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1.
Vaccine ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pertussis immunization during pregnancy results in high pertussis antibody concentrations in young infants but may interfere with infant immune responses to post-natal immunization. METHODS: This phase IV, multi-country, open-label study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of infant primary vaccination with DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Enrolled infants (6-14 weeks old) were born to mothers who were randomized to receive reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap group) or placebo (control group) during pregnancy (270/7-366/7 weeks' gestation) with crossover immunization postpartum. All infants received 2 or 3 DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib and PCV13 doses according to national schedules. Immunogenicity was assessed in infants pre- and 1 month post-primary vaccination. The primary objective was to assess seroprotection/vaccine response rates for DTaP-HepB-IPV/Hib antigens 1 month post-primary vaccination. RESULTS: 601 infants (Tdap group: 296; control group: 305) were vaccinated. One month post-priming, seroprotection rates were 100% (diphtheria; tetanus), ≥98.5% (hepatitis B), ≥95.9% (polio) and ≥94.5% (Hib) in both groups. Vaccine response rates for pertussis antigens were significantly lower in infants whose mothers received pregnancy Tdap (37.5-77.1%) versus placebo (90.0-99.2%). Solicited and unsolicited adverse event rates were similar between groups. Serious adverse events occurred in 2.4% (Tdap group) and 5.6% (control group) of infants, none were vaccination-related. CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis antibodies transferred during pregnancy may decrease the risk of pertussis infection in the first months of life but interfere with the infant's ability to produce pertussis antibodies, the clinical significance of which remains unknown. Safety and reactogenicity results were consistent with previous experience.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe, due to immigration. The aims of this study are to describe the epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of Chagas infected pregnant women in Spain, to assess the vertical transmission (VT) rate and evaluate the usefulness of the PCR in the diagnosis of congenital infection in the first months of life. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study including Chagas seropositive pregnant women who were attended at three tertiary hospitals in Madrid, from January 2012 to September 2016. Infants were examined by PCR at birth and 1 month later and serologically studied at 9 months or later. Children were considered infected when the parasite was detected by PCR at any age or when serology remained positive without decline over the age of 9 months. RESULTS: We included 122 seropositive-infected pregnant women, 81% were from Bolivia and only 8.2% had been treated before. 125 newborns were studied and finally 109 were included (12.8% lost the follow-up before performing the last serology). The VT rate was 2.75% (95% CI: 0,57-8,8%). Infected infants had positive PCR at birth and 1 month later. All of them were treated successfully with benznidazole (PCR and serology became negative later on). All non-infected children presented negative PCR. The mean age at which uninfected patients had negative serology was 10.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: The VT rate is in keeping with literature and confirms the need to carry out a screening in pregnant women coming from endemic areas. PCR seems to be a useful tool to provide early diagnosis of congenital CD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929024

RESUMO

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients.

5.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(3): 176-182, mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181302

RESUMO

Introducción: El contacto sexual es actualmente en España la primera vía de contagio de VIH. Pese a los descensos en el número de nuevas infecciones en mujeres y consumo de drogas, en hombres se mantiene estable. El presente estudio pretende evaluar conductas de riesgo y conocimientos sobre VIH en una muestra de jóvenes en España. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal utilizando un cuestionario sobre salud sexual y conocimiento sobre el VIH adaptado del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. El grupo estuvo compuesto por jóvenes no infectados por VIH. Se incluyó la variable riesgo sexual (alto y bajo), siendo de riesgo alto los sujetos que habían tenido tres o más parejas y no utilizaban preservativo en todas las relaciones. Resultados: Se encuestaron 243 jóvenes (65,6% mujeres) de entre 16 y 36 años (media = 25,7; DE = 4,1) (16-24 años: 134 sujetos; 25-29 años, 60 sujetos; más de 30 años, 47 sujetos). El 40,9% contestaron que utilizaban el preservativo en todas sus relaciones y el 61% que no perciben ningún riesgo de infección. De forma mayoritaria no se encuentran diferencias significativas en conocimiento sobre vías de transmisión entre los grupos de alto y de bajo riesgo. Los métodos de protección que se asociaron significativamente con las diferencias en riesgo sexual fueron lavarse tras las relaciones sexuales, tener pocas parejas, uso de espermicidas y carga viral indetectable (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El principal resultado del estudio es la infravaloración personal de riesgo indicado según las diferencias encontradas entre la valoración personal y el índice de riesgo sexual. Se encuentran resultados tanto positivos como negativos en cuanto al conocimiento sobre el VIH


