-point Likert scale) of management on ECMO were assessed before and after course completion. Moreover, the results of training in mechanical chest compression were also evaluated. RESULTS: There were 115 participants (60% men) predominantly in the age of 30-40 years. Majority of them (63%) were anesthesiologists or intensivists with more than 5-year clinical experience, but 54% had no previous ECMO experience. There was significant improvement after the course in all cognitive, behavioral, and technical self-assessments. Among aspects of management with ECMO that all increased significantly following the course, the most pronounced was related to the technical one (from approximately 1.0 to more 4.0 points). Knowledge scores significantly increased post-course from 11.4 ± SD to 13 ± SD (out of 15 points). The quality of manual chest compression relatively poor before course improved significantly after training. CONCLUSIONS: Our course confirmed that simulation as an educational approach is invaluable not only in training and testing of novel or commonly used procedures, skills upgrading, but also in practicing very rare cases. The implementation of the education program during COVID-19 pandemic may be helpful in founding specialized Advanced Life Support centers and teams including mobile ones. The dedicated R&D Innovation Ecosystem established in the "ECMO for Greater Poland" program, with developed National Education Center can play a crucial role in the knowledge and know-how transfer but future research is needed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581945

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 patients demonstrate hypercoagulability, necessitating thromboprophylaxis. However, less is known about the haemostatic profile in mild COVID-19 patients. We performed an age and gender-matched prospective study of 10 severe and 10 mild COVID-19 patients. Comprehensive coagulation profiling together with Thromboelastography and Clot Waveform Analysis were performed. FBC, PT, APTT, D-dimer, fibrinogen and CWA were repeated every 3 days for both groups and repeat TEG was performed for severe patients up till 15 days. On recruitment, severe patients had markers reflecting hypercoagulability including raised median D-dimer 1.0 µg/mL (IQR 0.6, 1.4) (p = 0.0004), fibrinogen 5.6 g/L (IQR 4.9, 6.6) (p = 0.002), Factor VIII 206% (IQR 171, 203) and vWF levels 265.5% (IQR 206, 321). Mild patients had normal values of PT, aPTT, fibrinogen and D-dimer, and slightly elevated median Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. Repeated 3-day assessments for both groups showed declining trends in D-dimer and Fibrinogen. CWA of severe COVID-19 group demonstrated hypercoagulability with an elevated median values of aPTT delta change 78.8% (IQR 69.8, 85.2) (p = 0.001), aPTT clot velocity (min1) 7.8%/s (IQR 6.7, 8.3) (p = 0.001), PT delta change 22.4% (IQR 19.4, 29.5) (p = 0.004), PT min1 7.1%/s (IQR 6.3, 9.0) (p = 0.02), PT clot acceleration (min 2) 3.6%/s2 (IQR 3.2, 4.5) (p = 0.02) and PT clot deceleration (max2) 2.9%/s2 (IQR 2.5, 3.5) (p = 0.02). TEG of severe patients reflected hypercoagulability with significant increases in the median values of CFF MA 34.6 mm (IQR 27.4,38.6) (p = 0.003), CRT Angle 78.9° (IQR 78.3, 80.0) (p = 0.0006), CRT A10 67.6 mm (IQR 65.8, 69.6) (p = 0.007) and CFF A10 32.0 mm (IQR 26.8, 34.0) (p = 0.003). Mild COVID-19 patients had absent hypercoagulability in both CWA and TEG. 2 severe patients developed thromboembolic events while none occurred in the mild COVID-19 group. Mild COVID-19 patients show absent parameters of hypercoagulability in global haemostatic tests while those with severe COVID-19 demonstrated parameters associated with hypercoagulability on the global haemostatic tests together with raised D-Dimer, fibrinogen, Factor VIII and vWF levels.

