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1.
J Environ Manage ; 256: 109894, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989973

RESUMO

Despite the wide variety of variables commonly employed to measure the success of rehabilitation, the assessment and subsequent definition of indicators of environmental rehabilitation status are not simple tasks. The main challenges are comparing rehabilitated sites with target ecosystems as well as integrating individual environmental and eventually collinear variables into a single tractable measure for the state of a system before effective indicators that track rehabilitation may be modeled. Furthermore, a consensus is lacking regarding which and how many variables need to be surveyed for a reliable estimation of rehabilitation status. Here, we propose a multivariate ordination to integrate variables related to ecological processes, vegetation structure, and community diversity into a single estimation of rehabilitation status. As a case, we employed a curated set of 32 environmental variables retrieved from nonrevegetated, rehabilitating and reference sites associated with iron ore mines from the Urucum Massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. By integrating this set of environmental variables into a single estimation of rehabilitation status, the proposed multivariate approach is straightforward and able to adequately address collinearity among variables. The proposed methodology allows for the identification of biases towards single variables, surveys or analyses, which is necessary to rank environmental variables regarding their importance to the assessment. Furthermore, we show that bootstrapping permitted the detection of the minimum number of environmental variables necessary to achieve reliable estimations of the rehabilitation status. Finally, we show that the proposed variable integration enables the definition of case-specific environmental indicators for more rapid assessments of mineland rehabilitation. Thus, the proposed multivariate ordination represents a powerful tool to facilitate the diagnosis of rehabilitating sites worldwide provided that sufficient environmental variables related to ecological processes, diversity and vegetation structure are gathered from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites. By identifying deviations from predicted rehabilitation trajectories and providing assessments for environmental agencies, this proposed multivariate ordination increases the effectiveness of (mineland) rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Brasil , Emprego , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração
2.
Sci Data ; 6: 190008, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747914

RESUMO

Microorganisms are useful environmental indicators, able to deliver essential insights to processes regarding mine land rehabilitation. To compare microbial communities from a chronosequence of mine land rehabilitation to pre-disturbance levels from references sites covered by native vegetation, we sampled non-rehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites from the Urucum Massif, Southwestern Brazil. From each study site, three composed soil samples were collected for chemical, physical, and metagenomics analysis. We used a paired-end library sequencing technology (NextSeq 500 Illumina); the reads were assembled using MEGAHIT. Coding DNA sequences (CDS) were identified using Kaiju in combination with non-redundant NCBI BLAST reference sequences containing archaea, bacteria, and viruses. Additionally, a functional classification was performed by EMG v2.3.2. Here, we provide the raw data and assembly (reads and contigs), followed by initial functional and taxonomic analysis, as a base-line for further studies of this kind. Further investigation is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of environmental rehabilitation in tropical regions, inspiring further researchers to explore this collection for hypothesis testing.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Brasil , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ferro , Microbiota/genética , Mineração , Vírus/genética
3.
Ambio ; 48(1): 74-88, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644620

RESUMO

Environmental legislation in many countries demands the rehabilitation of degraded areas to minimize environmental impacts. Brazilian laws require the restitution of self-sustaining ecosystems to historical conditions but ignore the emergence of novel ecosystems due to large-scale changes, such as species invasions, extinctions, and land-use or climate changes, although these novel ecosystems might fulfill ecosystem services in similar ways as historic ecosystems. Thorough discussions of rehabilitation goals, target ecosystems, applied methods, and approaches to achieving mine land rehabilitation, as well as dialogues about the advantages and risks of chemical inputs or non-native, non-invasive species that include all political, economic, social, and academic stakeholders are necessary to achieve biological feasibility, sociocultural acceptance, economic viability, and institutional tractability during environmental rehabilitation. Scientific knowledge of natural and rehabilitating ecosystems is indispensable for advancing these discussions and achieving more sustainable mining. Both mining companies and public institutions are responsible for obtaining this knowledge.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Metas , Brasil , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mineração
4.
Food Chem ; 165: 578-86, 2014 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25038715

RESUMO

Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Imidoésteres/química , Selênio/química , Selenocisteína/análogos & derivados , Aminoácidos/química , Anticarcinógenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Compostos de Selênio/química , Selenocisteína/química , Enxofre/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(26): 6216-23, 2013 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23763668

RESUMO

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Compostos de Selênio/metabolismo , Selenocisteína/análogos & derivados , Anticarcinógenos/análise , Brassica/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Hidroponia , Inflorescência/química , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Selenocisteína/análise , Selenocisteína/biossíntese
6.
Ciênc. agrotec., (Impr.) ; 33(5): 1213-1219, set.-out. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-531531

RESUMO

Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar aspectos fisiológicos de microtomateiros (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Miller cv. Micro-Tom) fitocromo-mutantes. A cultivar Micro-Tom e os mutantes aurea (deficiente na biossíntese do cromóforo dos fitocromos), atroviolacea (atv) e high pigment1 (hp1;ambos superexpressam eventos mediados por fitocromos) foram cultivados em condições controladas de luz e temperatura e caracterizados no estágio de floração. O mutante hp1 obteve as maiores taxas de fotossíntese potencial e de conteúdo de carotenóides. O mutante aurea manteve taxas de fotossíntese potencial similares à cultivar Micro-Tom, mesmo expressando o mais baixo conteúdo de clorofilas, e também expressou o maior conteúdo de nitrogênio entre os demais microtomateiros. Os mutantes aurea e hp1 obtiveram os menores conteúdos de açúcares solúveis totais. O mutante atv expressou o maior conteúdo de clorofilas e também a menor razão clorofila a/b.


The objective of this work was to characterize physiological aspects of micro-tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Miller cv. Micro-Tom) phytochrome-mutants. Plants of Micro-Tom cultivar and aurea (deficient in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis), high pigment1 (hp1) and atroviolacea (atv) (both super express phytochrome events-mediated) mutants were cultivated under controlled light and temperature and evaluated in flowering stage. The hp1 mutant expressed the highest rates of potential photosynthesis and also the content of total carotenoids. Aurea mutant maintained similar potential photosynthesis rates as the Micro-Tom cultivar, even containing low chlorophyll content, and expressed the highest content of nitrogen among all micro-tomatoes studied. Total soluble sugars were lower in aurea and hp1 mutants. The atv mutant expressed the highest content of chlorophylls and also the lowest rate of chlorophyll a/b.

7.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(5): 1572-1576, ago. 2009. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-521168

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de feijão e as alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo após a aplicação do composto de resíduo de algodão. Para tanto, instalou-se o experimento em condições de campo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos constituídos por doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1) de resíduo de algodão compostado oriundo da indústria têxtil, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se que a aplicação do resíduo de algodão compostado promoveu melhoria nas características produtivas do feijoeiro submetido ao manejo orgânico e elevou os valores de pH e matéria orgânica do solo. Desse modo, o composto utilizado mostrou-se como uma alternativa para a adubação da cultura.


The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield of bean plants and changes in pH and soil organic matter after compost cotton waste application. An experiment was carried out in an Acrisol. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five levels of cotton waste compost (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1) from the textile factory, in five replications. The application of the cotton waste compost promoted increase in the growth and productive characteristics in bean crop, and increased the pH values and soil organic matter. Thus, the compost showed as an alternative for fertilization of the culture.

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