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1.
Clin Transplant ; 33(8): e13658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality is increased in chronic kidney disease, a condition with a high prevalence of periodontal disease. Whether periodontitis treatment improves prognosis is unknown. METHODS: The effect of periodontal treatment on the incidence of cardiovascular events and death in 206 waitlist hemodialysis subjects was compared with that in 203 historical controls who did not undergo treatment. Patients were followed up for 24 months or until death or transplantation. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate/severe periodontitis was 74%. Coronary artery disease correlated with the severity of periodontal disease (P = .02). Survival free of cardiovascular events (94% vs 83%, log-rank 0.009), coronary events (97% vs 89%, log-rank = 0.009), and cardiovascular death (96% vs 87%, log-rank = 0.037) was higher in the evaluated group. Death by any cause did not differ between groups. Multivariate analysis showed that treatment was associated with reduction in cardiovascular events (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.22-0.87), coronary events (HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.12-0.83), and cardiovascular deaths (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.98). CONCLUSION: Periodontal treatment reduced the 24-month incidence of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death, suggesting that periodontal treatment may improve cardiovascular outcomes. We suggest that periodontal screening and eventual treatment may be considered in patients with advanced renal disease.

2.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 6513847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049026

RESUMO

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a low-grade inflammatory disease. Among markers of inflammation, importance has been given to the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). The objective of this study was to examine the association between these hematological indices of inflammation and coronary atherosclerotic calcification in clinically asymptomatic patients. Methods: This study had clinical and laboratorial data collected from consecutive asymptomatic patients that underwent computed tomography coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. Risk factors, NLR, and PLR were evaluated at different categories of CAC scoring. Statistical tests included chi-square, linear regression, and logistic regression. Patients (N = 247; age 60.4 ± 8.0 years and 60.7% men) were allocated into four categories according to the CAC score. Results: Respective age, sex (male), NLR, and PLR distribution within groups were as follows: CAC = 0 (n = 98; 52.5 ± 13.6 years, 55%, 2.0 ± 1.0, and 121.5 ± 41.5), CAC 1-100 (N = 64; 61.3 ± 11.0 years, 60%, 2.2 ± 1.2, and 125.6 ± 45.6), CAC 101-400 (N = 37; 64.2 ± 11.6 years, 67%, 2.6 ± 1.3, and 125.4 ± 55.9), and CAC > 400 (N = 48; 69.3 ± 11.1 years, 66%, 3.3 ± 2.0, and 430.1 ± 1787.4). The association between risk factors and CAC score was assessed. Hypertension status and smoking status were similar within groups, while the presence of diabetes (P = 0.02) and older age (P ≤ 0.001) was more prevalent in the CAC > 400 group. LDL cholesterol was greater in the higher CAC score groups (P = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression of the quartile analysis showed that age and NLR were independently associated with CAC > 100 (OR (CI), P value): 2.06 (1.55-2.73, P = 0.00001) and 1.82 (1.33-2.49, P = 0.0002), respectively. Conclusion: Within asymptomatic patients, NLR provides additional risk stratification, as an independent association between NLR extent and CAD extent was identified. Moreover, PLR was not an inflammation marker for CAD severity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Idoso , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(12): e14692, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896618

RESUMO

A strong association exists between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). The role of CKD in the long-term prognosis of CAD patients with versus those without CKD is unknown. This study investigated whether CKD affects ventricular function.From January 2009 to January 2010, 918 consecutive patients were selected from an outpatient database. Patients had undergone percutaneous, surgical, or clinical treatment and were followed until May 2015.In patients with preserved renal function (n = 405), 73 events (18%) occurred, but 108 events (21.1%) occurred among those with CKD (n = 513) (P < .001). Regarding left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%, we found 84 events (21.5%) in CKD patients and 12 (11.8%) in those with preserved renal function (P < .001). The presence of LVEF <50% brought about a modification effect. Death occurred in 22 (5.4%) patients with preserved renal function and in 73 (14.2%) with CKD (P < .001). In subjects with LVEF <50%, 66 deaths (16.9%) occurred in CKD patients and 7 (6.9%) in those with preserved renal function (P = .001). No differences were found in CKD strata regarding events or overall death among those with preserved LVEF. In a multivariate model, creatinine clearance remained an independent predictor of death (P < .001).We found no deleterious effects of CKD in patients with CAD when ventricular function was preserved. However, there was a worse prognosis in patients with CKD and ventricular dysfunction.Resgistry number is ISRCTN17786790 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN17786790.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Seguimentos , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Testes de Função Renal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 10: 19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568331

