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2.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 30, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947837

RESUMO

Pannexin1 (PANX1) is a large-pore ATP efflux channel with a broad distribution, which allows the exchange of molecules and ions smaller than 1 kDa between the cytoplasm and extracellular space. In this study, we show that in human macrophages PANX1 expression is upregulated by diverse stimuli that promote pyroptosis, which is reminiscent of the previously reported lipopolysaccharide-induced upregulation of PANX1 during inflammasome activation. To further elucidate the function of PANX1, we propose the full-length human Pannexin1 (hPANX1) model through cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies, establishing hPANX1 as a homo-heptamer and revealing that both the N-termini and C-termini protrude deeply into the channel pore funnel. MD simulations also elucidate key energetic features governing the channel that lay a foundation to understand the channel gating mechanism. Structural analyses, functional characterizations, and computational studies support the current hPANX1-MD model, suggesting the potential role of hPANX1 in pyroptosis during immune responses.

3.
Med (N Y) ; 2(6): 689-700.e4, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821249

RESUMO

Background: Strategies for monitoring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are crucial for combating the pandemic. Detection and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses require separate and complex workflows that rely on highly specialized facilities, personnel, and reagents. To date, no method can rapidly diagnose multiple viral infections and determine variants in a high-throughput manner. Methods: We describe a method for multiplex isothermal amplification-based sequencing and real-time analysis of multiple viral genomes, termed nanopore sequencing of isothermal rapid viral amplification for near real-time analysis (NIRVANA). It can simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, human adenovirus, and human coronavirus and monitor mutations for up to 96 samples in real time. Findings: NIRVANA showed high sensitivity and specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in 70 clinical samples with a detection limit of 20 viral RNA copies per µL of extracted nucleic acid. It also detected the influenza A co-infection in two samples. The variant analysis results of SARS-CoV-2-positive samples mirror the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Additionally, NIRVANA could simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2 and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) (an omnipresent virus and water-quality indicator) in municipal wastewater samples. Conclusions: NIRVANA provides high-confidence detection of both SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on the fly. We expect it to offer a promising solution for rapid field-deployable detection and mutational surveillance of pandemic viruses. Funding: M.L. is supported by KAUST Office of Sponsored Research (BAS/1/1080-01). This work is supported by KAUST Competitive Research Grant (URF/1/3412-01-01; M.L. and J.C.I.B.) and Universidad Catolica San Antonio de Murcia (J.C.I.B.). A.M.H. is supported by Saudi Ministry of Education (project 436).

4.
Glob Chall ; : 2000068, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786197

RESUMO

Molecular diagnosis and surveillance of pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 depend on nucleic acid isolation. Pandemics at the scale of COVID-19 can cause a global shortage of proprietary commercial reagents and BSL-2 laboratories to safely perform testing. Therefore, alternative solutions are urgently needed to address these challenges. An open-source method, magnetic-nanoparticle-aided viral RNA isolation from contagious samples (MAVRICS), built upon readily available reagents, and easily assembled in any basically equipped laboratory, is thus developed. The performance of MAVRICS is evaluated using validated pathogen detection assays and real-world and contrived samples. Unlike conventional methods, MAVRICS works directly in samples inactivated in phenol-chloroform (e.g., TRIzol), thus allowing infectious samples to be handled safely without biocontainment facilities. MAVRICS allows wastewater biomass immobilized on membranes to be directly inactivated and lysed in TRIzol followed by RNA extraction by magnetic nanoparticles, thereby greatly reducing biohazard risk and simplifying processing procedures. Using 39 COVID-19 patient samples and two wastewater samples, it is shown that MAVRICS rivals commercial kits in detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses, and respiratory syncytial virus. Therefore, MAVRICS is safe, fast, and scalable. It is field-deployable with minimal equipment requirements and could become an enabling technology for widespread testing and wastewater monitoring of diverse pathogens.