Introduction: Sexual intercourse is currently the main route of HIV infection in Spain. Despite decreases in new infections among women and drug users, the rate remains stable in men. The aim of this study was to assess risk behaviour and HIV awareness in a sample of young adults in Spain. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was performed on a non-HIV infected sample, using a questionnaire on sexual health and HIV awareness adapted from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. A sexual risk variable was included (high and low), which was classified as high if subjects had had three or more sexual partners and did not always use a condom in all their sexual encounters. Results: 243 subjects were included (65.6% women) aged between 16 and 36 years (mean = 25.7; SD = 4.1) (16-24 years: 134 subjects; 25-29 years: 60 subjects; over 30 years: 47 subjects). Approximately 40.9% said that they used a condom in all sexual relations and 61% did not perceive any risk of infection. There were no significant differences in awareness of infection routes between the high and low risk profiles. Washing after sex, having few partners, spermicide use and having undetectable viral load were protective measures significantly associated with differences in sexual risk (P < .05). Conclusions: The main finding of the study was the underestimation of risk of infection, analysed after differences found between self-assessment and sexual risk. Both positive and negative results were found concerning HIV awareness


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Assunção de Riscos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Análise de Dados
6.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 90(2): 86-93, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177219

RESUMO

Introducción: La información existente sobre el impacto de la gripe en la población infantil española es escasa. El presente trabajo pretende aumentar este conocimiento estudiando aspectos clave como la incidencia de hospitalización, clínica, comorbilidades y el estado vacunal en los niños hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, por revisión de historias clínicas, en menores de 15 años hospitalizados por gripe adquirida en la comunidad, confirmada microbiológicamente, durante 2 temporadas gripales (2014-2015 y 2015-2016). El estudio se realizó en 10 hospitales de 6 ciudades, que atienden aproximadamente al 12% de la población infantil española. Resultados: Fueron hospitalizados 907 niños con diagnóstico principal de gripe (447 < 2 años), con una tasa media anual de incidencia de hospitalización de 0,51 casos/1.000 niños (IC del 95% 0,48-0,55). El 45% presentó enfermedades subyacentes consideradas factores de riesgo para gripe grave, y la mayor parte de ellos (74%) no habían sido vacunados. El porcentaje con enfermedades subyacentes aumentó con la edad, desde el 26% en menores de 6 meses al 74% en mayores de 10 años. El 10% de los casos (n = 92) precisaron cuidados intensivos pediátricos por fallo respiratorio agudo. Conclusión: La gripe es causa importante de hospitalización en la población infantil española. Los menores de 6 meses de edad y los niños con enfermedades subyacentes constituyen una parte mayoritaria (> 50%) de los casos. Una gran parte de las formas graves de gripe en población infantil podrían ser evitada si se cumplieran las indicaciones actuales de vacunación


Introduction: There are only a limited number of studies on the impact of influenza in the Spanish child population. The present work intends to increase this knowledge by studying some key aspects, such as the incidence of hospital admissions, clinic variables, comorbidities, and the vaccination status in the hospitalised children. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of children under 15 years and hospitalised due to community acquired influenza confirmed microbiologically, during 2́ flu seasons (2014-2015 and 2015-2016). The study was carried out in 10 hospitals of 6cities, which represent approximately 12% of the Spanish child population. Results: A total of 907 children were admitted to hospital with main diagnosis of influenza infection (447 < 2 years), estimating an average annual rate of hospitalisation incidence of 0.51 cases / 1,000 children (95% CI; 0.48-0.55). Just under half (45%) of the cases had an underlying disease considered a risk factor for severe influenza, and most (74%) had not been vaccinated. The percentage of children with underlying diseases increased with age, from 26% in children < 6 months to 74% in children >10 years. Admission to the PICU was required in 10% (92) of the cases, mainly due to acute respiratory failure. Conclusion: Influenza continues to be an important cause of hospitalisation in the Spanish child population. Children < 6 months of age and children with underlying diseases make up the majority (> 50%) of the cases. Many of the severe forms of childhood influenza that occur today could be avoided if current vaccination guidelines were met


