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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925809

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the effects of statins on postprandial lipemia (PPL) and to study if exercise could enhance statin actions. METHODS: Ten hypercholesterolemic (blood cholesterol 204±36 mg·dL-1 ; LDL-c 129±32 36 mg·dL-1 ) overweight (BMI 30±4 kg·m-2 ), metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals chronically medicated with statins (> 6 months) underwent 5-hr PPL tests in four occasions in a randomized order; a) substituting their habitual statin medication by placebo during 96 hours (PLAC trial), b) taking their habitual statin medicine (STA trial), c) placebo combined with a bout of intense aerobic exercise (EXER+PLAC trial) and d) combining exercise and statin medicine (EXER+STA trial). RESULTS: Before the fat meal, statin withdrawal (i.e., PLAC and EXER+PLAC) increased blood triglycerides (TG; 24%), LDL-c (31%) and total cholesterol (19%; all P<0.05) evidencing treatment compliance. After the meal, statin withdrawal increased 5-h postprandial TG (PPTG) compared to its matched trials (94% higher PLAC vs STA and 45% higher EXER+PLAC vs EXER+STA; P<0.05). EXER+PLAC trial did not lower PPTG below PLAC (i.e., incremental AUC of 609±152 vs 826±190 mg·dL-1 ·5 h; P=0.09). Neither adding exercise to statin resulted in larger reductions in PPTG (i.e., EXER+STA vs STA iAUC of 421±87 vs 421±84 mg·dL-1 ·5 h; P=0.99). CONCLUSION: In hypercholesteremic MetS individuals, chronic statin therapy blunts the elevations in TG after a fat meal (i.e., iAUC of PPTG) reducing the cardiovascular risk associated to their atherogenic dyslipidemia. However, a single bout of intense aerobic exercise before the high fat meal, does not reduce PPTG but neither interferes with the effects of statin treatment.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225893, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821339