5.
ACS Omega ; 6(11): 7374-7386, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778250

RESUMO

One-step reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most widely applied method for COVID-19 diagnostics. Notwithstanding the facts that one-step qRT-PCR is well suited for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and that there are many commercially available one-step qRT-PCR kits in the market, their high cost and unavailability due to airport closures and shipment restriction became a major bottleneck that had driven the desire to produce the key components of such kits locally. Here, we provide a simple, economical, and powerful one-step qRT-PCR kit based on patent-free, specifically tailored versions of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase and termed R3T (Rapid Research Response Team) one-step qRT-PCR. We also demonstrate the robustness of our enzyme production strategies and provide the optimal reaction conditions for their efficient augmentation in a one-step approach. Our kit was routinely able to reliably detect as low as 10 copies of the synthetic RNAs of SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, our kit successfully detected COVID-19 in clinical samples of broad viral titers with similar reliability and selectivity to that of the Invitrogen SuperScript III Platinum One-step qRT-PCR and TaqPath one-step RT-qPCR kits. Overall, our kit has shown robust performance in both laboratory settings and the Saudi Ministry of Health-approved testing facility.

6.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 7627148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065279

RESUMO

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are good candidates for brain cell replacement strategies and have already been used as adjuvant treatments in neurological disorders. MSCs can be obtained from many different sources, and the present study compares the potential of neuronal transdifferentiation in MSCs from adult and neonatal sources (Wharton's jelly (WhJ), dental pulp (DP), periodontal ligament (PDL), gingival tissue (GT), dermis (SK), placenta (PLAC), and umbilical cord blood (UCB)) with a protocol previously tested in bone marrow- (BM-) MSCs consisting of a cocktail of six small molecules: I-BET151, CHIR99021, forskolin, RepSox, Y-27632, and dbcAMP (ICFRYA). Neuronal morphology and the presence of cells positive for neuronal markers (TUJ1 and MAP2) were considered attributes of neuronal induction. The ICFRYA cocktail did not induce neuronal features in WhJ-MSCs, and these features were only partial in the MSCs from dental tissues, SK-MSCs, and PLAC-MSCs. The best response was found in UCB-MSCs, which was comparable to the response of BM-MSCs. The addition of neurotrophic factors to the ICFRYA cocktail significantly increased the number of cells with complex neuron-like morphology and increased the number of cells positive for mature neuronal markers in BM- and UCB-MSCs. The neuronal cells generated from UCB-MSCs and BM-MSCs showed increased reactivity of the neuronal genes TUJ1, MAP2, NF-H, NCAM, ND1, TAU, ENO2, GABA, and NeuN as well as down- and upregulation of MSC and neuronal genes, respectively. The present study showed marked differences between the MSCs from different sources in response to the transdifferentiation protocol used here. These results may contribute to identifying the best source of MSCs for potential cell replacement therapies.

7.
Curr Genomics ; 20(6): 438-452, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194342

RESUMO

Numerous human disorders of the blood system would directly or indirectly benefit from therapeutic approaches that reconstitute the hematopoietic system. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), either from matched donors or ex vivo manipulated autologous tissues, are the most used cellular source of cell therapy for a wide range of disorders. Due to the scarcity of matched donors and the difficulty of ex vivo expansion of HSCs, there is a growing interest in harnessing the potential of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) as a de novo source of HSCs. PSCs make an ideal source of cells for regenerative medicine in general and for treating blood disorders in particular because they could expand indefinitely in culture and differentiate to any cell type in the body. However, advancement in deriving functional HSCs from PSCs has been slow. This is partly due to an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal hematopoiesis. In this review, we discuss the latest efforts to generate human PSC (hPSC)-derived HSCs capable of long-term engraftment. We review the regulation of the key transcription factors (TFs) in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic differentiation, the Homeobox (HOX) and GATA genes, and the interplay between them and microRNAs. We also propose that precise control of these master regulators during the course of hematopoietic differentiation is key to achieving functional hPSC-derived HSCs.