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudo Observacional , Doença Crônica , Oxigenoterapia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(4): 617-625, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid. In the period 2009-2015, CMV-HIG (Cytotect® CP Biotest, Biotest) treatment was offered to all pregnant women with primary CMV infection and/or detection of CMV-DNA in amniotic fluid in participating centers. Women were divided into prevention and treatment groups (PG and TG, respectively). Those with primary CMV infection who had not undergone amniocentesis comprised the PG and received monthly CMV-HIG (100 UI/kg). If CMV-DNA was subsequently detected in amniotic fluid, one extra dose of CMV-HIG (200 UI/kg) was given 4 weeks after the last dose. Those women were considered to be part of the PG group despite detection of CMV-DNA in amniotic fluid. In the case of a negative result in CMV-DNA detection in amniotic fluid or if amniocentesis was not performed, monthly HIG was given up to the end of the pregnancy. RESULTS: Thirty-six pregnant women were included. Median gestational age at birth was 39 weeks (interquartile range: 38-40) and two children (5.5%) were premature (born at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation). Amniocentesis was performed in 30/36 (83.4%) pregnancies and CMV PCR was positive in 21 of them (70%). One fetus with a positive PCR in amniotic fluid that received one dose of HIG after amniocentesis presented a negative CMV-PCR in urine at birth, and was asymptomatic at 12 months of age. Twenty-four children were infected at birth, and 16/21 (76.2%) presented no sequelae at 12 months, while two (9.5%) had a mild unilateral hearing loss and three (14.3%) severe hearing loss or neurological sequelae. Seventeen women were included in the PG and 19 in the TG. In the PG 7/17 (41%) fetuses were infected, one pregnancy was terminated due to abnormalities in cordocentesis and one showed a mild hearing loss at 12 months of age. In the TG, 18/19 children (95%) were diagnosed with cCMV, while the remaining neonate had negative urine CMV at birth. Eight out of the 19 fetuses (42.1%) showed CMV related abnormalities in the fetal US before HIG treatment. Complete clinical assessment in the neonatal period and at 12 months of age was available in 16 and 15 children, respectively. At birth 50% were symptomatic and at 12 months of age, 4/15 (26.7%) showed a hearing loss and 3/15 (20%) neurologic impairment. Fetuses with abnormalities in ultrasonography before HIG presented a high risk of sequelae (odds ratios: 60; 95%CI: 3-1185; p = .007). DISCUSSION: Prophylactic HIG administration in pregnant women after CMV primary infection seems not to reduce significantly the rate of congenital infection, but is safe and it could have a favorable effect on the symptoms and sequelae of infected fetuses. The risk of long-term sequelae in fetuses without US abnormalities before HIG is low, so it could be an option in infected fetuses with normal imaging. On the other hand, the risk of sequelae among infected fetuses with abnormalities in fetal ultrasonography before HIG despite treatment is high.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Doenças Fetais/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Amniocentese , Líquido Amniótico/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
8.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017259

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sexual intercourse is currently the main route of HIV infection in Spain. Despite decreases in new infections among women and drug users, the rate remains stable in men. The aim of this study was to assess risk behaviour and HIV awareness in a sample of young adults in Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was performed on a non-HIV infected sample, using a questionnaire on sexual health and HIV awareness adapted from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. A sexual risk variable was included (high and low), which was classified as high if subjects had had three or more sexual partners and did not always use a condom in all their sexual encounters. RESULTS: 243 subjects were included (65.6% women) aged between 16 and 36years (mean=25.7; SD=4.1) (16-24years: 134 subjects; 25-29years: 60 subjects; over 30years: 47 subjects). Approximately 40.9% said that they used a condom in all sexual relations and 61% did not perceive any risk of infection. There were no significant differences in awareness of infection routes between the high and low risk profiles. Washing after sex, having few partners, spermicide use and having undetectable viral load were protective measures significantly associated with differences in sexual risk (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: The main finding of the study was the underestimation of risk of infection, analysed after differences found between self-assessment and sexual risk. Both positive and negative results were found concerning HIV awareness.

