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1.
Hum Genet ; 138(11-12): 1409-1417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748968

RESUMO

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD) is an autosomal recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, which is clinically and radiologically similar to X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). PMLD is characterized by early-onset nystagmus, delayed development (motor delay, speech delay and dysarthria), dystonia, hypotonia typically evolving into spasticity, ataxia, seizures, optic atrophy, and diffuse leukodystrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We identified a 12-year-old Caucasian/Hispanic male with the classical clinical characteristics of PMLD with lack of myelination of the subcortical white matter, and absence of the splenium of corpus callosum. Exome sequencing in the trio revealed novel compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in SNAP29 (p.Leu119AlafsX15, c.354DupG and p.0?, c.2T > C). Quantitative analysis of the patient's blood cells through RNA sequencing identified a significant decrease in SNAP29 mRNA expression, while western blot analysis on fibroblast cells revealed a lack of protein expression compared to parental and control cells. Mutations in SNAP29 have previously been associated with cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma (CEDNIK) syndrome. Typical skin features described in CEDNIK syndrome, such as generalized ichthyosis and keratoderma, were absent in our patient. Moreover, the early onset nystagmus and leukodystrophy were consistent with a PMLD diagnosis. These findings suggest that loss of SNAP29 function, which was previously associated with CEDNIK syndrome, is also associated with PMLD. Overall, our study expands the genetic spectrum of PMLD.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660686

RESUMO

We report a likely pathogenic splice-altering AP4S1 intronic variant in two sisters with progressive spastic paraplegia, global developmental delay, shy character, and foot deformities. Sequencing was completed on whole-blood messenger RNA (mRNA) and analyzed for gene expression outliers after exome sequencing analysis failed to identify a causative variant. AP4S1 was identified as an outlier and contained a rare homozygous variant located three bases upstream of exon 5 (NC_000014.8(NM_007077.4):c.295-3C>A). Confirmed by additional RNA-seq, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Sanger sequencing, this variant corresponded with exon 5, including skipping, altered isoform usage, and loss of expression from the canonical isoform 2 (NM_001128126.3). Previously, loss-of-function variants within AP4S1 were associated with a quadriplegic cerebral palsy-6 phenotype, AP-4 Deficiency Syndrome. In this study, the inclusion of mRNA-seq allowed for the identification of a previously missed splice-altering variant, and thereby expands the mutational spectrum of AP-4 Deficiency Syndrome to include impacts to some tissue-dependent isoforms.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167805

RESUMO

Heterozygous deleterious variants in PHIP have been associated with behavioral problems, intellectual disability/developmental delay, obesity/overweight, and dysmorphic features (BIDOD syndrome). We report an additional 10 individuals with pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP)-predicted deleterious variants (four frameshift, three missense, two nonsense, and one splice site; six of which are confirmed de novo). The mutation spectrum is diverse, and there is no clustering of mutations across the protein. The clinical phenotype of these individuals is consistent with previous reports and includes behavioral problems, intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. The additional individuals we report have a lower frequency of obesity than previous reports and a higher frequency of gastrointestinal problems, social deficits, and behavioral challenges. Characterizing additional individuals with diverse mutations longitudinally will provide better natural history data to assist with medical management and educational and behavioral support.

8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(4): 655-668, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019990

RESUMO

Objective: FOXG1 syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with heterozygous FOXG1 variants or chromosomal microaberrations in 14q12. The study aimed at assessing the scope of structural cerebral anomalies revealed by neuroimaging to delineate the genotype and neuroimaging phenotype associations. Methods: We compiled 34 patients with a heterozygous (likely) pathogenic FOXG1 variant. Qualitative assessment of cerebral anomalies was performed by standardized re-analysis of all 34 MRI data sets. Statistical analysis of genetic, clinical and neuroimaging data were performed. We quantified clinical and neuroimaging phenotypes using severity scores. Telencephalic phenotypes of adult Foxg1+/- mice were examined using immunohistological stainings followed by quantitative evaluation of structural anomalies. Results: Characteristic neuroimaging features included corpus callosum anomalies (82%), thickening of the fornix (74%), simplified gyral pattern (56%), enlargement of inner CSF spaces (44%), hypoplasia of basal ganglia (38%), and hypoplasia of frontal lobes (29%). We observed a marked, filiform thinning of the rostrum as recurrent highly typical pattern of corpus callosum anomaly in combination with distinct thickening of the fornix as a characteristic feature. Thickening of the fornices was not reported previously in FOXG1 syndrome. Simplified gyral pattern occurred significantly more frequently in patients with early truncating variants. Higher clinical severity scores were significantly associated with higher neuroimaging severity scores. Modeling of Foxg1 heterozygosity in mouse brain recapitulated the associated abnormal cerebral morphology phenotypes, including the striking enlargement of the fornix. Interpretation: Combination of specific corpus callosum anomalies with simplified gyral pattern and hyperplasia of the fornices is highly characteristic for FOXG1 syndrome.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 708, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755616