8.
J Neurophysiol ; 120(3): 973-984, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790838

RESUMO

Neuronal activity in the retina generates osmotic gradients that lead to Müller cell swelling, followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response, partially due to the isoosmotic efflux of KCl and water. However, our previous studies in a human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) demonstrated that an important fraction of RVD may also involve the efflux of organic solutes. We also showed that RVD depends on the swelling-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Here we investigate the contribution of taurine (Tau) and glutamate (Glu), the most relevant amino acids in Müller cells, to RVD through the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC), as well as their Ca2+ dependency in MIO-M1 cells. Swelling-induced [3H]Tau/[3H]Glu release was assessed by radiotracer assays and cell volume by fluorescence videomicroscopy. Results showed that cells exhibited an osmosensitive efflux of [3H]Tau and [3H]Glu (Tau > Glu) blunted by VRAC inhibitors 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl)-oxybutyric acid and carbenoxolone reducing RVD. Only [3H]Tau efflux was mainly dependent on Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. RVD was unaffected in a Ca2+-free medium, probably due to Ca2+-independent Tau and Glu release, but was reduced by chelating intracellular Ca2+. The inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase reduced [3H]Glu efflux but also the Ca2+-insensitive [3H]Tau fraction and decreased RVD, providing evidence of the relevance of this Ca2+-independent pathway. We propose that VRAC-mediated Tau and Glu release has a relevant role in RVD in Müller cells. The observed disparities in Ca2+ influence on amino acid release suggest the presence of VRAC isoforms that may differ in substrate selectivity and regulatory mechanisms, with important implications for retinal physiology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The mechanisms for cell volume regulation in retinal Müller cells are still unknown. We show that swelling-induced taurine and glutamate release mediated by the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) largely contributes the to the regulatory volume decrease response in a human Müller cell line. Interestingly, the hypotonic-induced efflux of these amino acids exhibits disparities in Ca2+-dependent and -independent regulatory mechanisms, which strongly suggests that Müller cells may express different VRAC heteromers formed by the recently discovered leucine-rich repeat containing 8 (LRRC8) proteins.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular , Células Ependimogliais/citologia , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Ânions/metabolismo , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Carbenoxolona/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Humanos , Indanos/farmacologia , Canais Iônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Microscopia de Vídeo , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Retina/fisiologia
9.
Neurochem Res ; 42(2): 415-427, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804011

RESUMO

Neural progenitors (NP), found in fetal and adult brain, differentiate into neurons potentially able to be used in cell replacement therapies. This approach however, raises technical and ethical problems which limit their potential therapeutic use. Alternately, NPs can be obtained by transdifferentiation of non-neural somatic cells evading these difficulties. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are suggested to transdifferentiate into NP-like cells, which however, have a low proliferation capacity. The present study demonstrates the requisite of cell adhesion for proliferation and survival of NP-like cells and re-evaluates some neuronal features after differentiation by standard procedures. Mature neuronal markers, though, were not detected by these procedures. A chemical differentiation approach was used in this study to convert MSCs-derived NP-like cells into neurons by using a cocktail of six molecules, CHIR99021, I-BET151, RepSox, DbcAMP, forskolin and Y-27632, defined after screening combinations of 22 small molecules. Direct transdifferentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells was obtained with the small molecule cocktail, without requiring the NP-like intermediate stage.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colforsina/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Stem Cell Res ; 12(3): 690-702, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24681519

RESUMO

Taurine was previously reported to increase the proliferation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from subventricular zone of the mouse brain. The results of a study that aimed to understand the mechanisms of this effect are presented here. Because taurine was not found in NPC nuclei, direct interactions with nuclear elements seem unlikely. A gene expression profile analysis indicated that genes that are regulated by taurine have roles in i) proliferation, including the Shh and Wnt pathways; ii) cellular adhesion; iii) cell survival; and iv) mitochondrial functioning. Cell cycle analysis of propidium iodide and CFSE-labeled cells using flow cytometry revealed an increase in the number of cells in the S-phase and a decrease in those in the G0/G1 phase in taurine-treated cultures. No changes in the length of the cell cycle were observed. Quantification of the viable, apoptotic, and necrotic cells in cultures using flow cytometry and calcein-AM, annexin-V, and propidium iodide staining showed reductions in the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells (18% to 11% and 13% to 10%, respectively) and increases in the number of viable cells (61% to 69%) in the taurine-treated cultures. Examination of the relative mitochondrial potential values by flow cytometry and rhodamine123 or JC-1 staining showed a 44% increase in the number of cells with higher mitochondrial potential and a 38% increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential in taurine cultures compared with those of controls. Taken together, the results suggest that taurine provides more favorable conditions for cell proliferation by improving mitochondrial functioning.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Ventrículos Laterais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
12.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 34(6): 2038-48, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25562152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neural stem/ progenitor cells (NPCs) endure important changes in cell volume during growth, proliferation and migration. As a first approach to know about NPC response to cell volume changes, the Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD) subsequent to hypotonic swelling was investigated. METHODS: NPCs obtained from the mesencephalon and the subventricular zone of embryonic and adult mice, respectively, were grown and cultured as neurospheres. Cell volume changes were measured by large-angle light-scattering and taurine efflux by [(3)H]-taurine. Expression of genes encoding molecules related to RVD was analysed using a DNA microarray obtained from NPC samples. RESULTS: Embryonic and adult NPCs exposed to osmolarity reduction (H15, H30, H40) exhibited rapid swelling followed by RVD. The magnitude, efficiency and pharmacological profile, of RVD and of [(3)H]-taurine osmosensitive efflux were comparable to those found in cultured brain cells, astrocytes and neurons. The relative expression of genes encoding molecules related to volume regulation, i.e. K(+) and Cl(-) channels, cotransporters, exchangers and aquaporins were identified in NPCs. CONCLUSION: NPCs show the ability to respond to hypotonic-evoked volume changes by adaptative recovery processes, similar to those found in other cultured brain cells. Genes related to molecules involved in RVD were found expressed in NPCs.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Tamanho Celular , Análise em Microsséries , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Taurina/química
13.
Dev Neurosci ; 35(1): 40-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23466467