9.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are only a limited number of studies on the impact of influenza in the Spanish child population. The present work intends to increase this knowledge by studying some key aspects, such as the incidence of hospital admissions, clinic variables, comorbidities, and the vaccination status in the hospitalised children. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of children under 15 years and hospitalised due to community acquired influenza confirmed microbiologically, during 2́flu seasons (2014-2015 and 2015-2016). The study was carried out in 10 hospitals of 6cities, which represent approximately 12% of the Spanish child population. RESULTS: A total of 907 children were admitted to hospital with main diagnosis of influenza infection (447 <2 years), estimating an average annual rate of hospitalisation incidence of 0.51 cases / 1,000 children (95% CI; 0.48-0.55). Just under half (45%) of the cases had an underlying disease considered a risk factor for severe influenza, and most (74%) had not been vaccinated. The percentage of children with underlying diseases increased with age, from 26% in children <6 months to 74% in children >10 years. Admission to the PICU was required in 10% (92) of the cases, mainly due to acute respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: Influenza continues to be an important cause of hospitalisation in the Spanish child population. Children <6 months of age and children with underlying diseases make up the majority (> 50%) of the cases. Many of the severe forms of childhood influenza that occur today could be avoided if current vaccination guidelines were met.

10.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 88(3): 122-126, mar. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172363

RESUMO

Introducción: La enfermedad de Chagas, causada por Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), es endémica en Latinoamérica y emergente en España, ligada a inmigración. La transmisión vertical se estima de alrededor del 5%. Se recomienda cribado selectivo en el embarazo para identificar al recién nacido infectado, permitiendo tratamiento precoz y curación de la enfermedad. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de serología positiva para T. cruzi en una cohorte de gestantes latinoamericanas y la tasa de transmisión vertical de la misma. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo de gestantes con serología positiva para T. cruzi en hospital terciario, desde enero del 2013 hasta abril del 2015. El seguimiento de recién nacidos se realizó con PCR al nacimiento, repetida al mes, y serología a los 9-12 meses. Se consideró infectado al niño con PCR positiva y no infectado al niño con PCR negativa y/o negativización de anticuerpos. Resultados: Se realizó cribado en 1.244 gestantes latinoamericanas, siendo positivas 40 (prevalencia 3,2%, IC del 95%: 2,4-4,4%), 85% procedentes de Bolivia. Solo un niño resultó infectado (transmisión vertical 2,8%, IC del 95%: 0-15%) con PCR positiva al nacimiento. La detección de la embarazada permitió estudiar a los hermanos, detectándose caso asintomático en paciente de 8 años. Ambos tratados con benznidazol con buena tolerancia, evolución favorable y negativización de PCR y anticuerpos. Conclusión: El cribado de embarazadas latinoamericanas ha permitido la detección de gestantes con enfermedad de Chagas. La transmisión vertical fue del 2,3%, coincidente con la literatura. El cribado ha permitido la detección y el tratamiento de casos familiares no identificados previamente (AU)


Background: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is endemic in Latin-America and is emerging in Spain due to immigration. The vertical transmission rate is around 5%. A routine prenatal screening with serology of all pregnant women from endemic areas is recommended to identify infected newborns, allowing early treatment and cure. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of positive Chagas serology in a cohort of pregnant women from Latin-America and its vertical transmission. Patients and methods: An observational, prospective, follow-up study was conducted on women with positive serology to T. cruzi, as well as their newborns, from January 2013 to April 2015. Congenital Chagas was ruled out using a PCR technique at birth and at 1 month, and with serology at 9-12 months old. A child was considered infected when PCR was positive, and uninfected when PCR was negative, and/or it had a negative serology. Results: Screening was performed on 1244 pregnant women from Latin-America, and there were positive results in 40 (prevalence 3.2%, 95% CI: 2.4-4.4%), with 85% of them from Bolivia. There was only one infected newborn (rate of vertical transmission 2.8% (95% CI: 0-15%)), who had a positive PCR at birth. Relative studies enabled an 8-year-old sister with an asymptomatic disease to be diagnosed and treated. Both were treated successfully with benznidazole (later the PCR and serology were negative). Conclusion: Screening during pregnancy in Latin-American women helped to detect those with Chagas disease. The rate of vertical transmission was 2.8%, in keeping with literature. Screening led to the detection and treatment of previously unidentified familial cases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Programas de Rastreamento , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 20(77): 15-24, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173577