3.
Aust Crit Care ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has become a regular intervention in the intensive care units especially in patients coming in with hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Clinical practices may differ from published literature. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical practices of physicians and respiratory therapists (RTs) on the use of HFNC. METHODS: A retrospective observational study looking at medical records on HFNC usage from January 2015 to September 2017 was performed and was followed by a series of questions related to HFNC practices. The survey involved physicians and RTs in intensive care units from multiple centres in Singapore from January to April 2018. Indications and thresholds for HFNC usage with titration and weaning practices were compared with the retrospective observational study data. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three recipients (69.9%) responded to the survey and reported postextubation (87.8%), pneumonia in nonimmunocompromised (65.9%), and pneumonia in immunocompromised (61.8%) patients as the top three indications for HFNC. Of all, 39.8% of respondents wanted to use HFNC for palliative intent. Similar practices were observed in the retrospective study with the large cohort of 63% patients (483 of the total 768 patients) where HFNC was used for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and 274 (35.7%) patients to facilitate extubation. The survey suggested that respondents would initiate HFNC at a lower fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), higher partial pressure of oxygen to FiO2 ratio, and higher oxygen saturation to FiO2 ratio for nonpneumonia patients than patients with pneumonia. RTs were less likely to start HFNC for patients suffering from pneumonia and interstitial lung disease than physicians. RTs also preferred adjustment of FiO2 to improve oxygen saturations and noninvasive ventilation for rescue. CONCLUSIONS: Among the different intensive care units surveyed, the indications and thresholds for the initiation of HFNC differed in the clinical practices of physicians and RTs.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 725559, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489870

RESUMO

Thyroid storm is a rare but life-threatening endocrinological emergency with significant mortality ranging from 10-30% with multi-organ involvement and failure. In view of the rarity of this condition and efficacy of established first line medical treatment, use of extra-corporeal treatments are uncommon, not well-studied, and its available evidence exists only from case reports and case series. We describe a 28-year-old man who presented with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to thyroid storm. Despite conventional first-line pharmacotherapy, he developed cardiogenic shock and circulatory collapse with intravenous esmolol infusion, as well as multi-organ failure. He required therapeutic plasma exchange, concurrent renal replacement therapy, and veno-arterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, one of the few reported cases in the literature. While there was clinical stabilization and improvement in tri-iodothyronine levels on three extra-corporeal systems, he suffered irreversible hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We reviewed the use of early therapeutic plasma exchange and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, as well as the development of other novel extra-corporeal modalities when conventional pharmacotherapy is unsuccessful or contraindicated. This case also highlights the complexities in the management of thyroid storm, calling for caution with beta-blockade use in thyrocardiac disease, with close monitoring and prompt organ support.

5.
Chest ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508739

RESUMO

With the paucity of high-quality studies on longitudinal basic critical care echocardiography (BCCE) training, expert-opinion guidelines have guided BCCE training. However, existing guidelines lack precise detail due to methodological flaws during guideline-development. To formulate methodologically robust guidelines on BCCE training using evidence and expert opinion, detailing specific criteria for every step, we conducted a modified Delphi process using the principles of the validated AGREE-II tool. Based on systematic reviews, the following domains were chosen - components of a longitudinal BCCE curriculum; pass-grade criteria for image-acquisition and image-interpretation; formative/summative assessment and final competence processes. Between April 2020 and May 2021, 21 BCCE experts participated in four rounds. Rounds 1 and 2 used five web-based questionnaires, including branching-logic software for directed questions to individual panelists. In round 3 (videoconference), the panel finalized the recommendations by vote. During the journal peer-review process, Round 4 was conducted as web-based questionnaires. After each round, the agreement threshold for each item was determined >80% for item-inclusion and <30% for item-exclusion. After rounds 1 and 2, agreement was reached on 62/114 item. To the 49 unresolved items, 12 additional items were added in round 3, with 56 reaching agreement and five items remaining unresolved. There was agreement that longitudinal BCCE training must include introductory training, mentored formative training, summative assessment for competence and final cognitive assessment. Items requiring multiple rounds included 2D views, Doppler, cardiac output, M-mode measurement, minimum scan numbers, pass-grade criteria. Regarding objective criteria for image-acquisition and image-interpretation quality, the panel agreed on maintaining the same criteria for formative and summative assessment, to categorize BCCE findings as major versus minor and a standardized approach to errors, criteria for readiness for summative assessment and supervisory options. In conclusion, this expert consensus statement presents comprehensive evidence-based recommendations on longitudinal BCCE training. However, they require prospective validation.