RESUMO

Taurine is present at high concentrations in the fetal brain and is required for optimal brain development. Recent studies have reported that taurine causes increased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor neural cells (neural precursor cells, NPCs) obtained from embryonic and adult rodent brain. The present study is the first to show that taurine markedly increases cell numbers in cultures and neuronal generation from human NPCs (hNPCs). hNPCs obtained from 3 fetal brains (14-15 weeks of gestation) were cultured and expanded as neurospheres, which contained 76.3% nestin-positive cells. Taurine (5-20 mM) increased the number of hNPCs in culture, with maximal effect found at 10 mM and 4 days of culture. The taurine-induced increase ranged from 57 to 188% in the 3 brains examined. Taurine significantly enhanced the percentage of neurons formed from hNPCs under differentiating conditions, with increases ranging from 172 to 480% over controls without taurine. Taurine also increased the cell number and neuronal generation in cultures of the immortalized human cell line ReNcell VM. These results suggest that taurine has a positive influence on hNPC growth and neuronal formation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Taurina/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feto , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia
14.
Pflugers Arch ; 464(3): 317-30, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22864523

RESUMO

The involvement of WNK3 (with no lysine [K] kinase) in cell volume regulation evoked by anisotonic conditions was investigated in two modified stable lines of HEK293 cells: WNK3+, overexpressing WNK3 and WNK3-KD expressing a kinase inactive by a punctual mutation (D294A) at the catalytic site. This different WNK3 functional expression modified intracellular Cl(-) concentration with the following profile: WNK3+ > control > WNK3-KD cells. Stimulated with 15% hypotonic solutions, WNK3+ cells showed less efficient RVD (13.1%), lower Cl(-) efflux and decreased (94.5%) KCC activity. WNK3-KD cells showed 30.1% more efficient RVD, larger Cl(-) efflux and 5-fold higher KCC activity, increased since the isotonic condition. Volume-sensitive Cl(-) currents were similar in controls, WNK3+ cells, and WNK3-KD cells. Taurine efflux was not evoked at H15%. These results show a WNK3 influence on RVD in HEK293 cells via increasing KCC activity. Hypertonic medium induced cell shrinkage and RVI. In both WNK3+ and WNK3-KD cells, RVI and NKCC activity were increased, in WNK3+ cells presumably by enhanced NKCC phosphorylation, and in WNK3-KD cells via the [Cl(-)](i) reduction induced by the higher KCC activity in characteristic of these cells. These results support the role of WNK3 in modulation of intracellular Cl(-) concentration, in RVD, and indirectly on RVI, via its effects on KCC and NKCC activity. WNK3 in HEK293 cells is expressed as puncta at the intercellular junctions and diffusely at the cytosol, while the inactive kinase was found concentrated at the Golgi area. Cells with inactive WNK3 exhibited a marked change of cell phenotype.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular , Cloretos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Concentração Osmolar , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo
15.
Stem Cell Res ; 9(1): 24-34, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22484511

