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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211007511, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that mental health problems among university students may be increasing in both prevalence and severity. This study aimed to identify ways to reduce stigma and improve students' utilization of mental health services. METHODS: We performed a content analysis on video proposals to address stigma and mental health at universities, submitted by 15 teams from nine Asian-Pacific countries as part of a case competition. We examined five domains: (1) tone; (2) cultural context; (3) mental health issue of focus; (4) prevention versus secondary prevention; and (5) main intervention strategies. RESULTS: Five main intervention strategies emerged: (1) educational campaigns; (2) peer interaction and support; (3) counseling; (4) screening; and (5) self-management. The results suggest that mental health literacy is low among students. Educational campaigns and events to increase awareness and reduce stigma were the most commonly incorporated strategy, through film screenings, mental health days, and social media. Building empathy through personal stories from celebrities and other students was also highly recommended. Second, counseling was incorporated in 80% of proposals, with a preference for peers and staff support, and web-based therapy over professional counselors, except in severe cases. Programs to increase social contact were the third most common strategy, suggesting students may feel isolated and disconnected. Creating common spaces for students to interact and pairing of students with and without mental health issues were widely suggested. The use of technology was recommended for self-management of mental health and for mandatory mental health screening, which was generally only recommended for incoming students. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides insight into student-generated intervention approaches to prevent and address stigma associated with mental health issues among students. A greater university commitment is needed to provide a range of resources, including education and counseling, to leverage technology, and to foster stronger support networks among students.

2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The undergraduate program of psychiatry has been widely established in recent years to improve the education and recruitment of psychiatrists in China. We aim to investigate the career choice of medical students majoring in psychiatry in China and the influential factors. METHOD: This multicenter study was conducted in 26 medical schools in China from May to October of 2019. Participants included 4610 medical students majoring in psychiatry and 3857 medical students majoring in clinical medicine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the influential factors of students' choices of psychiatry at matriculation and as a career. RESULTS: 44.08% of psychiatry majored students gave psychiatry as a first choice at matriculation, and 56.67% of them would choose psychiatry as a career, which was in sharp contrast to the proportion of clinical medicine majored students who would choose psychiatry as a career (0.69%). Personal interest (59.61%), suggestions from family members (27.96%), and experiencing mental problems (23.19%) were main reasons for choosing psychiatry major at matriculation. Personal interest (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87-2.40), experiencing a psychiatry clerkship (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.28-3.08), being female (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30-1.68), experiencing mental problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.28-1.56), and suggestions from family members (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.46) correlated positively with students' choice of psychiatry as career. Students who lacked psychiatry knowledge (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) or chose psychiatry because of lower admission scores (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97) were less likely to choose psychiatry as a career. CONCLUSION: More than half of psychiatry majored medical school students planned to choose psychiatry as their career, whereas very few students in the clinic medicine major would make this choice. Increasing students' interest in psychiatry, strengthening psychiatry clerkships, and popularizing psychiatric knowledge are modifiable factors to increase the psychiatry career intention. The extent to which medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry can be changed through medical school education and greater exposure to psychiatry will need further investigation.

3.
Am J Addict ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19-related quarantine and stress have likely escalated the crisis of Internet addiction. This study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Internet use and related risk factors among the general public in China. METHODS: A large-sample cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March 24 to April 30, 2020, in China, and 20,472 participants completed the survey. We investigated the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction based on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and explored the risk factors related to increases in time spent on Internet use and severity of Internet addiction, as well as severe Internet addiction. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Internet addiction was 36.7% among the general population during the pandemic, and that of severe Internet addiction was 2.8%, according to IAT scores. Time spent on recreational Internet use had significantly increased during the pandemic, and almost half of participants reported increases in the severity of Internet addiction. Risk factors for increases in time spent on Internet use and severity of Internet addiction and severe Internet addiction included having fewer social supporters, perceiving pressure and impact on mental health status due to COVID-19, and being over-engaged in playing videogames. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted Internet use and increased the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction among the general population in China, especially in vulnerable populations. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for policymakers to refine public health policies to control the pandemic and make efforts to provide population-specific prevention and interventions for people at risk of developing Internet addiction. (Am J Addict 2021;00:00-00).

