*J Acoust Soc Am ; 153(1): 119, 2023 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

A solid object's geometry, density, and elastic moduli completely determine its spectrum of normal modes. Solving the inverse problem-determining a material's elastic moduli given a set of resonance frequencies and sample geometry-relies on the ability to compute resonance spectra accurately and efficiently. Established methods for calculating these spectra are either fast but limited to simple geometries, or are applicable to arbitrarily shaped samples at the cost of being prohibitively slow. Here, we describe a method to rapidly compute the normal modes of irregularly shaped objects using entirely open-source software. Our method's accuracy compares favorably with existing methods for simple geometries and shows a significant improvement in speed over existing methods for irregular geometries.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2205322119, 2022 11 08.*

##### RESUMO

We present in situ calorimetry, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity measurements of materials using temperature-sensing optical wireless integrated circuits (OWiCs). These microscopic and untethered optical sensors eliminate input wires and reduce parasitic effects. Each OWiC has a mass of â¼100 ng, a 100-µm-scale footprint, and a thermal response time of microseconds. We demonstrate that they can measure the thermal properties of nearly any material, from aerogels to metals, on samples as small as 100 ng and over thermal diffusivities covering four orders of magnitude. They also function over a broad temperature range, and we present proof-of-concept measurements of the thermodynamic phase transitions in both liquid crystal 5CB and gadolinium.

##### Assuntos

Cristais Líquidos , Condutividade Térmica , Temperatura , Calorimetria , Termodinâmica*Nature ; 607(7918): 276-280, 2022 07.*

##### RESUMO

One of the main developments in unconventional superconductivity in the past two decades has been the discovery that most unconventional superconductors form phase diagrams that also contain other strongly correlated states. Many systems of interest are therefore close to more than one instability, and tuning between the resultant ordered phases is the subject of intense research1. In recent years, uniaxial pressure applied using piezoelectric-based devices has been shown to be a particularly versatile new method of tuning2,3, leading to experiments that have advanced our understanding of the fascinating unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4 (refs. 4-9). Here we map out its phase diagram using high-precision measurements of the elastocaloric effect in what we believe to be the first such study including both the normal and the superconducting states. We observe a strong entropy quench on entering the superconducting state, in excellent agreement with a model calculation for pairing at the Van Hove point, and obtain a quantitative estimate of the entropy change associated with entry to a magnetic state that is observed in proximity to the superconductivity. The phase diagram is intriguing both for its similarity to those seen in other families of unconventional superconductors and for extra features unique, so far, to Sr2RuO4.

*Sci Adv ; 8(2): eabj1076, 2022 Jan 14.*

##### RESUMO

Topological semimetals are predicted to exhibit unconventional electrodynamics, but a central experimental challenge is singling out the contributions from the topological bands. TaAs is the prototypical example, where 24 Weyl points and 8 trivial Fermi surfaces make the interpretation of any experiment in terms of band topology ambiguous. We report magneto-infrared reflection spectroscopy measurements on TaAs. We observed sharp inter-Landau level transitions from a single pocket of Weyl Fermions in magnetic fields as low as 0.4 tesla. We determine the W2 Weyl point to be 8.3 meV below the Fermi energy, corresponding to a quantum limitthe field required to reach the lowest LLof 0.8 teslaunprecedentedly low for Weyl Fermions. LL spectroscopy allows us to isolate these Weyl Fermions from all other carriers in TaAs, and our result provides a way for directly exploring the more exotic quantum phenomena in Weyl semimetals, such as the chiral anomaly.

*Nature ; 595(7869): 667-672, 2021 07.*

##### RESUMO

A variety of 'strange metals' exhibit resistivity that decreases linearly with temperature as the temperature decreases to zero1-3, in contrast to conventional metals where resistivity decreases quadratically with temperature. This linear-in-temperature resistivity has been attributed to charge carriers scattering at a rate given by h/τ = αkBT, where α is a constant of order unity, h is the Planck constant and kB is the Boltzmann constant. This simple relationship between the scattering rate and temperature is observed across a wide variety of materials, suggesting a fundamental upper limit on scattering-the 'Planckian limit'4,5-but little is known about the underlying origins of this limit. Here we report a measurement of the angle-dependent magnetoresistance of La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4-a hole-doped cuprate that shows linear-in-temperature resistivity down to the lowest measured temperatures6. The angle-dependent magnetoresistance shows a well defined Fermi surface that agrees quantitatively with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements7 and reveals a linear-in-temperature scattering rate that saturates at the Planckian limit, namely α = 1.2 ± 0.4. Remarkably, we find that this Planckian scattering rate is isotropic, that is, it is independent of direction, in contrast to expectations from 'hotspot' models8,9. Our findings suggest that linear-in-temperature resistivity in strange metals emerges from a momentum-independent inelastic scattering rate that reaches the Planckian limit.