RESUMO

This study reports an effect of taurine (1-10 mM) increasing markedly (120%) the number of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from adult mouse subventricular zone, cultured as neurospheres. This effect is one of the highest reported for adult neural precursor cells. Taurine-containing cultures showed 73-120% more cells than controls, after 24 and 96 h in culture, respectively. Taurine effect is due to enhanced proliferation as assessed by BrdU incorporation assays. In taurine cultures BrdU incorporation was markedly higher than controls from 1.5 to 48 h, with the maximal difference found at 1.5 h. This effect of taurine reproduced at every passage with the same window time. Taurine effects are not mimicked by glycine, alanine or GABA. Clonal efficiency values of 3.6% for taurine cultures and 1.3% for control cultures suggest a taurine influence on both, progenitor and stem cells. Upon differentiation, the proportion of neurons in control and taurine cultures was 3.1% (±0.5) and 10.2% (±0.8), respectively. These results are relevant for taurine implication in brain development as well as in adult neurogenesis. Possible mechanisms underlying taurine effects on cell proliferation are discussed.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos
16.
Biosci Rep ; 31(6): 489-97, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21568938

RESUMO

Hypertonicity is a stressful stimulus leading to cell shrinkage and apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis can be prevented if cells are able to activate the mechanism of RVI (regulatory volume increase). This study in mIMCD3 cells presents evidence of a permissive role of the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) on RVI, achieved for the most part through the two main EGFR-triggered signalling chains, the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt (also known as protein kinase B) pathways. Hyperosmotic solutions (450 mosM) made by addition of NaCl, increased EGFR phosphorylation, which is prevented by GM6001 and AG1478, blockers respectively, of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and EGFR. Inhibition of EGFR, ERK (PD98059) or PI3K/Akt (wortmannin) phosphorylation reduced RVI by 60, 48 and 58% respectively. The NHE (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger) seems to be the essential mediator of this effect since (i) NHE is the main contributor to RVI, (ii) EGFR, ERK and PI3K/Akt blockers added together with the NHE blocker zoniporide reduce RVI by non-additive effects and (iii) All the blockers significantly lowered the NHE rate in cells challenged by an NH(4)Cl pulse. Besides reducing RVI, the inhibition of MMP, EGFR and PI3K/Akt had a strong pro-apoptotic effect increasing cell death by 2-3.7-fold. This effect was significantly lower when RVI inhibition did not involve the EGFR-PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide evidence that Akt and its permissive effect on RVI have a predominant influence on cell survival under hypertonic conditions in IMCD3 cells. This role of Akt operates under the influence of EGFR activation, promoted by MMP.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Tamanho Celular , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/fisiologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Dev Neurosci ; 32(4): 321-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21160187

RESUMO

Taurine addition to cultured embryonic neural precursor cells (NPC) significantly increased cell proliferation [Hernández-Benítez et al., 2010]. The medium used for NPC growing and proliferation is a fetal serum-free medium, and therefore, NPC become taurine depleted. Addition of taurine to the cultured medium fully replenished the cell taurine pool, suggesting the functional expression of a taurine transporter (TauT) in these cells. In the present study, TauT in NPC was functionally characterized and its protein expression and the subcellular distribution of immunoreactivity were determined. ³H-taurine uptake in NPC could be separated into a non-saturable component and a Na(+)/Cl⁻-dependent, saturable component. The saturable component showed an apparent 2:1:1 Na(+)/Cl⁻/taurine stoichiometry, a V(max) of 0.39 ± 0.04 nmol/mg protein/min, and a K(m) of 21.7 ± 2.6 µM. TauT in NPC was strongly inhibited by hypotaurine and ß-alanine (92 and 79%, respectively) and reduced (71%) by γ-aminobutyric acid. TauT protein is expressed in NPC as a single band of about 70 kDa. Essentially all (98.8%) of the neurosphere-forming cells were positive to TauT immunoreactivity. Immunolocalization visualized by confocal microscopy localized TauT predominantly at the cell membrane. TauT was also found at the cytosol and only occasionally at the nuclear membrane. This study represents the first characterization of TauT in NPC.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/biossíntese , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Confocal , Ratos
18.
J Neurosci Res ; 88(8): 1673-81, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20029963