RESUMO

Background: Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular dysfunction have a worse survival prognosis than patients with preserved ventricular function. The role of diabetes in the long-term prognosis of this patient group is unknown. This study investigated whether the presence of diabetes has a long-term impact on left ventricular function. Methods: Patients with coronary artery disease who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, or medical therapy alone were included. All patients had multivessel disease and left ventricular ejection fraction measurements. Overall mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and additional interventions were investigated. Results: From January 2009 to January 2010, 918 consecutive patients were selected and followed until May 2015. They were separated into 4 groups: G1, 266 patients with diabetes and ventricular dysfunction; G2, 213 patients with diabetes without ventricular dysfunction; G3, 213 patients without diabetes and ventricular dysfunction; and G4, 226 patients without diabetes but with ventricular dysfunction. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, had a mortality rate of 21.6, 6.1, 4.2, and 10.6% (P < .001); nonfatal myocardial infarction of 5.3, .5, 7.0, and 2.6% (P < .001); stroke of .40, .45, .90, and .90% (P = NS); and additional intervention of 3.8, 11.7, 10.3, and 2.6% (P < .001). Conclusion: In this sample, regardless of the treatment previously received patients with or without diabetes and preserved ventricular function experienced similar outcomes. However, patients with ventricular dysfunction had a worse prognosis compared with those with normal ventricular function; patients with diabetes had greater mortality than patients without diabetes.Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com. Registration Number: ISRCTN66068876.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(33): e1161, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287407

RESUMO

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a powerful cardioprotective cellular mechanism that has been related to the "warm-up phenomenon" or "walk-through" angina, and has been documented through the use of sequential exercise tests (ETs). It is known that several drugs, for example, cromokalim, pinacidil, adenosine, and nicorandil, can interfere with the cellular pathways of IP. The purpose of this article is to report the effect of the anti-ischemic agent trimetazidine (TMZ) on IP in symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.We conducted a prospective study evaluating IP by the analysis of ischemic parameters in 2 sequential ETs. In phase I, without TMZ, patients underwent ET1 and ET2 with a 30-minute interval between them. In phase II, after 1 week of TMZ 35 mg twice daily, all patients underwent 2 consecutive ETs (ET3 and ET4). IP was considered present when the time to 1.0-mm segment ST on electrocardiogram deviation (T-1.0 mm) and rate pressure product (RPP) were greater in the second of 2 tests. The improvement in T-1.0 mm and RPP were compared in the 2 phases: without TMZ and after 1-week TMZ to assess the action of such drug in myocardial protective mechanisms. ETs were analyzed by 2 independent cardiologists.From 135 CAD patients screened, 96 met inclusion criteria and 62 completed the study protocol. Forty patients manifested IP by demonstrating an improvement in T-1.0 mm in ET2 compared with ET1, without the use of any drugs (phase I). In phase II, after 1-week TMZ, 26 patients (65%) did not show any incremental result in ischemic parameters in ET4 compared with ET3. Furthermore, of these patients, 8 (20%) had IP blockage.In this study, TMZ did not add any benefit to IP in patients with stable symptomatic CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
6.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2012: 363595, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22701354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between endogenous estrogen, coronary artery disease (CAD), and death in postmenopausal women is uncertain. We analyzed the association between death and blood levels of estrone in postmenopausal women with known coronary artery disease (CAD) or with a high-risk factor score for CAD. METHODS: 251 postmenopausal women age 50-90 years not on estrogen therapy. Fasting blood for estrone and heart disease risk factors were collected at baseline. Women were grouped according to their estrone levels (<15 and ≥15 pg/mL). Fatal events were recorded after 5.8 ± 1.4 years of followup. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a significant trend (P = 0.039) of greater all-cause mortality in women with low estrone levels (<15 pg/mL). Cox multivariate regression analysis model adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history, and estrone showed estrone (OR = 0.45; P = 0.038) as the only independent variable for all-cause mortality. Multivariate regression model adjusted for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history, and estrone showed that only age (OR = 1.06; P = 0.017) was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with known CAD or with a high-risk factor score for CAD and low estrone levels (<15 pg/mL) had increased all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estrona/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 19(2): 166-171, jul. 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-595230

RESUMO

Introdução: A presença de circulação colateral no contexto do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) pode exercer um fator de proteção, levando a menor área de infarto e melhor função ventricular. Este trabalho procurou examinar as características clínicas dos pacientes com diferentes graus de circulação colateral e a influência desta na evolução do IAM com supra desnivelamento de segmento ST (IAMCSST) complicado com choque cardiogênico à admissão hospitalar e tratados com intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) primária. Métodos: Registro unicêntrico que realizou seguimento prospectivo no período de 2001 a 2009, incluindo105 pacientes divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o grau de circulação colateral: grupo 1, circulação colateral graus 0/1 (n = 83); e grupo 2, circulação colateral graus 2/3 (n = 22). As características clínicas e angiográficas e os desfechos hospitalares foram comparados entre os grupos. Resultados: Ambos os grupos foram semelhantes em relação às características clínicas, exceto pela menor média de idade (65,9 anos vs. 57,8 anos; P = 0,015) e maior tendência ao tabagismo atual no grupo com colateral graus 2/3 (15,7% vs. 31,8%; P = 0,08). Quanto às características angiográficas, nos indivíduos com colateral graus 2/3 houve maior frequência de lesões/paciente (1,3 lesão vs. 1,8 lesão; P = 0,02) e maior acometimento de bifurcação coronária (18,5% vs. 36,4%; P = 0,03). Na evolução intra-hospitalar ficou evidenciada menor mortalidade nos pacientes com circulação colateral exuberante (49,4% vs. 27,3%, risco relativo de 0,55; P = 0,05). Conclusões: Em pacientes com IAMCSST e choque cardiogênico tratados com ICP primária a presença de circulação colateral pode favorecer um melhor prognóstico na evolução intra-hospitalar.


