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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(8): 1760-1768, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538747

RESUMO

A facile, DAST-mediated intramolecular cyclization of 3-hydroxy-3-(2-((3-methoxybenzyl)oxy)phenyl)indolin-2-one derivatives for the synthesis of spirooxindoles fused with dibenzoxepine moieties is described. The success of this reaction is highly dependent on the choice of solvent (promoted by DCM and 1,2-DCE) and the electronic nature of the pendant aromatic ring, which is favored by the presence of electron-donating substituents. The reaction is believed to proceed through an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type reaction. Various dibenzoxepine-fused spirooxindoles were successfully synthesized in up to 98% yield. This methodology provides libraries of structurally diverse and medicinally important small molecules that could aid in the search for new bioactive molecules.

2.
J Med Chem ; 63(23): 14740-14760, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226226

RESUMO

The discovery of a pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor based on a P1-P3 macrocyclic tripeptide motif is described. The all-carbon tether linking the P1-P3 subsites of 21 is functionalized with alkyl substituents, which are shown to effectively modulate both potency and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties. The CF3Boc-group that caps the P3 amino moiety was discovered to be an essential contributor to metabolic stability, while positioning a methyl group at the C1 position of the P1' cyclopropyl ring enhanced plasma trough values following oral administration to rats. The C7-fluoro, C6-CD3O substitution pattern of the P2* isoquinoline heterocycle of 21 was essential to securing the targeted potency, pharmacokinetic (PK), and toxicological profiles. The C6-CD3O redirected metabolism away from a problematic pathway, thereby circumventing the time-dependent cytochrome P (CYP) 450 inhibition observed with the C6-CH3O prototype.

3.
J Med Chem ; 63(22): 13913-13950, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155811

RESUMO

A series of tetrahydroisoquinoline-based benzodiazepine dimers were synthesized and tested for in vitro cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship investigation of various spacers guided by molecular modeling studies helped to identify compounds with picomolar activity. Payload 17 was conjugated to anti-mesothelin and anti-fucosylated monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (FucGM1) antibodies using lysosome-cleavable valine-citrulline dipeptide linkers via heterogeneous lysine conjugation and bacterial transglutaminase-mediated site-specific conjugation. In vitro, these antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) exhibited significant cytotoxic and target-mediated selectivity on human cancer cell lines. The pharmacokinetics and efficacy of these ADCs were further evaluated in gastric and lung cancer xenograft models in mice. Consistent pharmacokinetic profiles, high target specificity, and robust antitumor activity were observed in these models after a single dose of the ADC-46 (0.02 µmol/kg).

4.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(11): 2190-2194, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214828

RESUMO

Stability of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) in mouse serum is one of the critical requirements for the evaluation of ADCs in mouse tumor models. Described herein is a strategy to address the mouse serum instability of uncialamycin linker-payloads through various chemical approaches that involve modification of different parts of the linker and payload. This effort ultimately led to the identification of a m-amide p-aminobenzyl carbamate (MA-PABC) group that resulted in linkers with dramatic improvement of mouse serum stability without affecting the desired proteolytic cleavage.

5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(11): 2195-2203, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214829

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Therefore, the inhibition of the kinase activity of BTK with a small molecule inhibitor could offer a breakthrough in the clinical treatment of many autoimmune diseases. This Letter describes the discovery of BMS-986143 through systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) development. This compound benefits from defined chirality derived from two rotationally stable atropisomeric axes, providing a potent and selective single atropisomer with desirable efficacy and tolerability profiles.

6.
J Org Chem ; 85(17): 11519-11530, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786620

RESUMO

Unnatural amino acids play an important role in peptide based drug discovery. Herein, we report a class of differentially protected azatryptophan derivatives synthesized from N-tosyl-3-haloazaindoles 1 and Fmoc-protected tert-butyl iodoalanine 2 via a Negishi coupling. Through ligand screening, Pd2(dba)3/XPhos was found to be a superior catalyst for the coupling of 1 with the zinc derivative of 2 to give tert-butyl (S)-2-((((9H-fluoren-9-yl)methoxy)carbonyl)amino)-3-(1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)propanoate derivatives 3 in 69-91% isolated yields. In addition, we have demonstrated that the protecting groups, namely, Ts, Fmoc, and tBu, can be easily removed selectively.

7.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(7): 1402-1409, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676146

RESUMO

IRAK4 is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Structure guided optimization of a nicotinamide series of inhibitors has been expanded to explore the IRAK4 front pocket. This has resulted in the identification of compounds such as 12 with improved potency and selectivity. Additionally 12 demonstrated activity in a pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model. Further optimization efforts led to the identification of the highly kinome selective 21, which demonstrated a robust PD effect and efficacy in a TLR7 driven model of murine psoriasis.