RESUMO

Introducción: la enfermedad de Kawasaki es una vasculitis aguda, febril y autolimitada, que puede complicarse con alteraciones cardiovasculares. Su diagnóstico se basa en criterios clínicos. A pesar de un tratamiento eficaz, es la principal causa de cardiopatía adquirida en niños de países desarrollados. Objetivos: analizar la prevalencia de alteraciones coronarias en pacientes pediátricos diagnosticados en nuestro medio; evaluar las características demográficas, clínicas y analíticas de la población de estudio y describir los factores de riesgo de alteración coronaria en niños con enfermedad de Kawasaki. Métodos: se revisaron de forma retrospectiva las historias clínicas de los niños diagnosticados de enfermedad de Kawasaki desde enero de 1997 hasta diciembre de 2016 en el Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid, España). Se consideró diagnóstico de enfermedad de Kawasaki la presencia de los criterios clínicos propuestos por la Academia Americana de Pediatría en 2017. Resultados: la enfermedad de Kawasaki se presentó fundamentalmente durante el invierno (n = 13; 56,5%) en mujeres (n = 12; 52,2%) de cinco años o menos (n = 18; 78,3%), que desarrollaron fiebre (n = 23; 100%) junto con cambios en la mucosa orofaríngea (n = 21; 91,3%) y presentaron proteína C reactiva y velocidad de sedimentación globular elevadas (n = 20; 86,95% y n = 13; 86,6%). Fueron tratados con inmunoglobulina intravenosa (n = 22; 95,7%) y ácido acetilsalicílico a dosis antiinflamatoria (n = 22; 95,7%) o antiagregante (n = 20; 87%). Tres pacientes (13%) desarrollaron alteraciones coronarias, que terminaron remitiendo. Conclusiones: en nuestra cohorte, la prevalencia de alteraciones coronarias fue similar a la reportada en nuestro medio y superior a la descrita en estudios internacionales. Los factores de riesgo de alteración coronaria son predominantemente niños con retraso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento, leucocitosis >12 000/ul, proteína C reactiva >3 mg/dl y trombocitosis


Introduction: Kawasaki disease is an acute, febrile and self-limiting vasculitis that may be complicated by cardiovascular changes. Its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. Although effective treatment is available, it is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries. Objectives: to assess the prevalence of coronary artery abnormalities in paediatric patients diagnosed in our area, and the demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of the population under study, describing the risk factors for coronary involvement in children with Kawasaki disease. Methods: we performed a retrospective review of the medical records of children given a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease between January 1997 and December 2016 at the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid, Spain). We defined Kawasaki disease as the presence of the clinical criteria proposed for its diagnosis by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2017. Results: cases of Kawasaki disease were most frequent in the winter (n = 13; 56.5%), in girls (n = 12; 52.2%) and in children aged 5 years or less (n = 18; 78.3%). Patients presented with fever (n = 23; 100%) and changes in the oropharyngeal mucosa (n = 21; 91.3%), with elevation of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n = 20; 86.95% and n = 13; 86.6%). Treatment consisted of intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 22; 95.7%) and acetylsalicylic acid at anti-inflammatory doses (n = 22; 95.7%) or antithrombotic doses (n = 20; 87%). Three patients (13%) developed coronary artery abnormalities that eventually resolved. Conclusions: in our cohort, the prevalence of coronary complications was similar to the prevalence reported for Spain and higher than the prevalence reported in international studies. The main risk factors for coronary artery abnormalities were delays in diagnosis or treatment, a white blood cell count greater than 12 000 cells/µl, a serum level of C-reactive protein greater than 3 mg/dl and thrombocytosis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epidemiologia Analítica , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Aspirina/uso terapêutico
12.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 88(1): 52.e1-52.e12, ene. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170646