Background: The presence of collateral circulation in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may play aprotective role, leading to smaller infarction areas and improvedventricular function. This study was aimed at assessing the clinical characteristics of patients with different degrees of collateral circulation and the effect on outcomes of ST segment elevation AMI (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock at hospital admission and treated by primary percutaneouscoronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Single center registry with a prospective follow-up from 2001 to 2009, including 105 patients divided into two groups, according to the degree of collateral circulation: Group 1, collateral circulationgrades 0/1 (n = 83); and Group 2, collateral circulation grades 2/3 (n = 22). Clinical and angiographic characteristics and hospital outcomes were compared between groups. Results: The clinical characteristics of both groups were similar, except for a lower mean age (65.9 years vs. 57.8years; P = 0.015) and a trend to current smoking in the grade 2/3 group (15.7% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.08). As to angiographiccharacteristics, individuals with grades 2/3 had a higher rate of lesions per patient (1.3 vs. 1.8; P = 0.02) and more bifurcation lesions (18.5% vs. 36.4%; P = 0.03). In-hospital outcomes showed lower mortality in patients with good collateral circulation (49.4% vs. 27.3%, relative risk 0.55; P = 0.05). Conclusions: In patients with STEMI and cardiogenic shock treated by primary PCI, the presence of collateral circulationmay improve in-hospital prognosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Angioplastia/métodos , Angioplastia , Circulação Colateral , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Tabagismo/efeitos adversos
8.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 7: 143-51, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21490939

RESUMO

The role of calcification in coronary artery disease is gaining importance, both in research studies and in clinical application. Calcified plaque has long been considered to be the most important atherosclerotic plaque within the arterial tree and frequently presents a challenge for percutaneous intervention. Current investigations have shown that plaque calcification has a dynamic course that is closely related to the magnitude of vascular inflammation. Numerous inflammatory factors synthesized during the early stages of atherosclerosis induce the expression and activation of osteoblast-like cells localized in the arterial wall that produce calcium. There is no doubt that the role of these factors in calcification associated with coronary artery disease could be a crucial strategic point in prevention and treatment. A number of diagnostic imaging methods have been developed in recent years, but their performance needs to be improved. In this context, we undertook an update on coronary calcification, focusing on physiopathology, clinical implications, and imaging techniques.


Assuntos
Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Animais , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Calcinose/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiopatologia , Osteogênese , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(3): 321-327, set. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-560561

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: Alguns estudos têm sugerido redução da atividade do clopidogrel sobre a ativação e adesão plaquetárias em pacientes em uso de estatinas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a ativação e agregação plaquetárias diminuem com clopidogrel, e se ocorre redução da ação do clopidogrel quando associado à atorvastatina ou à sinvastatina. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo que incluiu 68 pacientes com angina estável em uso prévio de sinvastatina, atorvastatina, ou nenhuma estatina (grupo controle), com indicação prévia eletiva de realização de intervenção coronária percutânea. Foi analisada a ativação plaquetária através do número de plaquetas, níveis de P-selectina e glucoproteína IIb/IIIa (com e sem estímulo de ADP) através de citometria de fluxo. Os resultados foram analisados antes e após a intervenção coronária percutânea e da administração de clopidogrel. RESULTADOS: Observamos redução da atividade plaquetária com uso de clopidogrel. Além disso, não houve diferenças entre as variáveis analisadas que comprovassem redução da atividade do clopidogrel quando associado à estatinas. Observou-se níveis de p-selectina (pré-angioplastia: 14,23±7,52 x 11,45±8,83 x 7,65±7,09; pós angioplastia: 21,49±23,82 x 4,37±2,71 x 4,82±4,47, ρ<0,01) e glicoproteína IIb/IIIa (pré-angioplastia: 98,97±0,43 x 98,79±1,25 x 99,21±0,40; pós angioplastia: 99,37±0,29 x 98,50±1,47 x 98,92±0,88, ρ=0,52), respectivamente nos grupos controle, atorvastatina e sinvastatina. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a ativação plaquetária diminui com a administração de clopidogrel, e que o clopidogrel não tem seu efeito antiplaquetário reduzido na presença de sinvastatina ou atorvastatina.


BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested reduced activity of clopidogrel on platelet activation and adherence in patients using statins. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether platelet activation and aggregation decrease with clopidogrel, and whether there is a reduction of the action of clopidogrel when associated with atorvastatin or simvastatin. METHODS: This prospective study included 68 patients with stable angina with previous use of simvastatin, atorvastatin, or no statin (control group), with previous elective indication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet activation was analyzed by means of platelet count, levels of P-selectin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (with and without ADP stimulation) by flow cytometry. The findings were analyzed before and after percutaneous coronary intervention and the administration of clopidogrel. RESULTS: We observed reduction in platelet activity with use of clopidogrel. Furthermore, no differences were found between the variables analyzed to prove reduced activity of clopidogrel when combined with statins. We observed levels of p-selectin (pre-angioplasty: 14.23 ± 7.52 x 8.83 x 11.45 ± 7.65 ± 7.09; after angioplasty: 21.49 ± 23.82 x 4 37 ± 2.71 x 4.82 ± 4.47, ρ < 0.01) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (pre-angioplasty: 98.97 ± 0.43 ± 1.25 x 98.79 x 99.21 ± 0.40 after angioplasty: 99.37 ± 0.29 ± 1.47 x 98.50 x 98.92 ± 0.88, ρ = 0.52), respectively, in the control, atorvastatin and simvastatin groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that platelet activation decreases with administration of clopidogrel, and clopidogrel has no antiplatelet effect reduced in the presence of simvastatin or atorvastatin.


FUNDAMENTO: Algunos estudios han sugerido reducción de la actividad del clopidogrel sobre la activación y adhesión plaquetarias en pacientes en uso de estatinas. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si la activación y agregación plaquetarias disminuyen con clopidogrel, y si ocurre reducción de la acción del clopidogrel cuando está asociado a la atorvastatina o a la sinvastatina. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo que incluyó 68 pacientes con angina estable en uso previo de sinvastatina, atorvastatina, o ninguna estatina (grupo control), con indicación previa electiva de realización de intervención coronaria percutánea. Fue analizada la activación plaquetaria a través del número de plaquetas, niveles de P-selectina y glucoproteína IIb/IIIa (con y sin estímulo de ADP) a través de citometría de flujo. Los resultados fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención coronaria percutánea y de la administración de clopidogrel. RESULTADOS: Observamos reducción de la actividad plaquetaria con uso de clopidogrel. Además de eso, no hubo diferencias entre las variables analizadas que comprobasen reducción de la actividad del clopidogrel cuando está asociado a las estatinas. Se observaron niveles de p-selectina (pre-angioplastia: 14,23±7,52 x 11,45±8,83 x 7,65±7,09; post angioplastia: 21,49±23,82 x 4,37±2,71 x 4,82±4,47, ρ<0,01) y glicoproteína IIb/IIIa (pre-angioplastia: 98,97±0,43 x 98,79±1,25 x 99,21±0,40; post angioplastia: 99,37±0,29 x 98,50±1,47 x 98,92±0,88, ρ=0,52), respectivamente en los grupos control, atorvastatina y sinvastatina. CONCLUSIÓN: Concluimos que la activación plaquetaria disminuye con la administración de clopidogrel, y que el clopidogrel no tiene su efecto antiplaquetario reducido en la presencia de sinvastatina o atorvastatina.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Ácidos Heptanoicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirróis/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Interações de Medicamentos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ticlopidina/farmacologia
10.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 18(3): 300-305, set. 2010. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-566805

RESUMO

Introdução: Apesar dos grandes vasos alcançados pela cardiologia intervencionista, o fenômeno do no-reflow ainda ocorre durante as intervenções coronárias percutâneas (ICP) e está associada a pior prognóstico. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os perfis clínico, angiográfico e do procedimento de pacientes com no-reflow, além de avaliar seu impacto clínico tardio. Método: Analisamos, no período de janeiro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2009, todos os pacientes submetidos a ICP no Instituto do Coração (InCor), que em qualquer momento da intervenção apresentaram no-reflow, mesmo que transitoriamente. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: no-reflow de reperfusão (associado a ICP primária) e no-reflow de intervenção (associado a ICP eletiva) A probabilidade de óbito foi estimada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e a regressçao de Cox foi utilizada para identificar seus preditores. Resultados: Foram avaliados 132 pacientes consecutivos, 81 no grupo no reflow de reperusão e 51 no grupo no-reflow de intervenção. O sucesso do procedimento foi obtido em 83,5 por cento da população total (80,2 por cento vs. 90,2 por cento, respectivamente; P=0,149). A probabilidade de mortalidade tardia foi estimada em 38,6 por cento, sendo maior...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Reperfusão/métodos , Eletrocardiografia
11.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 95(3): 321-7, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20721515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested reduced activity of clopidogrel on platelet activation and adherence in patients using statins. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether platelet activation and aggregation decrease with clopidogrel, and whether there is a reduction of the action of clopidogrel when associated with atorvastatin or simvastatin. METHODS: This prospective study included 68 patients with stable angina with previous use of simvastatin, atorvastatin, or no statin (control group), with previous elective indication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet activation was analyzed by means of platelet count, levels of P-selectin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (with and without ADP stimulation) by flow cytometry. The findings were analyzed before and after percutaneous coronary intervention and the administration of clopidogrel. RESULTS: We observed reduction in platelet activity with use of clopidogrel. Furthermore, no differences were found between the variables analyzed to prove reduced activity of clopidogrel when combined with statins. We observed levels of p-selectin (pre-angioplasty: 14.23 ± 7.52 x 8.83 x 11.45 ± 7.65 ± 7.09; after angioplasty: 21.49 ± 23.82 x 4 37 ± 2.71 x 4.82 ± 4.47, ρ < 0.01) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (pre-angioplasty: 98.97 ± 0.43 ± 1.25 x 98.79 x 99.21 ± 0.40 after angioplasty: 99.37 ± 0.29 ± 1.47 x 98.50 x 98.92 ± 0.88, ρ = 0.52), respectively, in the control, atorvastatin and simvastatin groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that platelet activation decreases with administration of clopidogrel, and clopidogrel has no antiplatelet effect reduced in the presence of simvastatin or atorvastatin.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Ácidos Heptanoicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirróis/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atorvastatina , Clopidogrel , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ticlopidina/farmacologia
12.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 18(2): 171-176, jun. 2010.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-559923