8.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(13): 115541, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389483

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships associated with a series of bridged tricyclic pyrimidinone carboxamides as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase strand transfer are described. Structural modifications to these molecules were made in order to examine the effect on potency towards wild-type and clinically-relevant resistant viruses. The [3.2.2]-bridged tricyclic system was identified as an advantageous chemotype, with representatives exhibiting excellent antiviral activity against both wild-type viruses and the G140S/Q148H resistant virus that arises in response to therapy with raltegravir and elvitegravir.

9.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 7226-7242, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456431

RESUMO

Oral factor XIa (FXIa) inhibitors may provide a promising new antithrombotic therapy with an improved benefit to bleeding risk profile over existing antithrombotic agents. Herein, we report application of a previously disclosed cyclic carbamate P1 linker which provided improved oral bioavailability in the imidazole-based 13-membered macrocycle to the 12-membered macrocycle. This resulted in identification of compound 4 with desired FXIa inhibitory potency and good oral bioavailability but high in vivo clearance. Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of heterocyclic core modifications to replace the imidazole core as well as various linkers to the P1 group led to the discovery of compound 6f, a potent FXIa inhibitor with selectivity against most of the relevant serine proteases. Compound 6f also demonstrated excellent pharmacokinetics (PK) profile (high oral bioavailability and low clearance) in multiple preclinical species. Compound 6f achieved robust antithrombotic efficacy in a rabbit efficacy model at doses which preserved hemostasis.


Assuntos
Fator XIa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fator XIa/química , Fator XIa/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Coelhos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(1): 126782, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767265

RESUMO

Uncialamycin is one of the structurally simpler and newer members of enediyne family of natural products. It exhibits highly potent activity against several types of bacteria and cancer cells. Described herein is a strategy for the targeted delivery of this cytotoxic agent to tumors using an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approach. Central to the design of ADC were the generation of potent and chemically stable uncialamycin analogues and attachment of protease cleavable linkers to newly realized phenolic handles to prepare linker-payloads. Conjugation of the linker-payloads to tumor targeting antibody, in vitro activity and in vivo evaluation are presented.

11.
J Med Chem ; 63(2): 784-803, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833761

RESUMO

Factor XIa (FXIa) inhibitors are promising novel anticoagulants, which show excellent efficacy in preclinical thrombosis models with minimal effects on hemostasis. The discovery of potent and selective FXIa inhibitors which are also orally bioavailable has been a challenge. Here, we describe optimization of the imidazole-based macrocyclic series and our initial progress toward meeting this challenge. A two-pronged strategy, which focused on replacement of the imidazole scaffold and the design of new P1 groups, led to the discovery of potent, orally bioavailable pyridine-based macrocyclic FXIa inhibitors. Moreover, pyridine-based macrocycle 19, possessing the phenylimidazole carboxamide P1, exhibited excellent selectivity against relevant blood coagulation enzymes and displayed antithrombotic efficacy in a rabbit thrombosis model.


Assuntos
Fator XIa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrinolíticos/síntese química , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Fibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Coelhos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/síntese química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Med Chem ; 62(21): 9931-9946, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638797

RESUMO

RORγt is an important nuclear receptor that regulates the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22. As a result, RORγt has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of various immunological disorders such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Structure and computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of tricyclic RORγt inverse agonists with significantly improved in vitro activity in the reporter (Gal4) and human whole blood assays compared to our previous chemotype. Through careful structure activity relationship, several potent and selective RORγt inverse agonists have been identified. Pharmacokinetic studies allowed the identification of the lead molecule 32 with a low peak-to-trough ratio. This molecule showed excellent activity in an IL-2/IL-23-induced mouse pharmacodynamic study and demonstrated biologic-like efficacy in an IL-23-induced preclinical model of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Agonismo Inverso de Drogas , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/agonistas , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/química , Conformação Proteica , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(6): 911-916, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223447

RESUMO

Lead optimization of the diphenylpyridylethanamine (DPPE) and triphenylethanamine (TPE) series of CETP inhibitors to improve their pharmaceutical profile is described. Polar groups at the N-terminus position in the DPPE series resulted in further improvement in potency and pharmaceutical properties concomitant with retaining the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. A structure-activity relationship observed in the DPPE series was extended to the corresponding analogs in the more potent TPE series, and further optimization resulted in the identification of 2-amino-N-((R)-1-(3-cyclopropoxy-4-fluorophenyl)-1-(3-fluoro-5-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy)phenyl)-2-phenylethyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-3-hydroxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)butanamide (13). Compound 13 demonstrated no significant changes in either mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate in telemetry rats, had an excellent PK profile, and demonstrated robust efficacy in human CETP/apo-B-100 dual transgenic mice and in hamsters.