RESUMO

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARSs) link specific amino acids with their cognate transfer RNAs in a critical early step of protein translation. Mutations in ARSs have emerged as a cause of recessive, often complex neurological disease traits. Here we report an allelic series consisting of seven novel and two previously reported biallelic variants in valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) in ten patients with a developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly, often associated with early-onset epilepsy. In silico, in vitro, and yeast complementation assays demonstrate that the underlying pathomechanism of these mutations is most likely a loss of protein function. Zebrafish modeling accurately recapitulated some of the key neurological disease traits. These results provide both genetic and biological insights into neurodevelopmental disease and pave the way for further in-depth research on ARS related recessive disorders and precision therapies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Encefalopatias/enzimologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194818

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(7): 1549-1558, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160831

RESUMO

Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletions have recently been associated with a recognizable neurodevelopmental syndrome of early childhood (OMIM 612530). Within this group, a predominant phenotype of developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, distinct dysmorphology, and brain anomalies on magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography has emerged. Previous reports of patients with de novo deletions at 1q41-q42 have led to the identification of an evolving smallest region of overlap which has included several potentially causal genes including DISP1, TP53BP2, and FBXO28. In a recent report, a cohort of patients with de novo mutations in WDR26 was described that shared many of the clinical features originally described in the 1q41-q42 microdeletion syndrome (MDS). Here, we describe a novel germline FBXO28 frameshift mutation in a 3-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy, ID, DD, and other features which overlap those of the 1q41-q42 MDS. Through a familial whole-exome sequencing study, we identified a de novo FBXO28 c.972_973delACinsG (p.Arg325GlufsX3) frameshift mutation in the proband. The frameshift and resulting premature nonsense mutation have not been reported in any genomic database. This child does not have a large 1q41-q42 deletion, nor does she harbor a WDR26 mutation. Our case joins a previously reported patient also in whom FBXO28 was affected but WDR26 was not. These findings support the idea that FBXO28 is a monogenic disease gene and contributes to the complex neurodevelopmental phenotype of the 1q41-q42 gene deletion syndrome.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151950

RESUMO

KIF26B is a member of the kinesin superfamily with evolutionarily conserved functions in controlling aspects of embryogenesis, including the development of the nervous system, though its function is incompletely understood. We describe an infant with progressive microcephaly, pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and arthrogryposis secondary to the involvement of anterior horn cells and ventral (motor) nerves. We performed whole exome sequencing on the trio and identified a de novo KIF26B missense variant, p.Gly546Ser, in the proband. This variant alters a highly conserved amino acid residue that is part of the phosphate-binding loop motif and motor-like domain and is deemed pathogenic by several in silico methods. Functional analysis of the variant protein in cultured cells revealed a reduction in the KIF26B protein's ability to promote cell adhesion, a defect that potentially contributes to its pathogenicity. Overall, KIF26B may play a critical role in the brain development and, when mutated, cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia with arthrogryposis.

14.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 26: 28-32, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961512

RESUMO

Epileptic encephalopathies are childhood brain disorders characterized by a variety of severe epilepsy syndromes that differ by the age of onset and seizure type. Until recently, the cause of many epileptic encephalopathies was unknown. Whole exome or whole genome sequencing has led to the identification of several causal genes in individuals with epileptic encephalopathy, and the list of genes has now expanded greatly. Genetic testing with epilepsy gene panels is now done quite early in the evaluation of children with epilepsy, following brain imaging, electroencephalogram, and metabolic profile. Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE1; OMIM #308350) is the earliest of these age-dependent encephalopathies, manifesting as tonic spasms, myoclonic seizures, or partial seizures, with severely abnormal electroencephalogram, often showing a suppression-burst pattern. In this case study, we describe a 33-month-old female child with severe, neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy. An infantile epilepsy gene panel test revealed 2 novel heterozygous variants in the MECP2 gene; a 70-bp deletion resulting in a frameshift and truncation (p.Lys377ProfsX9) thought to be pathogenic, and a 6-bp in-frame deletion (p.His371_372del), designated as a variant of unknown significance. Based on this test result, the diagnosis of atypical Rett syndrome (RTT) was made. Family-based targeted testing and segregation analysis, however, raised questions about the pathogenicity of these specific MECP2 variants. Whole exome sequencing was performed in this family trio, leading to the discovery of a rare, de novo, missense mutation in GNAO1 (p. Leu284Ser). De novo, heterozygous mutations in GNAO1 have been reported to cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-17 (EIEE17; OMIM 615473). The child's severe phenotype, the family history and segregation analysis of variants and prior reports of GNAO1-linked disease allowed us to conclude that the GNAO1 mutation, and not the MECP2 variants, was the cause of this child's neurological disease. With the increased use of genetic panels and whole exome sequencing, we will be confronted with lists of gene variants suspected to be pathogenic or of unknown significance. It is important to integrate clinical information, genetic testing that includes family members and correlates this with the published clinical and scientific literature, to help one arrive at the correct genetic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Fenótipo
15.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