RESUMO

Introdução: As intervenções coronárias percutâneas (ICPs) em centros sem cirurgia cardíaca representam uma real opção no contexto atual da cardiologia intervencionista. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar as mudanças na incidência e indicações para cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica de emergência em pacientes submetidos a ICP de 1992 a 2005. Método: No total, 9.938 pacientes submetidos a ICP em dois centros foram divididos em três grupos: período pré-stent, de 1992 a 1996 (n = 2.500), período intermediário, de 2002 a 2003 (n = 3.711), e período mais recente, de 2004 a 2005 (n = 3.727). Resultados: Com o advento dos stents passou-se a abordar uma população mais idosa (58,2 + 10,7 anos vs. 62,7 + 11,7 anos vs. 67,8 + 11,6 anos; P = 0,01), com lesões mais complexas, do tipo B2/C (52,2% vs. 72,7% vs. 79%; P < 0,01), mas com melhora nos resultados de oclusão aguda (7,8% vs. 1,7% vs. 1,1%; P < 0,01) e de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica de emergência (1,2% vs. 1,1% vs. 0,7%; P < 0,01) e consequente menor mortalidade (3,3% vs. 2,2% vs. 2%; P < 0,01). Foram identificados como preditores da necessidade de cirurgia de emergência o padrão de acometimento coronário multiarterial [odds ratio (OR) 3,42, intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%) 1,75-6,7], infarto agudo do miocárdio (OR 3,65, IC 95% 2,3-5,8) e complexidade das lesões [tipo B2/C, American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology – AHA/ACC (OR 3,27, IC 95% 1,6- 6,75)]. A característica que exerceu efeito protetor foi a utilização de stent (OR 0,58, IC 95% 0,4-0,85). Conclusão: Os avanços da técnica, do material e da farmacoterapia adjunta têm contribuído com a ICP no sentido de diminuir a necessidade de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica de emergência.


Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in centers without cardiac surgery represent a real option in the current context of interventional cardiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the incidence and indications for coronary artery bypass grafting in patientsundergoing PCI from 1992 to 2005. Method: Data from 9,938 patients undergoing PCI in two centers were divided into three groups: pre-stent period, from 1992 to 1996 (n = 2,500), intermediate period, from 2002 to 2003 (n = 3,711) and more recent period, from 2004 to 2005 (n = 3,727). Results: Since the advent of stents, an older population (58.2 + 10.7 years vs. 62.7 + 11.7 years vs. 67.8 + 11.6 years; P = 0.01), with more complex type B2/C lesions (52.2% vs. 72.7% vs 79%; P < 0.01) is being treated, with a lower rate of acute vessel occlusion (7.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 1.1%; P < 0.01), emergency coronary artery bypass grafting(1.2% vs. 1,1% vs. 0.7%; P < 0.01) and mortality (3.3% vs. 2.2% vs. 2%; P < 0.01). Predictors of the need of emergency bypass surgery were multivessel disease [odds ratio (OR)3.42, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.75-6.7), acute myocardial infarction (OR 3.65, 95% CI 2.3-5.8) and lesioncomplexity [type B2/C, American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology – AHA/ACC (OR 3.27, 95% CI1.6-6.75)]. The use of stents, however, conferred a protective effect against the need of emergency bypass surgery (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.4-0.85). Conclusion: Advances in technology, devices and adjunctive pharmacotherapy haveimproved PCI, reducing the need of emergency coronary artery bypass grafting.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica/reabilitação , Emergências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/normas
13.
J Nephrol ; 23(3): 314-20, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20349410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the universal application of myocardial scanning with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would result in better risk stratification in renal transplant candidates (RTC) compared with SPECT being restricted to patients who, in addition to renal disease, had other clinical risk factors. METHODS: RTCs (n=363) underwent SPECT and clinical risk stratification according to the American Society of Transplantation (AST) algorithm and were followed up until a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) or death. RESULTS: Of the 363 patients, 79 patients (22%) had an abnormal SPECT scan and 270 (74%) were classified as high risk. Both methods correctly identified patients with increased probability of MACE. However, clinical stratification performed better (sensitivity and negative predictive value 99% and 99% vs. 25% and 87%, respectively). High-risk patients with an abnormal SPECT scan had a modest increased risk of events (log-rank = 0.03; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02-1.82). Eighty-six patients underwent coronary angiography, and coronary artery disease (CAD) was found in 60%. High-risk patients with CAD had an increased incidence of events (log-rank = 0.008; HR=3.85; 95% CI, 1.46-13.22), but in those with an abnormal SPECT scan, the incidence of events was not influenced by CAD (log-rank = 0.23). Forty-six patients died. Clinical stratification, but not SPECT, correlated with the probability of death (log-rank = 0.02; HR=3.25; 95% CI, 1.31-10.82). CONCLUSION: SPECT should be restricted to high-risk patients. Moreover, in contrast to SPECT, the AST algorithm was also useful for predicting death by any cause in RTCs and for selecting patients for invasive coronary testing.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Rim , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Crit Care ; 25(2): 305-12, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19781902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of off-pump (OffPCABG) and on-pump (OnPCABG) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on myocardium and inflammation are unclear. OBJECTIVE: Compare the inflammatory response and myocardial injury from patients (pts) submitted to OffPCABG with those that undergo OnPCABG. METHODS: Patients with normal left ventricular function were assigned to OffPCABG (n = 40) and OnPCABG (n = 41). Blood samples were collected before and 24 hours after surgery for determination of creatine kinase (CK)-MB (CK-MB), troponin I (cTnI), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP). Mortalities were registered at 12 months. RESULTS: Preoperative CK-MB and cTnI levels were 3.1 +/- 0.6 IU and 1.2 +/- 0.5 ng/mL for OffPCABG and 3.0 +/- 0.5 IU and 1.0 +/- 0.2 ng/mL for OnPCABG pts. Postoperative CK-MB and cTnI levels were 13.9 +/- 6.5 IU and 19.0 +/- 9.0 ng/mL for OffPCABG vs 29.5 +/- 11.0 IU and 31.5 +/- 10.1 ng/mL for OnPCABG (P < .01). OffPCABG and OnPCABG pts had similar preoperative IL-6 (10 +/- 7 and 9 +/- 13 pg/mL), IL-8 (19 +/- 7 and 17 +/- 7 pg/mL), soluble P-selectin (70 +/- 21 and 76 +/- 23 pg/mL), soluble ICAM-1 (117 +/- 50 and 127 +/- 52 ng/mL), and CRP (0.09 +/- 0.05 and 0.11 +/- 0.07 mg/L). At 24 hours, for OffPCABG and OnPCABG: IL-6 was 37 +/- 38 and 42 +/- 41 g/mL; IL-8, 33 +/- 31 and 60 +/- 15 pg/mL; soluble P-selectin, 99 +/- 26 and 172 +/- 30 pg/mL; soluble ICAM-1, 227 +/- 47 and 236 +/- 87 ng/mL; and CRP, 10 +/- 11 and 14 +/- 13 mg/L (P < .01 vs preoperation; P < .01 vs OffPCABG). Increased 24-hour postoperative CRP levels was the only marker to have significant positive correlations with events and occurred just for the OnPCABG pts. In-hospital and 1-year mortalities for the OnPCABG and OffPCABG pts were 2.0% and 2.2% (P = .1) and 2.7% and 4.7% (P = .06), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the absence of CPB during CABG preserves better the myocardium and attenuates inflammation-however, without improving survival.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/etiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina I/metabolismo
15.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 65(11): 1143-7, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21243288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in women and men in Brazil, but the trends for the death ratios for ischemic heart disease and stroke in women and men remain unknown. METHOD: In this study, the trends for the death ratios among women and men who were over 30 years of age were analyzed from 1980 to 2005. Data were collected for both the Brazilian population and the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Estimates of the population size and data for mortality were then obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health. The risk for death was adjusted using a direct method. RESULTS: Death rates due to cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke have declined in both Brazil and the metropolitan region of São Paulo. A linear regression analysis revealed a similar trend for ischemic heart disease and demonstrated a male/female ratio of 1.653 ± 0.001 (r=0.228; p=0.262) in Brazil and 1.763 ± 0.008 (r=0.863; p<0.001) in São Paulo. Comparisons between the slopes of the linear regressions showed an increased ischemic heart disease ratio in men/women in São Paulo in comparison to those in Brazil (p<0.0001). The linear regression showed an increasing trend for the male/female stroke ratio of 1.252 ± 0.004 (r=0.776; p<0.0001) in Brazil and 1.331 ± 0.006 (r=0.580; p=0.002) in São Paulo. Comparisons between the regressions for the stroke ratio were similar for men/women in São Paulo compared to Brazil (p=0.244). CONCLUSION: We observed an increased trend in the ratio for ischemic heart disease death in men compared to women. Improvements in the control of risk factors and treatments for both men and women are mandatory to reduce the number of ischemic heart disease-related deaths in Brazil.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 1(2): 139-43, 2010 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23804376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Influenza (flu) vaccination has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular mortality in a metropolitan area of Brazil. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether sex influences this outcome. The aim of the study was analyze the cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women and men before and after the initiation of a flu vaccination program. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and external causes (EC) in women and men at least 60 years of age in the metropolitan area of São Paulo before and after the initiation of a flu vaccination program. Estimates of the population were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the mortality data from the Ministry of Health for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: Change in trend in mortality after vaccination was significant only for IHD (-9.3% vs -30.2%; P = .022) and remained unchanged for stroke (-31.4% vs -25.3%; P =.931) and EC (-8.5% vs -1.2%; P = .941). The decline in IHD pre- (1980-1995) and post-vaccination (1996-2006) was greater in women (-3.8% vs -28.8%; P = .001) than in men (-12.9% vs -30.4%; P = .054). CONCLUSION: Flu vaccination was associated with a significant reduction of IHD mortality, more so in women than in men.