7.
ASAIO J ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347405

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an invaluable means of supporting critically ill children with refractory respiratory or cardiac failure. Controversy remains; however, whether roller or centrifugal pumps are superior, particularly in infants. We performed a comprehensive search on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for studies comparing the use of centrifugal and roller pumps in the pediatric and neonatal population from 1973 until March 1, 2020. All prospective and retrospective comparative studies were screened. Single-arm studies and those that included adult patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was survival to discharge. Secondary endpoints were complications (mechanical, cardiac, pulmonary, neurologic, renal, and hemolytic) and requirements for inotropic support. Random effects meta-analyses across all clinical endpoints were conducted. A total of four studies with 9111 patients were included. There was a statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality, favoring the groups where roller pumps were used. Roller pumps were associated with fewer episodes of hemolysis, mechanical complications, cardiac complications, renal complications, and less inotropic support. ECMO with roller pumps may be associated with lower mortality in children. Roller pumps were associated with fewer complications, as well as reduced hemolysis and use of inotropes.

8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 292, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics and is associated with lower mortality in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite this, some patients develop refractory hypoxemia and hypercapnia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) support and are usually cared for in supine position. The physiologic and outcome benefits of routine PP of patients during VV ECMO remains unclear. Hence, we conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the outcome benefits of PP for patients with ARDS being treated with VV ECMO. METHODS: After registration with PROSPERO (CRD42020199723), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies that reported PP in more than 10 adult patients supported with VV ECMO from origin to 1 March 2021. Studies were reviewed for quality using appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists, and certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. The random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird) was used. The primary outcome of interest was cumulative survival. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) and ECMO duration. Changes in arterial blood gas (ABG) values, ventilator mechanics and complication rates were also studied. RESULTS: Of 812 potentially relevant publications, 12 studies (640 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Due to overlapping study populations, 11 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Cumulative survival in patients that underwent PP was 57% (95% CI 41.9-71.4, high certainty). Patients that underwent PP had longer ICU LOS (+ 14.5 days, 95% CI 3.4-25.7, p = 0.01) and ECMO duration (+ 9.6 days, 95% CI 5.5-13.7, p < 0.0001). After PP, patients had significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lower PaCO2 and reduced ventilator driving pressure, and no major complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS: PP during VV ECMO appears safe with a cumulative survival of 57% and may result in longer ECMO runs and ICU LOS. However, evidence from appropriately designed randomized trials is needed prior to widespread adoption of PP on VV ECMO.

9.
Aust Crit Care ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines on infection control strategies in healthcare workers (HCWs) play an important role in protecting them during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic. Poorly constructed guidelines that are incomprehensive and/or ambiguous may compromise HCWs' safety. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a tool to appraise guidelines on infection control strategies in HCWs based on the guidelines published early in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING, AND OUTCOMES: A three-stage, web-based, Delphi consensus-building process among a panel of diverse HCWs and healthcare managers was performed. The tool was validated by appraising 40 international, specialty-specific, and procedure-specific guidelines along with national guidelines from countries with a wide range of gross national income. RESULTS: Overall consensus (≥75%) was reached at the end of three rounds for all six domains included in the tool. The Delphi panel recommended an ideal infection control guideline should encompass six domains: general characteristics (domain 1), engineering recommendations (domain 2), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (domain 3), and administrative aspects (domain 4-6) of infection control. The appraisal tool performed well across the six domains, and the inter-rater agreement was excellent for the 40 guidelines. All included guidelines performed relatively better in domains 1-3 than in domains 4-6, and this was more evident in guidelines originating from lower income countries. CONCLUSION: The guideline appraisal tool was robust and easy to use. Engineering recommendations aspects of infection control, administrative measures that promote optimal PPE use, and HCW wellbeing were generally lacking in assessed guidelines. This tool may enable health systems to adopt high-quality HCW infection control guidelines during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic and may also provide a framework for future guideline development.