RESUMO

La tuberculosis (TB) es la enfermedad infecciosa más importante del mundo, asociando enorme morbimortalidad. La TB pediátrica ha sido una epidemia oculta por su escasa capacidad infectiva y menor incidencia comparada con adultos. El informe-OMS 2015 estimó un millón de niños enfermos de TB en el mundo y 169.000 fallecidos. En Europa, el problema acuciante es la tuberculosis multirresistente, con tasas del 16% en nuevos diagnósticos, especialmente en países del este. En 2014, 219.000 niños se infectaron por cepas-MDR en Europa, 2.120 desarrollaron enfermedad. España es el país de Europa con mayor número de casos pediátricos, con una incidencia en 2014: 4,3/100.000 habitantes. La mortalidad por TB pediátrica en nuestro país es excepcional, pero las formas extrapulmonares ocasionan importantes complicaciones. La TB resistente en niños en España presenta una prevalencia > 4%, superando incluso la notificada en adultos. Estos datos reflejan que la TB en niños en nuestro medio continúa siendo un problema de salud pública prioritario. Las dificultades diagnósticas del niño y la falta de formulaciones pediátricas óptimas son el mayor desafío para control de TB infantil. El Grupo de expertos de TB pediátrica realiza un análisis de las nuevas tendencias internacionales y guías terapéuticas de tuberculosis en niños, según nuevas evidencias disponibles; y considera una prioridad actualizar las guías pediátricas nacionales de exposición a TB, infección tuberculosa latente y enfermedad, y particularmente los casos de resistencia a fármacos. Este documento, por tanto, sustituye a todos los previos en cuanto a las pautas terapéuticas, aunque siguen estando vigentes las indicaciones diagnósticas (AU)


Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease. Spain is the Western European country with more paediatric cases, with an incidence 4.3/100,000 inhabitants in 2014. Paediatric tuberculosis mortality in Spain is rare, but extra-pulmonary disease is associated with significant complications. The prevalence of paediatric drug resistant TB in Spain is over 4%, higher than the estimated incidence in adult population, representing mayor difficulties for therapeutic intervention. These data reveal that paediatric TB is still a Public Health priority in our country. The difficulties in diagnosis and the lack of optimal paediatric drug formulations are the major challenges for controlling the childhood's tuberculosis epidemic. A group of national paeditric TB experts has reviewed the international guidelines and the most recent evidences, and has established new recommendations for the management of paediatric TB contacts, latent infection and active TB disease, especially focused in drug resistant cases. This document replaces the former national guidelines from the Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectios Diseases, although the prior recommendations on the diagnosis remain valid (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
13.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 88(1): 52.e1-52.e12, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729186

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease. Spain is the Western European country with more paediatric cases, with an incidence 4.3/100,000 inhabitants in 2014. Paediatric tuberculosis mortality in Spain is rare, but extra-pulmonary disease is associated with significant complications. The prevalence of paediatric drug resistant TB in Spain is over 4%, higher than the estimated incidence in adult population, representing mayor difficulties for therapeutic intervention. These data reveal that paediatric TB is still a Public Health priority in our country. The difficulties in diagnosis and the lack of optimal paediatric drug formulations are the major challenges for controlling the childhood's tuberculosis epidemic. A group of national paeditric TB experts has reviewed the international guidelines and the most recent evidences, and has established new recommendations for the management of paediatric TB contacts, latent infection and active TB disease, especially focused in drug resistant cases. This document replaces the former national guidelines from the Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectios Diseases, although the prior recommendations on the diagnosis remain valid.

