*ACS Photonics ; 9(10): 3366-3373, 2022 Oct 19.*

##### RESUMO

Modifying light fields at the single-photon level is a key challenge for upcoming quantum technologies and can be realized in a scalable manner through integrated quantum photonics. Laser-written diamond photonics offers 3D fabrication capabilities and large mode-field diameters matched to fiber optic technology, though limiting the cooperativity at the single-emitter level. To realize large coupling efficiencies, we combine excitation of single shallow-implanted silicon vacancy centers via high numerical aperture optics with detection assisted by laser-written type-II waveguides. We demonstrate single-emitter extinction measurements with a cooperativity of 0.0050 and a relative beta factor of 13%. The transmission of resonant photons reveals single-photon subtraction from a quasi-coherent field resulting in super-Poissonian light statistics. Our architecture enables light field engineering in an integrated design on the single quantum level although the intrinsic cooperativity is low. Laser-written structures can be fabricated in three dimensions and with a natural connectivity to optical fiber arrays.

*Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 May 20.*

##### RESUMO

High spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structure (HSFL) morphology induced by femtosecond laser with 230 fs pulse duration, 250 kHz repetition rate at 1030 nm wavelength on CVD diamond surface is investigated and discussed. The spatial modification was characterized and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and 2D-Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT). We studied the effect of pulse number and laser power on the spatial development of nanostructures, and also deduced the impact of thermal accumulation effect on their morphology. A generalized plasmonic model has been used to follow the optical evolution of the irradiated surface and to determine the periodic value of the nanostructures. We suggest that non-thermal melting and plasmonic excitation are the main processes responsible for the formation of HSFL-type nanostructures.

*Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 10.*

##### RESUMO

An all-diamond photonic circuit was implemented by integrating a diamond microsphere with a femtosecond-laser-written bulk diamond waveguide. The near surface waveguide was fabricated by exploiting the Type II fabrication method to achieve stress-induced waveguiding. Transverse electrically and transverse magnetically polarized light from a tunable laser operating in the near-infrared region was injected into the diamond waveguide, which when coupled to the diamond microsphere showed whispering-gallery modes with a spacing of 0.33 nm and high-quality factors of 105. By carefully engineering these high-quality factor resonances, and further exploiting the properties of existing nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond microspheres and diamond waveguides in such configurations, it should be possible to realize filtering, sensing and nonlinear optical applications in integrated diamond photonics.

##### Assuntos

Diamante/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Lasers , Microesferas , Óptica e Fotônica , Luz , Transdutores*Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14021, 2018 Sep 19.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the effect of ultrafast laser surface machining on a monocrystalline synthetic diamond sample by means of pulsed Bessel beams. We discuss the differences of the trench-like microstructures generated in various experimental conditions, by varying the beam cone angle, the energy and pulse duration, and we present a brief comparison of the results with those obtained with the same technique on a sapphire sample. In diamond, we obtain V-shaped trenches whose surface width varies with the cone angle, and which are featured by micrometer sized channels having depths in the range of 10-20 µm. By laser writing crossed trenches we are also able to create and tailor on the diamond surface pillar-like or tip-like microstructures potentially interesting for large surface functionalization, cells capturing and biosensing.

*Appl Opt ; 57(14): 3687-3692, 2018 May 10.*

##### RESUMO

We report on the coupling of whispering gallery modes in a 500-µm-radius silicon microsphere to a femtosecond-laser-inscribed glass optical waveguide. The shallow glass waveguide with a large mode field diameter in the near-infrared is written at a depth of 25 µm below the glass surface, resulting in a high excitation impact parameter of 525 µm for the microsphere. The excited whispering gallery modes of the silicon microsphere have quality factors of approximately 105 in the 90° elastic scattering and 0° transmission. Integration of such spherical silicon microresonators on femtosecond-laser-inscribed glass waveguides is promising for photonic communication, computation, and sensing applications.

*Opt Express ; 26(2): 702-710, 2018 Jan 22.*

##### RESUMO

Cognitive photonic networks are researched to efficiently solve computationally hard problems. Flexible fabrication techniques for the implementation of such networks into compact and scalable chips are desirable for the study of new optical computing schemes and algorithm optimization. Here we demonstrate a femtosecond laser-written optical oracle based on cascaded directional couplers in glass, for the solution of the Hamiltonian path problem. By interrogating the integrated photonic chip with ultrashort laser pulses, we were able to distinguish the different paths traveled by light pulses, and thus infer the existence or the absence of the Hamiltonian path in the network by using an optical correlator. This work proves that graph theory problems may be easily implemented in integrated photonic networks, down scaling the net size and speeding up execution times.

*Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(1)2018 Dec 29.*

##### RESUMO

In recent years, there has been significant research on integrated microfluidic devices. Microfluidics offer an advantageous platform for the parallel laminar flow of adjacent solvents of potential use in modern chemistry and biology. To reach that aim, we worked towards the realization of a buried microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip which enables the separation of the two components by exploiting the non-mixing properties of laminar flow. To fabricate the aforementioned chip, we employed a femtosecond laser irradiation technique followed by chemical etching. To optimize the configuration of the chip, several geometrical and structural parameters were taken into account. The diffusive mass transfer between the two fluids was estimated and the optimal chip configuration for low diffusion rate of the components was defined.

*Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14316, 2017 10 30.*

##### RESUMO

Recent developments in integrated photonics technology are opening the way to the fabrication of complex linear optical interferometers. The application of this platform is ubiquitous in quantum information science, from quantum simulation to quantum metrology, including the quest for quantum supremacy via the boson sampling problem. Within these contexts, the capability to learn efficiently the unitary operation of the implemented interferometers becomes a crucial requirement. In this letter we develop a reconstruction algorithm based on a genetic approach, which can be adopted as a tool to characterize an unknown linear optical network. We report an experimental test of the described method by performing the reconstruction of a 7-mode interferometer implemented via the femtosecond laser writing technique. Further applications of genetic approaches can be found in other contexts, such as quantum metrology or learning unknown general Hamiltonian evolutions.

##### Assuntos

Ciência da Informação/tendências , Interferometria/instrumentação , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Técnicas Genéticas , Humanos , Lasers , Aprendizagem , Luz , Fenômenos Ópticos , Teoria Quântica*Sci Rep ; 6: 35566, 2016 10 17.*

##### RESUMO

Diamond is a promising platform for sensing and quantum processing owing to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurity. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532 nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV's states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, still lacking is an efficient photonic fabrication method for diamond akin to the photolithographic methods that have revolutionized silicon photonics. Here, we report the first demonstration of three dimensional buried optical waveguides in diamond, inscribed by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. Within the waveguides, high quality NV properties are observed, making them promising for integrated magnetometer or quantum information systems on a diamond chip.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 10469, 2016 Feb 04.*

##### RESUMO

The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms.

*Light Sci Appl ; 5(4): e16064, 2016 Apr.*

##### RESUMO

Encoding many qubits in different degrees of freedom (DOFs) of single photons is one of the routes toward enlarging the Hilbert space spanned by a photonic quantum state. Hyperentangled photon states (that is, states showing entanglement in multiple DOFs) have demonstrated significant implications for both fundamental physics tests and quantum communication and computation. Increasing the number of qubits of photonic experiments requires miniaturization and integration of the basic elements, and functions to guarantee the setup stability, which motivates the development of technologies allowing the precise control of different photonic DOFs on a chip. We demonstrate the contextual use of path and polarization qubits propagating within an integrated quantum circuit. We tested the properties of four-qubit linear cluster states built on both DOFs, and we exploited them to perform the Grover's search algorithm according to the one-way quantum computation model. Our results pave the way toward the full integration on a chip of hybrid multi-qubit multiphoton states.

*Sci Adv ; 1(3): e1400255, 2015 Apr.*

##### RESUMO

Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(9): 090201, 2015 Mar 06.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum mechanical decay, Fano interference, and bound states with energy in the continuum are ubiquitous phenomena in different areas of physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate that particle statistics strongly affects quantum mechanical decay in a multiparticle system. By considering propagation of two-photon states in engineered photonic lattices, we simulate quantum decay of two noninteracting particles in a multilevel Fano-Anderson model. Remarkably, when the system sustains a bound state in the continuum, fractional decay is observed for bosonic particles, but not for fermionic ones. Complete decay in the fermionic case arises because of the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids the bound state to be occupied by the two fermions. Our experiment indicates that particle statistics can tune many-body quantum decay from fractional to complete.

*Opt Lett ; 39(17): 5173-6, 2014 Sep 01.*

##### RESUMO

The modal dispersion of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator is a very important parameter for use in all nonlinear optics applications. In order to tailor the WGM modal dispersion of a microsphere, we have coated a silica microsphere with a high-refractive-index coating in order to study its effect on the WGM modal dispersion. We used Er(3+) ions as a probe for a modal dispersion assessment. We found that, by varying the coating thickness, the geometrical cavity dispersion can be used to shift overall modal dispersion in a very wide range in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regime.