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT), is effective to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in adults. However, it is unclear if CRF and MetS components respond similarly in men and women after HIIT. For 16 weeks, 63 women (53±7 years) and 56 men (55±8 years) with MetS underwent a three day/week HIIT program. Bodyweight and composition, VO2MAX, surrogate parameters of CRF (Ventilatory threshold (VT), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and VE/VCO2 slope), maximal rate of fat oxidation (MFO), and MetS components were assessed before and after training. All reported variables were analyzed by split-plot ANOVA looking for time by sex interactions. Before training men had higher absolute values of VO2MAX (58.6%), and MFO (24.6%), while lower body fat mass (10.5%) than women (all P<0.05). After normalization by fat-free mass (FFM), VO2MAX remained 16.6% higher in men (P<0.05), whereas differences in MFO disappeared (P = 0.292). After intervention VO2MAX (P<0.001), VO2 at VT (P<0.001), OUES (P<0.001), and VE/VCO2 slope (P<0.001) increased without differences by sex (P>0.05). After training MetS Z-score (P<0.001) improved without differences between men and women (P>0.05). From the MetS components, only blood pressure (P<0.001) and waist circumference (P<0.001) improved across time, without differences by sex. In both, women and men, changes in OUES (r = 0.685 and r = 0.445, respectively), and VO2 at VT (r = 0.378, and r = 0.445, respectively), correlated with VO2MAX. While only bodyweight changes correlated with MetS Z-score changes (r = 0.372, and = 0.300, respectively). Despite baseline differences, 16-weeks of HIIT similarly improved MetS, cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness in women and men with MetS. This suggests that there are no restrictions due to sex on the benefits derived from an intense exercise program in the health of MetS participants. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03019796.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins reduce atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in metabolic syndrome individuals (MetS). Exercise-training could also contribute to reduce CVD by improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, statin use could interfere with training adaptations. METHODS: One hundred and six MetS were divided into statin users (STATIN group, n=46) and statin-naïve (CONTROL group, n=60). Groups were matched by age, weight, and MetS components. Subjects completed 16 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT). Before and after HIIT, muscle biopsies were collected to assess mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS) activity) and the activity of the rate limiting ß-oxidation enzyme (3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD)). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations were measured. Exercise maximal fat oxidation (FOMAX) and oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) were determined. RESULTS: Training improved MetS similarly in both groups (MetS Z-score -0.26±0.38 vs -0.22±0.31; P<0.001 for time and P=0.60 for time x group). Before training, STATIN had reduced muscle HAD activity and whole body FOMAX compared to CONTROL. However, 16-weeks of HIIT increased HAD and FOMAX in both groups (P<0.03, time-effect). STATIN did not prevent the increases in CS with HIIT observed in CONTROL (38% vs 64%, respectively; P<0.001, time-effect). Conversely, with training VO2PEAK improved less in STATIN than in CONTROL (12% vs 19%, respectively; P=0.013, time x group effect). CONCLUSION: Chronic statin use in MetS does not interfere with exercise training improvements in MetS components, FOMAX or mitochondrial muscle enzymes (i.e., CS and HAD). However, STATIN attenuated the improvements in VO2PEAK with training.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the trustworthiness of graded exercise test to exhaustion (GXT) to assess maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) in metabolic syndrome individuals with obesity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: V ˙ O 2 max was assessed in 100 metabolic syndrome adults (57 ± 8 years; 34% women), with obesity (BMI 32 ± 5 kg·m-2 ) using GXT followed by supramaximal constant-load verification test (VerT) at 110% of maximal GXT work rate. V ˙ O 2 data from GXT and VerT were compared using paired t test and plotted for Bland-Altman analysis. GXT sensitivity and specificity to detect V ˙ O 2 max were also calculated. RESULTS: Seventy individuals did not achieve V ˙ O 2 plateau during GXT. GXT underestimated V ˙ O 2 max in 40 subjects. In these subjects, the magnitude of V ˙ O 2 max underestimation with GXT was 9% (167 mLO2 ·min-1 ; P < .001). In the whole sample (n = 100), bias error differences between GXT and VerT was 63 mLO2 ·min-1 (3% underestimation). This error was constant regardless of differences in fitness levels among individuals (R = -0.07; homoscedasticity). GXT results were unreliable in 62% of the sample with 16% of false-positive and 46% of false-negative results. Sensitivity and specificity of GTX to assess V ˙ O 2 max were low (ie, 23% and 60%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the magnitude (3%-9%) and prevalence (40% of subjects) of V ˙ O 2 max underestimation with the use of a GXT alone is high in a large sample of unfit metabolic syndrome individuals with obesity. Our data advocate for the need of using VerT after GXT to avoid significant cardiorespiratory fitness underestimation in metabolic syndrome individuals with obesity and low fitness level.

5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 756-761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476782

