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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(21): 10430-10434, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068474

RESUMO

The human genetic basis of tuberculosis (TB) has long remained elusive. We recently reported a high level of enrichment in homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A variant in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with TB from non-European countries in which TB is endemic. This variant is homozygous in ∼1/600 Europeans and ∼1/5,000 people from other countries outside East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We report a study of this variant in the UK Biobank cohort. The frequency of P1104A homozygotes was much higher in patients with TB (6/620, 1%) than in controls (228/114,473, 0.2%), with an odds ratio (OR) adjusted for ancestry of 5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96-10.31, P = 2 × 10-3]. Conversely, we did not observe enrichment for P1104A heterozygosity, or for TYK2 I684S or V362F homozygosity or heterozygosity. Moreover, it is unlikely that more than 10% of controls were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as 97% were of European genetic ancestry, born between 1939 and 1970, and resided in the United Kingdom. Had all of them been infected, the OR for developing TB upon infection would be higher. These findings suggest that homozygosity for TYK2 P1104A may account for ∼1% of TB cases in Europeans.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
3.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
4.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264912

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is caused by inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity. Since 1996, disease-causing mutations have been found in 11 genes, which, through allelic heterogeneity, underlie 21 different genetic disorders. We briefly review here progress in the study of molecular, cellular and clinical aspects of MSMD since the last comprehensive review published in 2014. Highlights include the discoveries of (1) a new genetic etiology, autosomal recessive signal peptide peptidase-like 2 A deficiency, (2) TYK2-deficient patients with a clinical phenotype of MSMD, (3) an allelic form of partial recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency, and (4) two forms of syndromic MSMD: RORγ/RORγT and JAK1 deficiencies. These recent findings illustrate how genetic and immunological studies of MSMD can shed a unique light onto the mechanisms of protective immunity to mycobacteria in humans.

6.
J Exp Med ; 212(10): 1641-62, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304966

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive, complete TYK2 deficiency was previously described in a patient (P1) with intracellular bacterial and viral infections and features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), including atopic dermatitis, high serum IgE levels, and staphylococcal abscesses. We identified seven other TYK2-deficient patients from five families and four different ethnic groups. These patients were homozygous for one of five null mutations, different from that seen in P1. They displayed mycobacterial and/or viral infections, but no HIES. All eight TYK2-deficient patients displayed impaired but not abolished cellular responses to (a) IL-12 and IFN-α/ß, accounting for mycobacterial and viral infections, respectively; (b) IL-23, with normal proportions of circulating IL-17(+) T cells, accounting for their apparent lack of mucocutaneous candidiasis; and (c) IL-10, with no overt clinical consequences, including a lack of inflammatory bowel disease. Cellular responses to IL-21, IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-28/29 (IFN-λ), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were normal. The leukocytes and fibroblasts of all seven newly identified TYK2-deficient patients, unlike those of P1, responded normally to IL-6, possibly accounting for the lack of HIES in these patients. The expression of exogenous wild-type TYK2 or the silencing of endogenous TYK2 did not rescue IL-6 hyporesponsiveness, suggesting that this phenotype was not a consequence of the TYK2 genotype. The core clinical phenotype of TYK2 deficiency is mycobacterial and/or viral infections, caused by impaired responses to IL-12 and IFN-α/ß. Moreover, impaired IL-6 responses and HIES do not appear to be intrinsic features of TYK2 deficiency in humans.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job/etiologia , TYK2 Quinase/deficiência , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo , Viroses/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Immunol ; 160(2): 163-71, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26117626

RESUMO

NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is a component of the IKK complex, which participates in the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Hypomorphic mutations in the IKBKG gene result in different forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) in males without affecting carrier females. Here, we describe a hypomorphic and missense mutation, designated c.916G>A (p.D306N), which affects our patient, his mother, and his sister. This mutation did not affect NEMO expression; however, an immunoprecipitation assay revealed reduced ubiquitylation upon CD40-stimulation in the patient's cells. Functional studies have demonstrated reduced phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, affecting NF-κB recruitment into the nucleus. The patient presented with clinical features of ectodermal dysplasia, immunodeficiency, and immune thrombocytopenic purpura, the latter of which has not been previously reported in a patient with NEMO deficiency. His mother and sister displayed incontinentia pigmenti indicating that, in addition to amorphic mutations, hypomorphic mutations in NEMO can affect females.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Família , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Incontinência Pigmentar/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Displasia Ectodérmica/imunologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Incontinência Pigmentar/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Ubiquitinação/imunologia
8.
Immunol Res ; 61(3): 260-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25527966