10.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(6): 467-473, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite adhering to criteria for extubation, up to 20% of intensive care patients require re-intubation, even with use of post-extubation high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This study aims to identify independent predictors and outcomes of extubation failure in patients who failed post-extubation HFNC. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre observational study involving 9 adult intensive care units (ICUs) across 5 public hospitals in Singapore. We included patients extubated to HFNC following spontaneous breathing trials. We compared patients who were successfully weaned off HFNC with those who failed HFNC (defined as re-intubation ≤7 days following extubation). Generalised additive logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for failed HFNC. RESULTS: Among 244 patients (mean age: 63.92±15.51 years, 65.2% male, median APACHE II score 23.55±7.35), 41 (16.8%) failed HFNC; hypoxia, hypercapnia and excessive secretions were primary reasons. Stroke was an independent predictor of HFNC failure (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.83-3.37). Failed HFNC, as compared to successful HFNC, was associated with increased median ICU length of stay (14 versus 7 days, P<0.001), ICU mortality (14.6% versus 2.0%, P<0.001) and hospital mortality (29.3% versus 12.3%, P=0.006). CONCLUSION: Post-extubation HFNC failure, especially in patients with stroke as a comorbidity, remains a clinical challenge and predicts poorer clinical outcomes. Our observational study highlights the need for future prospective trials to better identify patients at high risk of post-extubation HFNC failure.


Assuntos
Extubação , Insuficiência Respiratória , Adulto , Cânula , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Singapura/epidemiologia
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 246, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While recommended by international societal guidelines in the paediatric population, the use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) as mechanical circulatory support for refractory septic shock in adults is controversial. We aimed to characterise the outcomes of adults with septic shock requiring VA ECMO, and identify factors associated with survival. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception until 1st June 2021, and included all relevant publications reporting on > 5 adult patients requiring VA ECMO for septic shock. Study quality and certainty in evidence were assessed using the appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach, respectively. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge, and secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay, duration of ECMO support, complications while on ECMO, and sources of sepsis. Random-effects meta-analysis (DerSimonian and Laird) were conducted. DATA SYNTHESIS: We included 14 observational studies with 468 patients in the meta-analysis. Pooled survival was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.6%-50.1%). Survival among patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 20% (62.0%, 95%-CI: 51.6%-72.0%) was significantly higher than those with LVEF > 35% (32.1%, 95%-CI: 8.69%-60.7%, p = 0.05). Survival reported in studies from Asia (19.5%, 95%-CI: 13.0%-26.8%) was notably lower than those from Europe (61.0%, 95%-CI: 48.4%-73.0%) and North America (45.5%, 95%-CI: 16.7%-75.8%). GRADE assessment indicated high certainty of evidence for pooled survival. CONCLUSIONS: When treated with VA ECMO, the majority of patients with septic shock and severe sepsis-induced myocardial depression survive. However, VA ECMO has poor outcomes in adults with septic shock without severe left ventricular depression. VA ECMO may be a viable treatment option in carefully selected adult patients with refractory septic shock.