RESUMO

We studied the effects of supramaximal interval exercise (SIE) with or without antihypertensive medication (AHM) on 21-hr blood pressure (BP) response. Twelve hypertensive patients chronically medicated with AHM, underwent three trials in a randomized order: a) control trial without exercise and substituting their AHM with a placebo (PLAC); b) placebo medicine and a morning bout of SIE (PLAC+SIE), and c) combining AHM and exercise (AHM+SIE). Acute and ambulatory blood pressure responses were measured for 21-hr after treatment. 20 min after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were reduced, similar to readings after PLAC+SIE (-9.7±6.0 mmHg, P<0.001) and AHM+SIE (-10.4±7.9 mmHg, P=0.001). 21 h after treatment, SBP remained reduced after PLAC+SIE (125±12 mmHg, P=0.022) and AHM+SIE (122±12 mmHg, P=0.013) compared to PLAC (132±16 mmHg). The BP reduction in PLAC+SIE faded out at 4 a.m., while in AHM+SIE it continued overnight. At night, BP reduction was larger in AHM+SIE than PLAC+SIE (-5.6±4.0 mmHg, P=0.006). Our data shows that a bout of supramaximal aerobic interval exercise in combination with ARB medication in the morning elicits a sustained blood pressure reduction lasting at least 21-h. Thus, the combination of exercise and angiotensin receptor blocker medication seems superior to exercise alone for acutely decreasing blood pressure.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/métodos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(9): 1876-1883, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Continuous and interval are the two types of aerobic exercise training commonly used for health promotion. We sought to determine which aerobic exercise training program results in larger health improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one MetS patients (age, 57 ± 8 yr; weight, 92 ± 15 kg; and MetS factors, 3.8 ± 0.8 components) with low initial cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (V˙O2peak, 24.0 ± 5.5 mL·kg·min) were randomized to undergo one of the following 16-wk exercise program: (a) 4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training at 90% of HRMAX (4HIIT group; n = 32), (b) 50-min moderate-intensity continuous training at 70% of HRMAX (MICT group; n = 35), (c) 10 × 1-min HIIT at 100% of HRMAX (1HIIT group; n = 32), or (d) no exercise control group (CONT; n = 22). We measured the evolution of all five MetS components (i.e., MetS Z Score) and CRF (assessed by V˙O2peak) before and after intervention. RESULTS: MetS Z score decreased 41% after 4HIIT (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.06; P < 0.01) and 52% in MICT (95% CI, 0.24-0.06; P < 0.01), whereas it did not change in 1HIIT (decreased 24%; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.03; P = 0.21) and CONT (increased 20%; 95% CI, -0.19 to 0.04; P = 0.22). However, the three exercise groups improved similarly their V˙O2peak (4HIIT, 11%; 95% CI, 0.14-0.33; MICT, 12%; 95% CI, 0.18-0.36; and 1HIIT, 14%; 95% CI, 0.21-0.40 L·min; all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with MetS and low initial CRF level any aerobic training program of 16 wk with a frequency of three times per week is sufficient stimulus to raise CRF. However, the more intense but shorter 1HIIT training program is not effective on improving MetS Z score, and thus we caution its recommendation for health promotion purposes in this population.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Idoso , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
7.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 19(4): 549-556, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381027