4.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e18, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major threat to the public. However, the comprehensive profile of suicidal ideation among the general population has not been systematically investigated in a large sample in the age of COVID-19. METHODS: A national online cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 28, 2020 and March 11, 2020 in a representative sample of Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its risk factors was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 56,679 participants (27,149 males and 29,530 females) were included. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation was 16.4%, including 10.9% seldom, 4.1% often, and 1.4% always suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher in males (19.1%) and individuals aged 18-24 years (24.7%) than in females (14.0%) and those aged 45 years and older (11.9%). Suicidal ideation was more prevalent in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection (63.0%), frontline workers (19.2%), and people with pre-existing mental disorders (41.6%). Experience of quarantine, unemployed, and increased psychological stress during the pandemic were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and its severity. However, paying more attention to and gaining a better understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, especially information about psychological interventions, could reduce the risk. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of suicidal ideation among the general population in China during COVID-19 was significant. The findings will be important for improving suicide prevention strategies during COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542468

RESUMO

Pandemics have become more frequent and more complex during the twenty-first century. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following pandemics is a significant public health concern. We sought to provide a reliable estimate of the worldwide prevalence of PTSD after large-scale pandemics as well as associated risk factors, by a systematic review and meta-analysis. We systematically searched the MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang, medRxiv, and bioRxiv databases to identify studies that were published from the inception up to August 23, 2020, and reported the prevalence of PTSD after pandemics including sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1, Poliomyelitis, Ebola, Zika, Nipah, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), H5N1, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 88 studies were included in the analysis, with 77 having prevalence information and 70 having risk factors information. The overall pooled prevalence of post-pandemic PTSD across all populations was 22.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.9-25.4%, I2: 99.7%). Healthcare workers had the highest prevalence of PTSD (26.9%; 95% CI: 20.3-33.6%), followed by infected cases (23.8%: 16.6-31.0%), and the general public (19.3%: 15.3-23.2%). However, the heterogeneity of study findings indicates that results should be interpreted cautiously. Risk factors including individual, family, and societal factors, pandemic-related factors, and specific factors in healthcare workers and patients for post-pandemic PTSD were summarized and discussed in this systematic review. Long-term monitoring and early interventions should be implemented to improve post-pandemic mental health and long-term recovery.

6.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764021992807, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The increasing prevalence of mental illness and low treatment rate presents a pressing public health issue in China. Pervasive stigma is a significant barrier to mental health recovery and community inclusion. In particular, stigmatizing or supportive attitudes held by healthcare providers could either perpetuate or mitigate self-stigma of people with mental illness. Moreover, mental health resources are unevenly distributed in China, with most of them concentrated in urban centers and provincial capitals. This study explores healthcare providers' attitudes toward mental illness and the challenges they faced at work in a rural Chinese county. METHOD: Four focus groups were conducted with 36 healthcare providers from a three-tier mental healthcare system in a rural county in southwestern China. Focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The team employed a conventional content analysis approach for data analysis. All transcripts were double-coded by three bilingual team members who are native Chinese speakers. Coding discrepancies were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Healthcare providers recruited from the county, township, and village levels varied in educational background, professional qualification, and experience of working with people with mental illness. Five thematic categories identified across four groups include (1) barriers to mental healthcare delivery, (2) keys to mental health recovery, (3) providers' attitudes toward providing care, (4) providers' perception toward patients and family members, and (5) providers' perception of training needs. CONCLUSIONS: This is a unique study that included healthcare providers from a three-tier healthcare system. Findings signal the importance of understanding healthcare practitioners' experiences and views to inform the design of training initiatives in rural or low-resource communities.