*Nat Commun ; 5: 4249, 2014 Jun 25.*

##### RESUMO

Controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial in applications ranging from optical sensing to optical communications, both in the classical and quantum regime, and ultimately whenever interference phenomena are to be exploited. In addition, many of these applications present severe requirements of phase stability and greatly benefit from a monolithic integrated-optics approach. However, integrated devices that allow arbitrary transformations of the polarization state are very difficult to produce with conventional lithographic technologies. Here we demonstrate waveguide-based optical waveplates, with arbitrarily rotated birefringence axis, fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses. To validate our approach, we exploit this component to realize a compact device for the quantum state tomography of two polarization-entangled photons. This work opens perspectives for integrated manipulation of polarization-encoded information with relevant applications ranging from integrated polarimetric sensing to quantum key distribution.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(13): 130503, 2013 Sep 27.*

##### RESUMO

We perform a comprehensive set of experiments that characterize bosonic bunching of up to three photons in interferometers of up to 16 modes. Our experiments verify two rules that govern bosonic bunching. The first rule, obtained recently, predicts the average behavior of the bunching probability and is known as the bosonic birthday paradox. The second rule is new and establishes a n!-factor quantum enhancement for the probability that all n bosons bunch in a single output mode, with respect to the case of distinguishable bosons. In addition to its fundamental importance in phenomena such as Bose-Einstein condensation, bosonic bunching can be exploited in applications such as linear optical quantum computing and quantum-enhanced metrology.

*Nat Commun ; 4: 1606, 2013.*

##### RESUMO

The main features of quantum mechanics reside in interference deriving from the superposition of different quantum states. While current quantum optical technology enables two-photon interference both in bulk and integrated systems, simultaneous interference of more than two particles, leading to richer quantum phenomena, is still a challenging task. Here we report the experimental observation of three-photon interference in an integrated three-port directional coupler realized by ultrafast laser writing. By exploiting the capability of this technique to produce three-dimensional structures, we realized and tested in the quantum regime a three-port beam splitter, namely a tritter, which allowed us to observe bosonic coalescence of three photons. These results open new important perspectives in many areas of quantum information, such as fundamental tests of quantum mechanics with increasing number of photons, quantum state engineering, quantum sensing and quantum simulation.

*Sci Rep ; 2: 862, 2012.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum interferometry uses quantum resources to improve phase estimation with respect to classical methods. Here we propose and theoretically investigate a new quantum interferometric scheme based on three-dimensional waveguide devices. These can be implemented by femtosecond laser waveguide writing, recently adopted for quantum applications. In particular, multiarm interferometers include "tritter" and "quarter" as basic elements, corresponding to the generalization of a beam splitter to a 3- and 4-port splitter, respectively. By injecting Fock states in the input ports of such interferometers, fringe patterns characterized by nonclassical visibilities are expected. This enables outperforming the quantum Fisher information obtained with classical fields in phase estimation. We also discuss the possibility of achieving the simultaneous estimation of more than one optical phase. This approach is expected to open new perspectives to quantum enhanced sensing and metrology performed in integrated photonics.

*J Biophotonics ; 5(8-9): 687-702, 2012 Aug.*

##### RESUMO

This paper provides an overview of femtosecond laser microfabrication in polymeric materials, with emphasis on lab-on-chip applications. Due to the nonlinear interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with polymers, laser-induced modifications are localized to the focal volume, enabling high resolution patterning in 3D. Femtosecond laser microfabrication offers unmatched versatility in fabricating surface microchannels and diffractive optics by means of laser ablation, buried optical waveguides and micro-optics through refractive index modification and complex 3D microstructures in photoresists by two-photon polymerization. Femtosecond laser microfabrication technology opens the door to fabricating integrated lab-on-chip devices with a single tool.

##### Assuntos

Lasers , Procedimentos Analíticos em Microchip/métodos , Polímeros/química , Humanos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Fótons , Polimerização*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(1): 010502, 2012 Jan 06.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum walk represents one of the most promising resources for the simulation of physical quantum systems, and has also emerged as an alternative to the standard circuit model for quantum computing. Here we investigate how the particle statistics, either bosonic or fermionic, influences a two-particle discrete quantum walk. Such an experiment has been realized by exploiting polarization entanglement to simulate the bunching-antibunching feature of noninteracting bosons and fermions. To this scope a novel three-dimensional geometry for the waveguide circuit is introduced, which allows accurate polarization independent behavior, maintaining remarkable control on both phase and balancement.