RESUMO

Taurine is present in high levels in fetal brain which decrease in the adult, suggesting its role in brain development. In some regions of taurine deficient animals cells show defective migration and the presence of numerous mitotic figures, suggesting a delay in cell proliferation. To know more about the role of taurine in the developing brain cells, the present study investigated whether taurine is a factor involved in proliferation or/and viability of neural progenitor cells (NPC). NPC were obtained from 13.5-days mice embryos mesencephalon, and cultured during 4-5 days to form neurospheres in the presence of EGF plus FGFb (EGF/FGF) or EGF alone. Mesencephalon taurine content (349 mmoles/kg protein) was lost in NPC and recovered after addition of 10 mM taurine to the culture. Neurospheres-forming NPC were over 94% nestin-positive. Taurine increased 38.6% and 43.2% the number of NPC formed in EGF/FGF or EGF conditions, respectively. In secondary neurospheres this increase was 24.6% and 62.1%, in EGF/FGF or EGF cultures respectively. Correspondingly neurospheres size was increased by taurine but neurospheres number was not enhanced. Taurine significantly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells, without affecting cell viability, suggesting proliferation as the mechanism responsible for taurine action increasing NPC. Taurine seems unable to increase the number of beta-III-tubulin-positive cells differentiated from neurospheres after serum addition, and rather an increase in astrocytes was observed. These results point to taurine as a trophic factor contributing to optimize NPC proliferation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Camundongos , Taurina/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
19.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 21(1-3): 1-14, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18209467

RESUMO

Cell volume is determined genetically for each cell lineage, but it is not a static feature of the cell. Intracellular volume is continuously challenged by metabolic reactions, uptake of nutrients, intracellular displacement of molecules and organelles and generation of ionic gradients. Moreover, recent evidence raises the intriguing possibility that changes in cell volume act as signals for basic cell functions such as proliferation, migration, secretion and apoptosis. Cells adapt to volume increase by a complex, dynamic process resulting from the concerted action of volume sensing mechanisms and intricate signaling chains, directed to initiate the multiple adaptations demanded by a change in cell volume, among others adhesion reactions, membrane and cytoskeleton remodeling, and activation of the osmolyte pathways leading to reestablish the water balance between extracellular/intracellular or intracellular/intracellular compartments. In multicellular organisms, a continuous interaction with the external milieu is fundamental for the dynamics of the cell. It is in this sense that the recent surge of interest about the influence on cell volume control by the most extended family of signaling elements, the G proteins, acquires particular importance. As here reviewed, a large variety of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in this interplay with cell volume regulatory mechanisms, which amplifies and diversifies the volume-elicited signaling chains, providing a variety of routes towards the multiple effectors related to cell volume changes.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk
20.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 306(1-2): 95-104, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17684706

RESUMO

Cell swelling, regulatory volume decrease (RVD), volume-sensitive Cl(-) (Cl(-) (swell)) current and taurine efflux after exposure to high concentrations of urea were characterized in fibroblasts Swiss 3T3, and results compared to those elicited by hyposmotic (30%) swelling. Urea 70, 100, and 150 mM linearly increased cell volume (8.25%, 10.6%, and 15.7%), by a phloretin-inhibitable process. This was followed by RVD by which cells exposed to 70, 100, or 150 mM urea recovered 27.6%, 38.95, and 74.1% of their original volume, respectively. Hyposmolarity (30%) led to a volume increase of 25.9% and recovered volume in 32.5%. (3)H-taurine efflux was increased by urea with a sigmoid pattern, as 9.5%, 18.9%, 71.5%, and 89% of the labeled taurine pool was released by 70, 100, 150, or 200 mM urea, respectively. Only about 11% of taurine was released by 30% hyposmolarity reduction in spite of the high increase in cell volume. Urea-induced taurine efflux was suppressed by NPPB (100 microM) and markedly reduced by the tyrosine kinase-general blocker AG18. The Cl(-) (swell) current was more rapidly activated and higher in amplitude in the hyposmotic than in the isosmotic/urea condition (urea 150 mM), but this was not sufficient to accomplish an efficient RVD. These results showed that at similar volume increase, cells swollen by urea showed higher taurine efflux, lower Cl(-) (swell) current and more efficient RVD, than in those swollen by hyposmolarity. The correlation found between RVD efficiency and taurine efflux suggest a prominent role for organic over ionic osmolytes for RVD evoked by urea in isosmotic conditions.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureia/farmacologia , Animais , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Eletrofisiologia , Camundongos , Nitrobenzoatos/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Células Swiss 3T3 , Taurina/metabolismo
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