*Nano Lett ; 21(9): 3708-3714, 2021 May 12.*

##### RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites consisting of alternating organic and inorganic layers are a new class of layered structures. They have attracted increasing interest for photovoltaic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications, where knowing their thermal transport properties is critical. We carry out both experimental and computational studies on thermal transport properties of 2D butylammonium lead iodide crystals and find their thermal conductivity is ultralow (below 0.3 W m-1 K-1) with very weak anisotropy (around 1.5) among layered crystals. Further analysis reveals that the unique structure with the preferential alignment of organic chains and complicated energy landscape leads to moderately smaller phonon lifetimes in the out-of-plane direction and comparable phonon group velocities in in-plane and out-of-plane directions. These new findings may guide the future design of novel hybrid materials with desired thermal conductivity for various applications.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9782-9786, 2020 May 05.*

##### RESUMO

High magnetic fields have revealed a surprisingly small Fermi surface in underdoped cuprates, possibly resulting from Fermi-surface reconstruction due to an order parameter that breaks translational symmetry of the crystal lattice. A crucial issue concerns the doping extent of such a state and its relationship to the principal pseudogap and superconducting phases. We employ pulsed magnetic-field measurements on the cuprate [Formula: see text]Cu[Formula: see text] to identify signatures of Fermi-surface reconstruction from a sign change of the Hall effect and a peak in the temperature-dependent planar resistivity. We trace the termination of Fermi-surface reconstruction to two hole concentrations where the superconducting upper critical fields are found to be enhanced. One of these points is associated with the pseudogap endpoint near optimal doping. These results connect the Fermi-surface reconstruction to both superconductivity and the pseudogap phenomena.

*Sci Adv ; 6(10): eaaz4074, 2020 Mar.*

##### RESUMO

The unusual correlated state that emerges in URu2Si2 below T HO = 17.5 K is known as "hidden order" because even basic characteristics of the order parameter, such as its dimensionality (whether it has one component or two), are "hidden." We use resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to measure the symmetry-resolved elastic anomalies across T HO. We observe no anomalies in the shear elastic moduli, providing strong thermodynamic evidence for a one-component order parameter. We develop a machine learning framework that reaches this conclusion directly from the raw data, even in a crystal that is too small for traditional resonant ultrasound. Our result rules out a broad class of theories of hidden order based on two-component order parameters, and constrains the nature of the fluctuations from which unconventional superconductivity emerges at lower temperature. Our machine learning framework is a powerful new tool for classifying the ubiquitous competing orders in correlated electron systems.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2386, 2020 Feb 06.*

##### RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

*Science ; 366(6462): 221-226, 2019 10 11.*

##### RESUMO

Although crystals of strongly correlated metals exhibit a diverse set of electronic ground states, few approaches exist for spatially modulating their properties. In this study, we demonstrate disorder-free control, on the micrometer scale, over the superconducting state in samples of the heavy-fermion superconductor CeIrIn5 We pattern crystals by focused ion beam milling to tailor the boundary conditions for the elastic deformation upon thermal contraction during cooling. The resulting nonuniform strain fields induce complex patterns of superconductivity, owing to the strong dependence of the transition temperature on the strength and direction of strain. These results showcase a generic approach to manipulating electronic order on micrometer length scales in strongly correlated matter without compromising the cleanliness, stoichiometry, or mean free path.

*Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2095, 2019 Feb 14.*

##### RESUMO

We present a high magnetic field study of NbP-a member of the monopnictide Weyl semimetal (WSM) family. While the monoarsenides (NbAs and TaAs) have topologically distinct left and right-handed Weyl fermi surfaces, NbP is argued to be "topologically trivial" due to the fact that all pairs of Weyl nodes are encompassed by a single Fermi surface. We use torque magnetometry to measure the magnetic response of NbP up to 60 tesla and uncover a Berry paramagnetic response, characteristic of the topological Weyl nodes, across the entire field range. At the quantum limit B* (≈32 T), τ/B experiences a change in slope when the chemical potential enters the last Landau level. Our calculations confirm that this magnetic response arises from band topology of the Weyl pocket, even though the Fermi surface encompasses both Weyl nodes at zero magnetic field. We also find that the magnetic field pulls the chemical potential to the chiral n = 0 Landau level in the quantum limit, providing a disorder-free way of accessing chiral Weyl fermions in systems that are "not quite" WSMs in zero magnetic field.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(19): 197002, 2018 Nov 09.*

##### RESUMO

The phenomenon of T-linear resistivity commonly observed in a number of strange metals has been widely seen as evidence for the breakdown of the quasiparticle picture of metals. This study shows that a recently discovered H/T scaling relationship in the magnetoresistance of the strange metal BaFe_{2}(As_{1-x}P_{x})_{2} is independent of the relative orientations of current and magnetic field. Rather, its magnitude and form depend only on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to a single crystallographic axis: the direction perpendicular to the magnetic iron layers. This finding suggests that the magnetotransport scaling does not originate from the conventional averaging or orbital velocity of quasiparticles as they traverse a Fermi surface, but rather from dissipation arising from two-dimensional correlations.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3975, 2018 09 28.*

##### RESUMO

Unusual behavior in quantum materials commonly arises from their effective low-dimensional physics, reflecting the underlying anisotropy in the spin and charge degrees of freedom. Here we introduce the magnetotropic coefficient k = ∂2F/∂Î¸2, the second derivative of the free energy F with respect to the magnetic field orientation Î¸ in the crystal. We show that the magnetotropic coefficient can be quantitatively determined from a shift in the resonant frequency of a commercially available atomic force microscopy cantilever under magnetic field. This detection method enables part per 100 million sensitivity and the ability to measure magnetic anisotropy in nanogram-scale samples, as demonstrated on the Weyl semimetal NbP. Measurement of the magnetotropic coefficient in the spin-liquid candidate RuCl3 highlights its sensitivity to anisotropic phase transitions and allows a quantitative comparison to other thermodynamic coefficients via the Ehrenfest relations.

*Science ; 361(6401): 479-481, 2018 08 03.*

##### RESUMO

The anomalous metallic state in the high-temperature superconducting cuprates is masked by superconductivity near a quantum critical point. Applying high magnetic fields to suppress superconductivity has enabled detailed studies of the normal state, yet the direct effect of strong magnetic fields on the metallic state is poorly understood. We report the high-field magnetoresistance of thin-film La2-x Sr x CuO4 cuprate in the vicinity of the critical doping, 0.161 ≤ p ≤ 0.190. We find that the metallic state exposed by suppressing superconductivity is characterized by magnetoresistance that is linear in magnetic fields up to 80 tesla. The magnitude of the linear-in-field resistivity mirrors the magnitude and doping evolution of the well-known linear-in-temperature resistivity that has been associated with quantum criticality in high-temperature superconductors.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2217, 2018 06 07.*

##### RESUMO

Weyl fermions are a recently discovered ingredient for correlated states of electronic matter. A key difficulty has been that real materials also contain non-Weyl quasiparticles, and disentangling the experimental signatures has proven challenging. Here we use magnetic fields up to 95 T to drive the Weyl semimetal TaAs far into its quantum limit, where only the purely chiral 0th Landau levels of the Weyl fermions are occupied. We find the electrical resistivity to be nearly independent of magnetic field up to 50 T: unusual for conventional metals but consistent with the chiral anomaly for Weyl fermions. Above 50 T we observe a two-order-of-magnitude increase in resistivity, indicating that a gap opens in the chiral Landau levels. Above 80 T we observe strong ultrasonic attenuation below 2 K, suggesting a mesoscopically textured state of matter. These results point the way to inducing new correlated states of matter in the quantum limit of Weyl semimetals.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1458, 2018 04 13.*

##### RESUMO

The manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom in a solid has been of fundamental and technological interest recently for developing high-speed, low-power computational devices. There has been much work focused on developing highly spin-polarized materials and understanding their behavior when incorporated into so-called spintronic devices. These devices usually require spin splitting with magnetic fields. However, there is another promising strategy to achieve spin splitting using spatial symmetry breaking without the use of a magnetic field, known as Rashba-type splitting. Here we report evidence for a giant Rashba-type splitting at the interface of LaTiO3 and SrTiO3. Analysis of the magnetotransport reveals anisotropic magnetoresistance, weak anti-localization and quantum oscillation behavior consistent with a large Rashba-type splitting. It is surprising to find a large Rashba-type splitting in 3d transition metal oxide-based systems such as the LaTiO3/SrTiO3 interface, but it is promising for the development of a new kind of oxide-based spintronics.