12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 211, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several reports of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to guide clinical decision-making and future research. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus databases from 1 December 2019 to 10 January 2021 for observational studies or randomised clinical trials examining ECMO in adults with COVID-19 ARDS. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression, assessed risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist and rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Survival outcomes were presented as pooled proportions while continuous outcomes were presented as pooled means, both with corresponding 95% confidence intervals [CIs]. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were duration of ECMO therapy and mechanical ventilation, weaning rate from ECMO and complications during ECMO. RESULTS: We included twenty-two observational studies with 1896 patients in the meta-analysis. Venovenous ECMO was the predominant mode used (98.6%). The pooled in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients (22 studies, 1896 patients) supported with ECMO was 37.1% (95% CI 32.3-42.0%, high certainty). Pooled mortality in the venovenous ECMO group was 35.7% (95% CI 30.7-40.7%, high certainty). Meta-regression found that age and ECMO duration were associated with increased mortality. Duration of ECMO support (18 studies, 1844 patients) was 15.1 days (95% CI 13.4-18.7). Weaning from ECMO (17 studies, 1412 patients) was accomplished in 67.6% (95% CI 50.5-82.7%) of patients. There were a total of 1583 ECMO complications reported (18 studies, 1721 patients) and renal complications were the most common. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients received venovenous ECMO support for COVID-19-related ARDS. In-hospital mortality in patients receiving ECMO support for COVID-19 was 37.1% during the first year of the pandemic, similar to those with non-COVID-19-related ARDS. Increasing age was a risk factor for death. Venovenous ECMO appears to be an effective intervention in selected patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. PROSPERO CRD42020192627.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Medição de Risco
13.
Aust Crit Care ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal-protective equipment (PPE)-preparedness, defined as adherence to guidelines, healthcare worker (HCW) training, procuring PPE stocks and responding appropriately to suspected cases, is crucial to prevent HCW-infections. OBJECTIVE: To perform a follow-up survey to assess changes in PPE-preparedness across six Asia-Pacific countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A prospective follow-up cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted between 10/08/2020 to 01/09/ 2020, five months after the initial Phase 1 survey. The survey was sent to the same 231 intensivists across the six Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Hong Kong, India, New Zealand, Philippines, and Singapore) that participated in Phase 1. The main outcome measure was to identify any changes in PPE-preparedness between Phases 1 and 2. FINDINGS: Phase 2 had responses from 132 ICUs (57%). Compared to Phase 1 respondents reported increased use of PPE-based practices such as powered air-purifying respirator (40.2% vs. 6.1%), N95-masks at all times (86.4% vs. 53.7%) and double-gloving (87.9% vs. 42.9%). The reported awareness of PPE stocks (85.6% vs. 51.9%), mandatory showering policies following PPE-breach (31.1% vs. 6.9%) and safety perception amongst HCWs (60.6% vs. 28.4%) improved significantly during Phase 2. Despite reported statistically similar adoption rate of the buddy system in both phases (42.4% vs. 37.2%), there was a reported reduction in donning/doffing training in Phase 2 (44.3% vs. 60.2%). There were no reported differences HCW training in other areas, such as tracheal intubation, intra-hospital transport and safe waste disposal, between the 2 phases. CONCLUSIONS: Overall reported PPE-preparedness improved between the two survey periods, particularly in PPE use, PPE inventory and HCW perceptions of safety. However, the uptake of HCW training and implementation of low-cost safety measures continued to be low and the awareness of PPE breach management policies were suboptimal. Therefore, the key areas for improvement should focus on regular HCW training, implementing low-cost buddy-system and increasing awareness of PPE-breach management protocols.