17.
Transplantation ; 89(7): 845-50, 2010 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20019646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the results of a noninvasive therapeutic strategy on the long-term occurrence of cardiac events and death in a registry of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We analyzed 519 patients with CKD (56+/-9 years, 67% men, 67% whites) on maintenance hemodialysis with clinical or scintigraphic evidence of CAD by using coronary angiography. RESULTS: In 230 (44%) patients, coronary angiography revealed significant CAD (lumen reduction > or =70%). Subjects with significant CAD were kept on medical treatment (MT; n=184) or referred for myocardial revascularization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty/coronary artery bypass graft-intervention; n=30) according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. In addition, 16 subjects refused intervention and were also followed-up. Event-free survival for patients on MT at 12, 36, and 60 months was 86%, 71%, and 57%, whereas overall survival was 89%, 71%, and 50% in the same period, respectively. Patients who refused intervention had a significantly worse prognosis compared with those who actually underwent intervention (events: hazard ratio=4.50; % confidence interval=1.48-15.10; death: hazard ratio=3.39; % confidence interval 1.41-8.45). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CKD and significant CAD, MT promotes adequate long-term event-free survival. However, failure to perform a coronary intervention when necessary results in an accentuated increased risk of events and death.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Nefropatias/terapia , Transplante de Rim , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Nefropatias/complicações , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Listas de Espera
18.
Clinics ; 65(11): 1143-1147, 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-571432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in women and men in Brazil, but the trends for the death ratios for ischemic heart disease and stroke in women and men remain unknown. METHOD: In this study, the trends for the death ratios among women and men who were over 30 years of age were analyzed from 1980 to 2005. Data were collected for both the Brazilian population and the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Estimates of the population size and data for mortality were then obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health. The risk for death was adjusted using a direct method. RESULTS: Death rates due to cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke have declined in both Brazil and the metropolitan region of São Paulo. A linear regression analysis revealed a similar trend for ischemic heart disease and demonstrated a male/female ratio of 1.653 ± 0.001 (r=0.228; p=0.262) in Brazil and 1.763 ± 0.008 (r=0.863; p<0.001) in São Paulo. Comparisons between the slopes of the linear regressions showed an increased ischemic heart disease ratio in men/women in São Paulo in comparison to those in Brazil (p<0.0001). The linear regression showed an increasing trend for the male/female stroke ratio of 1.252 ± 0.004 (r=0.776; p<0.0001) in Brazil and 1.331 ± 0.006 (r=0.580; p=0.002) in São Paulo. Comparisons between the regressions for the stroke ratio were similar for men/women in São Paulo compared to Brazil (p=0.244). CONCLUSION: We observed an increased trend in the ratio for ischemic heart disease death in men compared to women. Improvements in the control of risk factors and treatments for both men and women are mandatory to reduce the number of ischemic heart disease-related deaths in Brazil.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Modelos Lineares , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 93(4): 395-9, 387-91, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19936460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD) and external causes (EC) in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > or = 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br) and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br) for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between the inclinations of the regression lines were similar for CbVD (p = 0.931) and EC (p = 0.941); however, for IHD (p = 0.022), a significant decrease was observed in the regression line of the post-vaccination period, when compared to the pre-vaccination period. A change in the tendency towards mortality after 1996 was significant only for the IHD (p = 0.022), remaining unaltered for the CbVD (p = 0.931) and EC (p = 0.941). CONCLUSION: The vaccination against the Influenza virus was associated with a significant decrease in the mortality due to IHD.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 93(5): 468-510, nov. 2009. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-536198