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to study if training intensity relative to ventilatory thresholds (VTs) determines the improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged sedentary individuals with obesity. Before and after 16-weeks of HIIT (43-min alternating bouts at 70/90% of HRMAX), oxygen consumption ( V˙ O2) and heart rate (HR) at ventilatory threshold 1 ( V˙ O2VT1, HRVT1), ventilatory threshold 2 ( V˙ O2VT2, HRVT2) and at maximal effort ( V˙ O2MAX, HRMAX) were assessed during a graded cycle-ergometer exercise test. Retrospectively, participants were divided into two groups based on whether training intensities were under (UNDER; n = 39) or over (OVER; n = 37) VT1 and VT2. At baseline, age, body composition, V˙ O2VT1, V˙ O2VT2, and HRMAX were similar in both groups. However, V˙ O2MAX was higher in OVER (P = 0.033), whereas HRVT1 and HRVT2 were higher in UNDER (P < 0.05). V˙ O2MAX (9.0%) and HRMAX (2.2%) improved similarly in both groups. V˙ O2VT1 and V˙ O2VT2 improved with training in both groups (P < 0.001) but the improvement was larger in OVER versus UNDER in V˙ O2VT1 (P = 0.013) and tended to be higher in V˙ O2VT2 (P = 0.068). HRVT1 increased only in OVER (P < 0.001), whereas HRVT2 did not change in any group (P = 0.248). A 16-week programme of HIIT improves V˙ O2MAX similarly in individuals training at intensities over or under their VTs. However, individuals training over their VTs showed a larger improvements in V˙ O2VT1 expanding exercise workloads fuelled by oxidative metabolism.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário
8.
Blood Press Monit ; 23(5): 230-236, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing tendency for physicians to prescribe exercise in accordance with the 'exercise is medicine' global health initiative. However, the exercise-pharmacologic interactions for controlling blood pressure are not well described. Our purpose was to study whether angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker (ARB) antihypertensive medicine enhances the blood pressure-lowering effects of intense exercise. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Fifteen hypertensive individuals with metabolic syndrome chronically medicated with ARB underwent two exercise trials in a blind randomized order. One trial was conducted after taking their habitual dose of ARB (ARB MED trial) and another after 48 h of placebo medicine (i.e. dextrose; PLAC trial). RESULTS: After placebo medication, brachial systolic blood pressure increased by 5.5 mmHg [P=0.009; effect size (ES)=0.476] and diastolic by 2.5 mmHg (P=0.030; ES=0.373). Exercise reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures to the same extent in ARB MED and PLAC trials (7 and 8 mmHg, respectively, for systolic and 5 and 4 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic, all P<0.05). Pulsatile measures of arterial stiffness did not reveal an interaction effect between exercise and medication. However, postocclusion reactive hyperemia increased after exercise only in the ARB MED trial (361±169 to 449±240% from baseline; P=0.033; ES=0.429). CONCLUSION: ARBs and a bout of intense exercise each have an independent effect on lowering blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, and these effects are additive.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Diástole , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Sístole
9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(10): 1983-1991, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if yearly repeated exercise training reduces metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the use of medicines to control MetS components. METHODS: Fifty-five MetS individuals were randomized into a TRAIN group that underwent two yearly programs of 16-wk high-intensity interval training or a nonexercising CONT group. We measured the evolution of all five MetS components, cardiorespiratory fitness (assessed by V˙O2PEAK) and medicine use, at baseline (0 months), mid (12 months), and end-point (24 months). Testing took place 8 months after the last training session to assess the chronic effects of training. RESULTS: Daily physical activity (wristband activity monitors) and calorie intake (3-d nutritional diary) remained similar to baseline at 1 and 2 yr in each group and were not different between groups. Blood triglycerides and glucose concentrations did not significantly vary in any group. However, waist circumference increased only in CONT after 2 yr (107 ± 2 cm to 111 ± 3 cm; P = 0.004). Mean arterial pressure decreased in TRAIN (101 ± 2 mm Hg to 94 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.002), whereas it remained unchanged in CONT (98 ± 2 mm Hg to 99 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 1.000) after 2 yr. Starting from similar levels at baseline, after 2 yr V˙O2PEAK was higher (2.32 ± 0.14 L·min vs 1.98 ± 0.11 L·min; P = 0.049) and medicine use lower (1.27 ± 0.22 vs 2.23 ± 0.43; P = 0.043) in TRAIN than CONT. The reduction in MAP in TRAIN commanded a parallel reduction in MetS Z-score from baseline to 2 yr (0.30 ± 0.1 to 0.07 ± 0.1; P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Two yearly 16-wk high-intensity interval training programs are enough exercise to chronically lower MetS while preventing the reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness associated to aging. Of clinical relevance, yearly exercise training halts the increase in medicine use that occurs in non-exercising MetS individuals.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Método Simples-Cego
10.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(1): 11-18, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106772