14.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 88(3): 122-126, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is endemic in Latin-America and is emerging in Spain due to immigration. The vertical transmission rate is around 5%. A routine prenatal screening with serology of all pregnant women from endemic areas is recommended to identify infected newborns, allowing early treatment and cure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of positive Chagas serology in a cohort of pregnant women from Latin-America and its vertical transmission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, prospective, follow-up study was conducted on women with positive serology to T. cruzi, as well as their newborns, from January 2013 to April 2015. Congenital Chagas was ruled out using a PCR technique at birth and at 1 month, and with serology at 9-12 months old. A child was considered infected when PCR was positive, and uninfected when PCR was negative, and/or it had a negative serology. RESULTS: Screening was performed on 1244 pregnant women from Latin-America, and there were positive results in 40 (prevalence 3.2%, 95% CI: 2.4-4.4%), with 85% of them from Bolivia. There was only one infected newborn (rate of vertical transmission 2.8% (95% CI: 0-15%)), who had a positive PCR at birth. Relative studies enabled an 8-year-old sister with an asymptomatic disease to be diagnosed and treated. Both were treated successfully with benznidazole (later the PCR and serology were negative). CONCLUSION: Screening during pregnancy in Latin-American women helped to detect those with Chagas disease. The rate of vertical transmission was 2.8%, in keeping with literature. Screening led to the detection and treatment of previously unidentified familial cases.

15.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2017: 5687490, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204302

RESUMO

Parainfluenza 3 virus is a frequent cause of respiratory infections in the pediatric population although it is uncommonly diagnosed in neonates, being usually reported as neonatal intensive care unit microepidemics. We report a case of parainfluenza 3 respiratory infection associated with pericardial effusion in a very low birthweight infant.

16.
Pediátr. Panamá ; 46(3): 40-45, diciembre 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-877523

RESUMO

Kingella kingae es un colonizador habitual de la orofaringe en niños pequeños. Aunque en la mayoría de ocasiones la colonización es asintomática, puede dar lugar a infección invasiva. Este microorganismo ha sido crecientemente identificado como agente causal de infección osteoarticular en niños. Los datos limitados de artritis séptica por K. kingae y la dificultad para su identificación en los medios de cultivo habituales, pueden ocasionar retraso diagnóstico y en el inicio del tratamiento. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de lactantes con artritis séptica por K. kingae diagnosticada mediante PCR en líquido articular. El primero de ellos se trata de una mujer de 20 meses con sospecha inicial de sinovitis transitoria de cadera derecha, que acude a urgencias por cojera de 10 días de evolución. Ingresa tras 48 horas de fiebre y tumefacción de rodilla derecha, instaurándose tratamiento empírico con cloxacilina y cefotaxima tras diagnóstico de artritis séptica. Se obtiene PCR positiva para K. kingae en líquido articular. El segundo es un varón de 20 meses que acude a urgencias por dolor, tumefacción y limitación a la flexión de rodilla izquierda de 2-3 semanas, que en las últimas 24 horas se acompaña de fiebre de hasta 38.5ºC. Cuadro catarral previo. Ingresado una semana antes por el mismo motivo, con analítica sin alteraciones y análisis del líquido articular normal. De nuevo se decide ingreso repitiendo las pruebas complementarias e iniciando tratamiento empírico con cloxacilina y cefotaxima. Identificación de K. kingae mediante PCR en segunda muestra de líquido articular. Ambos casos presentaron buena evolución sin secuelas posteriores.


Kingella kingae is a common colonizer of the oropharynx in young children. Although most colonization is asymptomatic, it can lead to invasive infection. This microorganism is increasingly recognized as a cause of osteoarticular infections in children. The limited data of septic arthritis due to K. kingae and the difficulty to identify this organism in routine cultures, can delay the diagnosis and treatment. Two cases of infants with septic arthritis by K. kingae diagnosed by PCR are described. The first one is about a 20-month-old woman with initial suspicion of transient synovitis of the right hip, who came to the emergency department with limping in the last 10 days. She is admitted to hospital because of fever and inflammation on the right knee for 48 hours. We initiated empirical treatment with cefotaxime and cloxacillin after diagnosis of septic arthritis. Positive PCR for K. kingae was obtained in joint fluid. The second case is about a 20-month-old male who came to the emergency room due to pain, swelling and limitation to left knee flexion, 2-3 weeks of evolution, accompanied by fever for the last 24 hours (38.5ºC). He had the antecedent of catarrhal picture previously. He had been admitted to hospital the previous week because of the same symptoms, with blood and joint fluid exams without alterations. He is admitted again with empirical treatment with cloxacillin and cefotaxime after repeating the laboratory exams. K. kingae was identified by PCR in the second sample of joint fluid. Both cases presented had good evolution without subsequent sequels.