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: As doenças circulatórias (DC) são as principais causas de morte no Brasil, com predomínio das doenças cerebrovasculares (DCbV). Nos países desenvolvidos, predominam as doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC). OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre DCbV/DIC em homens e mulheres a partir de 30 anos. MÉTODOS: As estimativas da população e os dados de mortalidade para DC, DIC e DCbV foram obtidos do Ministério da Saúde para o período entre 1980 e 2005. O risco de morte por DIC e DCbV por 100.000 habitantes e a relação entre DCbV/DIC foram analisados nas faixas etárias decenais a partir de 30 anos. O risco de morte foi ajustado pelo método direto, usando como população padrão a população mundial de 1960. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento exponencial do risco de morte por DIC e DCbV, com o aumento da faixa etária. DCbV foi a principal causa de morte no Brasil até 1996, quando passou a predominar a DIC. Foi observada redução de 33,25 por cento no risco de morte por DC na população brasileira. Na região metropolitana de São Paulo, houve uma diminuição de 45,44 por cento, entre 1980 e 2005. A relação DCbV/DIC foi maior nas mulheres mais jovens: de 2,53 em 1980 e 2,04 em 2005 para a população brasileira, e de 2,76 em 1980 e 1,96 em 2005 na região metropolitana de São Paulo, com decréscimo nas faixas etárias subsequentes. Nos homens, a relação DCbV/DIC foi próximo de <1 para todas as faixas etárias. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se, no Brasil, uma transição do risco de morte por DC, com predomínio atual das DIC.


BACKGROUND: Circulatory diseases (CD) are the major cause of death in Brazil, being cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) predominant. In developed countries ischemic heart diseases (IHD) predominate. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ratio between cerebrovascular diseases/ischemic heart diseases (CVD/IHD) in males and females who were 30 years of age and older. METHODS: Population estimates and mortality data for CD, IHD and CVD were provided by the Ministry of Health for the period between 1980 and 2005. The risk of death from IHD and CVD per 100,000 Brazilians and CVD/IHD ratio were analyzed in 10-year age ranges as of 30 years of age. The risk of death was adjusted by direct method by using 1960 world population as the standard population. RESULTS: It was observed that the risk of death from IHD and CVD increased exponentially as age advanced. CVD was the major cause of death in Brazil until 1996, when IHD took the lead. In the period between 1980 and 2005 a 33.25 percent reduction in death risk from CD was observed in the Brazilian population. In that same period, the metropolitan area of the capital city of São Paulo reported a 45.44 percent reduction. The CVD/IHD ratio was shown to be higher among younger women - from 2.53 in 1980 down to 2.04 in 2005 in the Brazilian population, and from 2.76 in 1980 down to 1.96 in the metropolitan area of the capital city of São Paulo, with decreasing figures for subsequent age ranges. Among males, the CVD/IHD ratio was close to < 1 in all age ranges. CONCLUSION: A transition in death risk from CD could be observed in Brazil, with current predominance of IHD.


FUNDAMENTO: Las enfermedades circulatorias (EC) son las principales causas de muerte en Brasil, con el predominio de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares (ECbV). En los países desarrollados predominan las enfermedades isquémicas del corazón (EIC). OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre ECbV/EIC en varones y mujeres a partir de 30 años. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron en el Ministério de la Salud las estimaciones de la población y los datos de mortalidad para EC, EIC y ECbV para el periodo entre 1980 y 2005. Se analizaron el riesgo de muerte por EIC y ECbV por 100.000 habitantes y la relación entre ECbV/EIC en los grupos de edad decenales a partir de 30 años. Se ajustó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo, usándose como población estándar la población mundial de 1960. RESULTADOS: Se observó un aumento exponencial del riesgo de muerte por EIC y ECbV, con el aumento del grupo de edad. La ECbV fue la principal causa de muerte en Brasil hasta 1996, cuando pasó a predominar la EIC. Se observó una reducción del 33,25 por ciento en el riesgo de muerte por EC en la población brasileña. En la región metropolitana de São Paulo, hubo una disminución del 45,44 por ciento entre 1980 y 2005. La relación ECbV/EIC fue mayor en las mujeres más jóvenes: del 2,53 por ciento en 1980 y del 2,04 por ciento en 2005 para la población brasileña, y del 2,76 por ciento en 1980 y del 1,96 por ciento en 2005 en la región metropolitana de São Paulo, con reducción en los grupos de edad subsiguientes. En los varones, la relación ECbV/EIC fue cerca de <1 para todas los grupos de edad. CONCLUSIÓN: Se observó en Brasil una transición del riesgo de muerte por EC con predominio actual de las EIC.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
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