RESUMO

Two patients with a severe leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) phenotype were analyzed by flow cytometry and functional assays to demonstrate the improper adhesive and phagocytic responses of their leukocytes. A single homozygous defect that involves a missense mutation (c.817G>A) that encodes for a G273R substitution in CD18 was identified in both patients. The adhesion and phagocytosis assays demonstrated the inability of patients' leukocytes to perform these functions. Expression of the LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) on the co-transfected HEK 293 cells with the mutated form of CD18 was not detected. Finally, both patients have been treated with immunoglobulin as an adjunctive therapy with positive results. We propose that intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is safe and efficacious in LAD-1 patients before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and helpful in controlling severe infections. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin appeared to help wound healing in refractory ulcers in these patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD18/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/diagnóstico , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Antígenos CD18/genética , Adesão Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Viabilidade , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Síndrome da Aderência Leucocítica Deficitária/terapia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Fagocitose/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera/terapia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 34(5): 307-17, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24359575

RESUMO

Since 1996, several studies characterizing the association between primary immunodeficiencies and susceptibility to infections with environmental and non-pathogenic mycobacteria such as the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus of Calmette Guérin strain) as well as disseminated infections by Salmonella spp. have been conducted. These conditions, grouped in the so-called Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases, include a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in 7 autosomal genes (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12BR1, STAT1, ISG15, and IRF8) and an X-linked gene (NEMO). This syndrome presents a high degree of allelic heterogeneity and variable penetrance. This review focuses on the analysis of the first reported cases of these diseases, as well as on the molecular findings involved in each of them.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
10.
Blood ; 122(14): 2390-401, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23963039

RESUMO

We report a molecular study of the two known patients with autosomal recessive, partial interferon-γ receptor (IFN-γR)2 deficiency (homozygous for mutations R114C and G227R), and three novel, unrelated children, homozygous for S124F (P1) and G141R (P2 and P3). IFN-γR2 levels on the surface of the three latter patients' cells are slightly lower than those on control cells. The patients' cells also display impaired, but not abolished, response to IFN-γ. Moreover, the R114C, S124F, G141R and G227R IFNGR2 hypomorphic alleles all encode misfolded proteins with abnormal N-glycosylation. The mutants are largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, although a small proportion reach and function at the cell surface. Strikingly, the IFN-γ response of the patients' cells is enhanced by chemical modifiers of N-glycosylation, as previously shown for patients with gain-of-glysosylation T168N and misfolding 382-387dup null mutations. All four in-frame IFNGR2 hypomorphic mutant alleles encoding surface-expressed receptors are thus deleterious by a mechanism involving abnormal N-glycosylation and misfolding of the IFN-γR2 protein. The diagnosis of partial IFN-γR2 deficiency is clinically useful, as affected patients should be treated with IFN-γ, [corrected] unlike patients with complete IFN-γR2 deficiency. Moreover, inhibitors of glycosylation might be beneficial in patients with complete or partial IFN-γR2 deficiency due to misfolding or gain-of-glycosylation receptors.


Assuntos
Deficiências na Proteostase/genética , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Western Blotting , Criança , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Linhagem , Transfecção
11.
Hum Mutat ; 34(10): 1329-39, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864330

RESUMO

IL-12Rß1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by predisposition to recurrent and/or severe infections caused by otherwise poorly pathogenic mycobacteria and salmonella. IL-12Rß1 is a receptor chain of both the IL-12 and the IL-23 receptor and deficiency of IL-12Rß1 thus abolishes both IL-12 and IL-23 signaling. IL-12Rß1 deficiency is caused by bi-allelic mutations in the IL12RB1 gene. Mutations resulting in premature stop codons, such as nonsense, frame shift, and splice site mutations, represent the majority of IL-12Rß1 deficiency causing mutations (66%; 46/70). Also every other morbid mutation completely inactivates the IL-12Rß1 protein. In addition to disease-causing mutations, rare and common variations with unknown functional effect have been reported in IL12RB1. All these variants have been deposited in the online IL12RB1 variation database (www.LOVD.nl/IL12RB1). In this article, we review the function of IL-12Rß1 and molecular genetics of human IL12RB1.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Mutação , Receptores de Interleucina-12/deficiência , Receptores de Interleucina-12/genética , Efeito Fundador , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Penetrância , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Interleucina-12/metabolismo
12.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 59(2): 86-92, 2012 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24007964

RESUMO

BCG vaccine contains low virulence Mycobacterium bovis bacillus. In Mexico it is given at birth with few reported adverse reactions in immunocompetent children; however, in immuno-compromised patients it can cause serious local or systemic adverse reactions. The most frequent related diseases include chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). At this time, the innate defect of the IFN-?/IL-12/IL-23 axis constitutes the main implied alteration in patients with MSMD. We present the case of an infant with disseminated mycobacterial infection and history of BCG given at birth and documentation of an altered functional study of the IFN-?/IL12/IL-23 axis, specifically at the IL-12 pathway, which is susceptible to improve with exogenous IFN-? administration. Treatment was started with antituberculous drugs plus subcutaneous IFN-?, with a marked clinical improvement. In children with disseminated infection by weakly virulent intracellular microorganisms, such as the species included in BCG vaccine, primary or secondary underlying immunodeficiency should be ruled out.


Assuntos
Interleucina-12 , Mycobacterium bovis , Vacina BCG , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama , Interleucina-23
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