14.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(4): 325-335, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced coagulopathy (CIC) has been widely reported in the literature. However, the spectrum of abnormalities associated with CIC has been highly variable. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature (until 1 June 2020) to assess CIC and disease severity during the early COVID-19 pandemic. Primary outcomes were pooled mean differences in platelet count, D-dimer level, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen level between non-severe and severe patients, stratified by degree of hypoxaemia or those who died. The risk factors for CIC were analysed. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were performed using R version 3.6.1, and certainty of evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Of the included 5,243 adult COVID-19 patients, patients with severe COVID-19 had a significantly lower platelet count, and higher D-dimer level, prothrombin time and fibrinogen level than non-severe patients. Pooled mean differences in platelet count (-19.7×109/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] -31.7 to -7.6), D-dimer level (0.8µg/mL, 95% CI 0.5-1.1), prothrombin time (0.4 second, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) and fibrinogen level (0.6g/L, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) were significant between the groups. Platelet count and D-dimer level were significant predictors of disease severity on meta-regression analysis. Older men had higher risks of severe coagulopathic disease. CONCLUSION: Significant variability in CIC exists between non-severe and severe patients, with platelet count and D-dimer level correlating with disease severity. Routine monitoring of all coagulation parameters may help to assess CIC and decide on the appropriate management.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Tempo de Protrombina , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): e1001-e1014, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported prone positioning of nonintubated patients with coronavirus diseases 2019-related hypoxemic respiratory failure. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the impact of prone positioning on oxygenation and clinical outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the coronavirus diseases 2019 living systematic review from December 1, 2019, to November 9, 2020. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTION: Studies reporting prone positioning in hypoxemic, nonintubated adult patients with coronavirus diseases 2019 were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data on prone positioning location (ICU vs non-ICU), prone positioning dose (total minutes/d), frequency (sessions/d), respiratory supports during prone positioning, relative changes in oxygenation variables (peripheral oxygen saturation, Pao2, and ratio of Pao2 to the Fio2), respiratory rate pre and post prone positioning, intubation rate, and mortality were extracted. Twenty-five observational studies reporting prone positioning in 758 patients were included. There was substantial heterogeneity in prone positioning location, dose and frequency, and respiratory supports provided. Significant improvements were seen in ratio of Pao2 to the Fio2 (mean difference, 39; 95% CI, 25-54), Pao2 (mean difference, 20 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14-25), and peripheral oxygen saturation (mean difference, 4.74%; 95% CI, 3-6%). Respiratory rate decreased post prone positioning (mean difference, -3.2 breaths/min; 95% CI, -4.6 to -1.9). Intubation and mortality rates were 24% (95% CI, 17-32%) and 13% (95% CI, 6-19%), respectively. There was no difference in intubation rate in those receiving prone positioning within and outside ICU (32% [69/214] vs 33% [107/320]; p = 0.84). No major adverse events were recorded in small subset of studies that reported them. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant variability in frequency and duration of prone positioning and respiratory supports applied, prone positioning was associated with improvement in oxygenation variables without any reported serious adverse events. The results are limited by a lack of controls and adjustments for confounders. Whether this improvement in oxygenation results in meaningful patient-centered outcomes such as reduced intubation or mortality rates requires testing in well-designed randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Decúbito Ventral/fisiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Humanos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia
16.
J Artif Organs ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811592

RESUMO

The management of massive anterior mediastinal masses (AMM) is challenging. With the burgeoning role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (ECMO) beyond the confines of salvage therapy, more trained clinicians are adopting it as a bridge for high-risk procedures or situations where temporary respiratory or cardiac support is required. We report our experience with using ECMO in the management of massive AMM in this case series of three patients sharing their clinical details and the lessons learned from them.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): 682-692, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work is to provide insight into survival and neurologic outcomes of pediatric patients supported with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was performed from January 1990 to May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: A comprehensive list of nonregistry studies with pediatric patients managed with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was included. DATA EXTRACTION: Study characteristics and outcome estimates were extracted from each article. DATA SYNTHESIS: Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences were estimated using subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression. The Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline was followed and the certainty of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Twenty-eight studies (1,348 patients) were included. There was a steady increase in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation occurrence rate from the 1990s until 2020. There were 32, 338, and 1,094 patients' articles published between 1990 and 2000, 2001 and 2010, and 2010 and 2020, respectively. More than 70% were cannulated for a primary cardiac arrest. Pediatric extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients had a 46% (CI 95% = 43-48%; p < 0.01) overall survival rate. The rate of survival with favorable neurologic outcome was 30% (CI 95% = 27-33%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is rapidly expanding, particularly for children with underlying cardiac disease. An overall survival of 46% and favorable neurologic outcomes add credence to this emerging therapy.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Criança , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387209

RESUMO

We present a novel case of a patient with nephrotic syndrome and previous left pneumonectomy who had a massive pulmonary embolism of his remnant right pulmonary artery. He underwent surgical embolectomy and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Early embolectomy using retrograde pulmonary perfusion and post-operative ECMO helped the patient survive this catastrophic event.

20.
Surgeon ; 19(1): e1-e8, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 presented an unprecedented challenge for healthcare workers and systems around the world. Healthcare systems have adapted differently in terms of pandemic planning of regular services, adopting infection control measures and prioritising essential hospital services in the context of a burgeoning COVID-19 patient load and inevitable surge. METHODS: We performed a review on current evidence and share our practices at a teaching hospital in Singapore. RESULTS: We outline principles and make recommendations for continuity of delivering essential thoracic surgical services during this current outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The maintenance and provision of thoracic surgery services in this context requires good preplanning and vigilance to infection control measures across all levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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