17.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 87(4): 201-205, oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167296

RESUMO

Introducción: Las técnicas de biología molecular han demostrado ser útiles en la detección del enterovirus en niños con meningitis aséptica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue analizar cambios en la práctica clínica tras la introducción de una técnica de RT-PCR a tiempo real, ensayo Xpert EV (Cepheid(R)), para la detección de enterovirus en muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo de niños con sospecha de meningitis vírica. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de los niños mayores de 1año diagnosticados de meningitis por enterovirus en un hospital de tercer nivel desde noviembre de 2006 a febrero de 2013. Se comparó el periodo previo a la introducción del ensayo Xpert EV (Cepheid(R)) (grupo1: noviembre 2006-agosto de 2010) con el periodo posterior (grupo2: septiembre 2010-febrero 2013). Se compararon las características clínicas, los tiempos de estancia media y los costes por hospitalización. Resultados: Se incluyeron 41 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 64 meses (rango intercuartílico, 28-96). En el grupo 2 se incluyeron 26 pacientes (63,4%). No hubo diferencias epidemiológicas, de gravedad, ni de laboratorio estadísticamente significativas entre los pacientes valorados en ambos grupos. Se observó una disminución significativa en la duración de estancia media hospitalaria en el grupo 2 (48 h vs 40,5 h, p = 0,039) y una disminución significativa en el gasto por paciente hospitalizado (779,77 Euros vs. 656,05 Euros, p<0,05). Conclusiones: La incorporación de la técnica Xpert EV (Cepheid(R)) permitió disminuir la estancia y el gasto asociado a hospitalización en niños con meningitis por enterovirus (AU)


Introduction: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have shown to be useful and quick for the diagnosis of enterovirus in aseptic meningitis. The aim of our study was to analyse the changes in clinical practice after the introduction of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique using the Xpert EV (Cepheid(R)) assay for the qualitative detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from children with suspected viral meningitis. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in children older than 1 year, diagnosed with enterovirus meningitis in a third level hospital from November 2006 to February 2013. The first period, before the availability of Xpert EV (Cepheid(R)) (Group 1, November 2006-August 2010) was compared with the later period (Group 2, September 2010-February 2013). Clinical characteristics, the mean length of stay, and the cost per inpatient cases, were compared between the 2 periods. Results: Forty-one patients (60.9% male) were included, with a median age of 64 months (interquartile range 28-96). Twenty-six patients (63.4%) were included in Group 2. There were non-statistically significant differences in the epidemiological, disease severity, and laboratory characteristics between both periods of study. A significant difference was observed in the mean length of stay, with it being shorter in Group2 (48 hours vs 40.5 hours, P = .039), and a significant lower inpatient cost per case (Euros 779.77 vs Euros 656.05, P < .05). Conclusion: Xpert EV (Cepheid(R)) assay was useful for decreasing the length of hospital stay and the costs associated with hospitalisation in children with enterovirus meningitis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Meningite Asséptica/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Enterovirus/patogenicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Punção Espinal
18.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 87(4): 201-205, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919639

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have shown to be useful and quick for the diagnosis of enterovirus in aseptic meningitis. The aim of our study was to analyse the changes in clinical practice after the introduction of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique using the Xpert EV (Cepheid®) assay for the qualitative detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from children with suspected viral meningitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in children older than 1year, diagnosed with enterovirus meningitis in a third level hospital from November 2006 to February 2013. The first period, before the availability of Xpert EV (Cepheid®) (Group1, November 2006-August 2010) was compared with the later period (Group2, September 2010-February 2013). Clinical characteristics, the mean length of stay, and the cost per inpatient cases, were compared between the 2periods. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (60.9% male) were included, with a median age of 64 months (interquartile range 28-96). Twenty-six patients (63.4%) were included in Group2. There were non-statistically significant differences in the epidemiological, disease severity, and laboratory characteristics between both periods of study. A significant difference was observed in the mean length of stay, with it being shorter in Group2 (48hours vs 40.5hours, P=.039), and a significant lower inpatient cost per case (€779.77 vs €656.05, P<.05). CONCLUSION: Xpert EV (Cepheid®) assay was useful for decreasing the length of hospital stay and the costs associated with hospitalisation in children with enterovirus meningitis.

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