16.
Brain ; 141(6): 1703-1718, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668857

RESUMO

V-type proton (H+) ATPase (v-ATPase) is a multi-subunit proton pump that regulates pH homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells; in neurons, v-ATPase plays additional and unique roles in synapse function. Through whole exome sequencing, we identified de novo heterozygous mutations (p.Pro27Arg, p.Asp100Tyr, p.Asp349Asn, p.Asp371Gly) in ATP6V1A, encoding the A subunit of v-ATPase, in four patients with developmental encephalopathy with epilepsy. Early manifestations, observed in all patients, were developmental delay and febrile seizures, evolving to encephalopathy with profound delay, hypotonic/dyskinetic quadriparesis and intractable multiple seizure types in two patients (p.Pro27Arg, p.Asp100Tyr), and to moderate delay with milder epilepsy in the other two (p.Asp349Asn, p.Asp371Gly). Modelling performed on the available prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures of v-ATPase predicted p.Pro27Arg to perturb subunit interaction, p.Asp100Tyr to cause steric hindrance and destabilize protein folding, p.Asp349Asn to affect the catalytic function and p.Asp371Gly to impair the rotation process, necessary for proton transport. We addressed the impact of p.Asp349Asn and p.Asp100Tyr mutations on ATP6V1A expression and function by analysing ATP6V1A-overexpressing HEK293T cells and patients' lymphoblasts. The p.Asp100Tyr mutant was characterized by reduced expression due to increased degradation. Conversely, no decrease in expression and clearance was observed for p.Asp349Asn. In HEK293T cells overexpressing either pathogenic or control variants, p.Asp349Asn significantly increased LysoTracker® fluorescence with no effects on EEA1 and LAMP1 expression. Conversely, p.Asp100Tyr decreased both LysoTracker® fluorescence and LAMP1 levels, leaving EEA1 expression unaffected. Both mutations decreased v-ATPase recruitment to autophagosomes, with no major impact on autophagy. Experiments performed on patients' lymphoblasts using the LysoSensor™ probe revealed lower pH of endocytic organelles for p.Asp349Asn and a reduced expression of LAMP1 with no effect on the pH for p.Asp100Tyr. These data demonstrate gain of function for p.Asp349Asn characterized by an increased proton pumping in intracellular organelles, and loss of function for p.Asp100Tyr with decreased expression of ATP6V1A and reduced levels of lysosomal markers. We expressed p.Asp349Asn and p.Asp100Tyr in rat hippocampal neurons and confirmed significant and opposite effects in lysosomal labelling. However, both mutations caused a similar defect in neurite elongation accompanied by loss of excitatory inputs, revealing that altered lysosomal homeostasis markedly affects neurite development and synaptic connectivity. This study provides evidence that de novo heterozygous ATP6V1A mutations cause a developmental encephalopathy with a pathomechanism that involves perturbations of lysosomal homeostasis and neuronal connectivity, uncovering a novel role for v-ATPase in neuronal development.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

19.
Genet Med ; 20(1): 98-108, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661489

RESUMO

PurposeThe study aimed at widening the clinical and genetic spectrum and assessing genotype-phenotype associations in FOXG1 syndrome due to FOXG1 variants.MethodsWe compiled 30 new and 53 reported patients with a heterozygous pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in FOXG1. We grouped patients according to type and location of the variant. Statistical analysis of molecular and clinical data was performed using Fisher's exact test and a nonparametric multivariate test.ResultsAmong the 30 new patients, we identified 19 novel FOXG1 variants. Among the total group of 83 patients, there were 54 variants: 20 frameshift (37%), 17 missense (31%), 15 nonsense (28%), and 2 in-frame variants (4%). Frameshift and nonsense variants are distributed over all FOXG1 protein domains; missense variants cluster within the conserved forkhead domain. We found a higher phenotypic variability than previously described. Genotype-phenotype association revealed significant differences in psychomotor development and neurological features between FOXG1 genotype groups. More severe phenotypes were associated with truncating FOXG1 variants in the N-terminal domain and the forkhead domain (except conserved site 1) and milder phenotypes with missense variants in the forkhead conserved site 1.ConclusionsThese data may serve for improved interpretation of new FOXG1 sequence variants and well-founded genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 716-724, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100085

RESUMO

DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays. Moreover, protein variants exhibit an increased propensity to trigger stress granule (SG) formation resulting in global translation inhibition. Thus, our findings highlight the prominent role of translation control in development and function of the central nervous system and also provide molecular insight into how DHX30 dysfunction might cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , RNA/genética
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