*Nat Commun ; 8(1): 180, 2017 08 01.*

##### RESUMO

The complex antiferromagnetic orders observed in the honeycomb iridates are a double-edged sword in the search for a quantum spin-liquid: both attesting that the magnetic interactions provide many of the necessary ingredients, while simultaneously impeding access. Focus has naturally been drawn to the unusual magnetic orders that hint at the underlying spin correlations. However, the study of any particular broken symmetry state generally provides little clue about the possibility of other nearby ground states. Here we use magnetic fields approaching 100 Tesla to reveal the extent of the spin correlations in Î³-lithium iridate. We find that a small component of field along the magnetic easy-axis melts long-range order, revealing a bistable, strongly correlated spin state. Far from the usual destruction of antiferromagnetism via spin polarization, the high-field state possesses only a small fraction of the total iridium moment, without evidence for long-range order up to the highest attainable magnetic fields.The complex antiferromagnetic orders observed in the honeycomb iridates prevent access to a spin-liquid ground state. Here the authors apply extremely high magnetic fields to destroy the antiferromagnetic order in Î³-lithium iridate and reveal a bistable, strongly correlated spin state.

*Nature ; 548(7667): 313-317, 2017 08 17.*

##### RESUMO

Electronic nematic materials are characterized by a lowered symmetry of the electronic system compared to the underlying lattice, in analogy to the directional alignment without translational order in nematic liquid crystals. Such nematic phases appear in the copper- and iron-based high-temperature superconductors, and their role in establishing superconductivity remains an open question. Nematicity may take an active part, cooperating or competing with superconductivity, or may appear accidentally in such systems. Here we present experimental evidence for a phase of fluctuating nematic character in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn5 (ref. 5). We observe a magnetic-field-induced state in the vicinity of a field-tuned antiferromagnetic quantum critical point at Hc ≈ 50 tesla. This phase appears above an out-of-plane critical field H* ≈ 28 tesla and is characterized by a substantial in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the presence of a small in-plane field component. The in-plane symmetry breaking has little apparent connection to the underlying lattice, as evidenced by the small magnitude of the magnetostriction anomaly at H*. Furthermore, no anomalies appear in the magnetic torque, suggesting the absence of metamagnetism in this field range. The appearance of nematic behaviour in a prototypical heavy-fermion superconductor highlights the interrelation of nematicity and unconventional superconductivity, suggesting nematicity to be common among correlated materials.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(21): 5378-5383, 2017 05 23.*

##### RESUMO

The thermal diffusivity in the [Formula: see text] plane of underdoped YBCO crystals is measured by means of a local optical technique in the temperature range of 25-300 K. The phase delay between a point heat source and a set of detection points around it allows for high-resolution measurement of the thermal diffusivity and its in-plane anisotropy. Although the magnitude of the diffusivity may suggest that it originates from phonons, its anisotropy is comparable with reported values of the electrical resistivity anisotropy. Furthermore, the anisotropy drops sharply below the charge order transition, again similar to the electrical resistivity anisotropy. Both of these observations suggest that the thermal diffusivity has pronounced electronic as well as phononic character. At the same time, the small electrical and thermal conductivities at high temperatures imply that neither well-defined electron nor phonon quasiparticles are present in this material. We interpret our results through a strongly interacting incoherent electron-phonon "soup" picture characterized by a diffusion constant [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the soup velocity, and scattering of both electrons and phonons saturates a quantum thermal relaxation time [Formula: see text].

*Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1733, 2017 05 04.*

##### RESUMO

The excitonic insulator phase has long been predicted to form in proximity to a band gap opening in the underlying band structure. The character of the pairing is conjectured to crossover from weak (BCS-like) to strong coupling (BEC-like) as the underlying band structure is tuned from the metallic to the insulating side of the gap opening. Here we report the high-magnetic field phase diagram of graphite to exhibit just such a crossover. By way of comprehensive angle-resolved magnetoresistance measurements, we demonstrate that the underlying band gap opening occurs inside the magnetic field-induced phase, paving the way for a systematic study of the BCS-BEC-like crossover by means of conventional condensed matter probes.