14.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Indóis/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
15.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2265-2285, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785748

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of BMS-986104 (2) as a differentiated S1P1 receptor modulator. In comparison to fingolimod (1), a full agonist of S1P1 currently marketed for the treatment of relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 2 offers several potential advantages having demonstrated improved safety multiples in preclinical evaluations against undesired pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. In clinical trials, 2 was found to exhibit a pharmacokinetic half-life ( T1/2) longer than that of 1, as well as a reduced formation of the phosphate metabolite that is required for activity against S1P1. Herein, we describe our efforts to discover highly potent, partial agonists of S1P1 with a shorter T1/2 and increased in vivo phosphate metabolite formation. These efforts culminated in the discovery of BMS-986166 (14a), which was advanced to human clinical evaluation. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship as well as pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessments are discussed. Furthermore, efficacy of 14a in multiple preclinical models of autoimmune diseases are presented.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/agonistas , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Naftalenos/química , Naftalenos/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/química , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacocinética
16.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(2): 143-148, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456803

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of potent, tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease that contain a difluoromethyl cyclopropyl amino acid at P1 are described. A cocrystal structure of 18 with a NS3/4A protease complex suggests the presence of a H-bond between the polarized C-H of the CHF2 moiety and the backbone carbonyl of Leu135 of the enzyme. Structure-activity relationship studies indicate that this H-bond enhances enzyme inhibitory potency by 13- and 17-fold compared to the CH3 and CF3 analogues, respectively, providing insight into the deployment of this unique amino acid.

17.
J Med Chem ; 61(3): 681-694, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316397

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has become an attractive target for the treatment of diabetes since it was shown clinically to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Herein, we report our efforts to develop highly selective and potent GPR40 agonists with a dual mechanism of action, promoting both glucose-dependent insulin and incretin secretion. Employing strategies to increase polarity and the ratio of sp3/sp2 character of the chemotype, we identified BMS-986118 (compound 4), which showed potent and selective GPR40 agonist activity in vitro. In vivo, compound 4 demonstrated insulinotropic efficacy and GLP-1 secretory effects resulting in improved glucose control in acute animal models.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/química , Pirrolidinas/química
18.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 5193-5208, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541707

RESUMO

PI3Kδ plays an important role controlling immune cell function and has therefore been identified as a potential target for the treatment of immunological disorders. This article highlights our work toward the identification of a potent, selective, and efficacious PI3Kδ inhibitor. Through careful SAR, the successful replacement of a polar pyrazole group by a simple chloro or trifluoromethyl group led to improved Caco-2 permeability, reduced Caco-2 efflux, reduced hERG PC activity, and increased selectivity profile while maintaining potency in the CD69 hWB assay. The optimization of the aryl substitution then identified a 4'-CN group that improved the human/rodent correlation in microsomal metabolic stability. Our lead molecule is very potent in PK/PD assays and highly efficacious in a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2/imunologia , Cães , Canal de Potássio ERG1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Coelhos
19.
J Med Chem ; 60(9): 3795-3803, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418664

RESUMO

We have recently disclosed 5-phenyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine 1 as a potent IKur current blocker with selectivity versus hERG, Na and Ca channels, and an acceptable preclinical PK profile. Upon further characterization in vivo, compound 1 demonstrated an unacceptable level of brain penetration. In an effort to reduce the level of brain penetration while maintaining the overall profile, SAR was developed at the C2' position for a series of close analogues by employing hydrogen bond donors. As a result, 5-[5-phenyl-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)quinazolin-2-yl]pyridine-3-sulfonamide (25) was identified as the lead compound in this series. Compound 25 showed robust effects in rabbit and canine pharmacodynamic models and an acceptable cross-species pharmacokinetic profile and was advanced as the clinical candidate. Further optimization of 25 to mitigate pH-dependent absorption resulted in identification of the corresponding phosphoramide prodrug (29) with an improved solubility and pharmacokinetic profile.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Cães , Espectrometria de Massas , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Coelhos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
20.
J Med Chem ; 60(4): 1417-1431, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112924

RESUMO

A novel series of pyrrolidine-containing GPR40 agonists is described as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. The initial pyrrolidine hit was modified by moving the position of the carboxylic acid, a key pharmacophore for GPR40. Addition of a 4-cis-CF3 to the pyrrolidine improves the human GPR40 binding Ki and agonist efficacy. After further optimization, the discovery of a minor enantiomeric impurity with agonist activity led to the finding that enantiomers (R,R)-68 and (S,S)-68 have differential effects on the radioligand used for the binding assay, with (R,R)-68 potentiating the radioligand and (S,S)-68 displacing the radioligand. Compound (R,R)-68 activates both Gq-coupled intracellular Ca2+ flux and Gs-coupled cAMP accumulation. This signaling bias results in a dual mechanism of action for compound (R,R)-68, demonstrating glucose-dependent insulin and GLP-1 secretion in vitro. In vivo, compound (R,R)-68 significantly lowers plasma glucose levels in mice during an oral glucose challenge, encouraging further development of the series.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/farmacocinética , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
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