RESUMO

The authors determined the effect of high-intensity aerobic interval training on arterial stiffness and microvascular dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome with hypertension. Applanation tonometry was used to measure arterial stiffness and laser Doppler flowmetry to assess microvascular dysfunction before and after 6 months of stationary cycling (training group; n = 23) in comparison to a group that remained sedentary (control group; n = 23). While no variable improved in controls, hypertension fell from 79% (59%-91%) to 41% (24%-61%) in the training group, resulting in lower systolic and diastolic pressures than controls (-12 ± 3 and -6 ± 2 mm Hg, P < .008). Arterial stiffness declined (-17% augmentation index, P = .048) and reactive hyperemia increased (20%, P = .028) posttreatment in the training group vs controls. Blood constituents associated with arterial stiffness and a prothrombotic state (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, platelets, and erythrocytes) remained unchanged in the training and control groups. In summary, 6 months of an intense aerobic exercise program reduced both arterial stiffness and microvascular dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome despite unchanged blood-borne cardiovascular risk factors. Training lowers blood flow resistance in central and peripheral vascular beds in a coordinated fashion, resulting in clinically relevant reductions in hypertension.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
11.
J Hypertens ; 35(10): 1992-1999, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study if repeated yearly training programs consolidate the transient blood pressure (BP) improvements of one exercise program into durable adaptations. METHODS: Obese middle-age individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) underwent high-intensity aerobic interval training during 16 weeks (November to mid-March) in 3 consecutive years [training group (TRAIN); N = 23]. Evolution of MetS components was compared with a matched-group that remained sedentary [control group (CONT); N = 26]. RESULTS: At the end of the first training program (0-4 months), TRAIN lowered systolic arterial pressure, blood glucose, waist circumference and MetS Z-score below CONT (-8.5 ±â€Š2.5 mmHg; -19.9 ±â€Š2.6 mg/dl; -3.8 ±â€Š0.1 cm and -0.3 ±â€Š0.1, respectively, all P < 0.05). With detraining (month 4-12) TRAIN adaptations relapsed to the levels of baseline (month 0) except for BP. A second exercise program (month 12-16) lowered blood glucose and waist circumference below CONT (-19.0 ±â€Š2.0 mg/dl; -4.1 ±â€Š0.1 cm). After detraining (month 16-24) BP, blood glucose and Z-score started below CONT values (-6.8 ±â€Š0.9 mmHg; -24.6 ±â€Š2.5 mg/dl and -0.4 ±â€Š0.05, respectively, all P < 0.05) and those differences enlarged with the last training program (month 24-28). Ten-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimation increased only in CONT (8.6 ±â€Š1.1-10.1 ±â€Š1.3%; year 2-3; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: At least two consecutive years of 4-month aerobic interval training are required to chronically improve MetS (Z-score). The chronic effect is mediated by BP that does not fully return to pretraining values allowing a cumulative improvement. On the other hand, sedentarism in MetS patients during 3 years increases their predicted atherosclerotic diseases risk. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03019796.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia
12.
Int J Sports Med ; 38(7): 560-567, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482361

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m-2) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (TINT), forearm skin blood flow (SKBF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (P<0.05). Percent dehydration was larger after HIIT, and post-exercise TINT and SKBF increased only after HIIT (all P<0.05). Our findings suggest that HIIT is a superior exercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Temperatura Corporal , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Vascular
13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(3): 518-526, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27787335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The health benefits of a training program are largely influenced by the exercise dose and intensity. We sought to determine whether during a training bout of continuous versus interval exercise the workload needs to be reduced to maintain the prescribed target heart rate (HR). METHODS: Fourteen obese (31 ± 4 kg·m) middle-age (57 ± 8 yr) individuals with metabolic syndrome, underwent two exercise training bouts matched by energy expenditure (i.e., 70 ± 5 min of continuous exercise [CE] or 45 min of interval exercise, high-intensity interval training [HIIT]). All subjects completed both trials in a randomized order. HR, power output (W), percent dehydration, intestinal and skin temperature (TINT and TSK), mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and blood lactate concentration (La) were measured at the initial and latter stages of each trial to assess time-dependent drift. RESULTS: During the HIIT trial, power output was lowered by 30 ± 16 W to maintain the target HR, whereas a 10 ± 11 W reduction was needed in the CE trial (P < 0.05). Energy expenditure, CO, and SV declined with exercise time only in the HIIT trial (15%, 10%, and 13%, respectively). During HIIT, percent dehydration, TINT, and TSK increased more than during the CE trial (all P = 0.001). Mean arterial pressure and La were higher in HIIT without time drift in any trial. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggests that while CE results in mild power output reductions to maintain target HR, the increasingly popular HIIT results in marked reductions in power output, energy expenditure, and CO (21%, 15%, and 10%, respectively). HIIT based on target HR may result in lower than expected training adaptations because of workload adjustments to avoid HR drift.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Temperatura Corporal , Débito Cardíaco , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Temperatura Cutânea , Volume Sistólico
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