7.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764021997479, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown what the impacts of multiple dimensions of contact (e.g. level, quantity and quality) are on the stigma of mental illness. AIMS: To explore the relationship between the multiple dimensions of contact and stigma of mental illness among family members (FM), mental health workers (MHW) and community residents (CR) in Hong Kong. METHODS: The stigma, contact and knowledge were measured in FM, MHW and CR in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analyses were used. RESULTS: MHW (n = 141) had higher knowledge, more contact and lower stigma of mental illness than CR (n = 95) or FM (n = 62). Knowledge and contact quality were significantly associated with lower stigma of mental illness in the three groups. However, contact level and contact quantity were not significantly associated with most stigma components. The contact level was positively associated with stigma of mental illness among FM and CR. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study highlight the differences in knowledge, contact and stigma of mental illness among different stakeholder groups. This study suggests that positive contact (e.g. equal, supportive, voluntary and pleasant contact) reduces stigma of mental illness, while negative contact (e.g. unfriendly, unsupportive, unpleasant contact) may increase stigma. The Enhancing Contact Model (ECM) should be tested in future anti-stigma interventions.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although poverty associated with severe mental illness (SMI) has been documented in many studies, little long-term evidence of social drift exists. This study aimed to unravel the poverty transitions among persons with SMI in a fast change community in China. METHODS: Two mental health surveys, using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10), were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China in 1994 and 2015. A total of 308 persons with SMI identified in 1994 were followed up in 2015. The profiles of poverty transitions were identified and regression modelling methods were applied to determine the predictive factors of poverty transitions. RESULTS: The poverty rate of persons with SMI increased from 39.9% to 49.4% in 1994 and 2015. A larger proportion of them had fallen into poverty (27.3%) rather than moved out of it (17.8%). Those persons with SMI who had lost work ability, had physical illness and more severe mental disabilities in 1994, as well as those who had experienced negative changes on these factors were more likely to live in persistent poverty or fall into poverty. Higher education level and medical treatment were major protective factors of falling into poverty. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows long-term evidence on the social drift of persons with SMI during the period of rapid social development in China. Further targeted poverty alleviation interventions should be crucial for improving treatment and mental recovery and alleviating poverty related to SMI.

9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 8, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cultural factors play a crucial role in experience of stigma, there is scant review on the impact and importance of culture on stigma of mental illness across Pacific Rim Region. This study aims to investigate: 1) the cultural factors related to stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness in Pacific Rim region, and 2) culture-specific measures and interventions on stigma of mental illness. METHODS: A systematic search of papers was conducted in the MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google scholar through January 2003 to April 2019. RESULTS: Forty-one studies in Pacific Rim region which met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The rate of stigma of mental illness (e.g., public stigma: from 25.4 to 85.2%) was relatively high in Pacific Rim region. Culture factors (e.g., Collectivism, Confucianism, face concern and familism, religion and supernatural beliefs) contributed to people's stigmatizing behaviors and attitudes toward persons with mental illness, their relatives and mental health professionals. Certain measurements were developed and employed to assess different type of cultural factors related to stigma of mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural factors play an important role in influencing the rate and performance of stigma of mental illness. Further research on stigma of mental illness and culture-specific interventions to reduce the stigma should be conducted in the Pacific Rim region.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estigma Social , Humanos
10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China. METHODS: This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10-20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used. RESULTS: There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.

11.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020975792, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although knowledge is a crucial component in contact theory delineating how prejudice changes toward out-groups with stigmatized conditions, little is known about the mediating role of knowledge on contact, stigmatizing attitudes, and behaviors toward mental illness. AIM: This study aimed to examine the mechanism underlie contact and stigma change by knowledge. METHODS: A total of 366 participants including family members (FM), mental health providers (MHP), and community residents (CR) recruited across communities in Hong Kong and completed measures of contact level, contact quantity, contact quality, mental health related knowledge, prejudice, and discriminatory behaviors. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the association among the key variables. RESULTS: Higher level of contact was significantly correlated with better knowledge, less prejudice, and less discriminatory behaviors. Knowledge was directly and negatively correlated with prejudicial attitudes but was not significantly related to discriminatory behaviors. Furthermore, lower levels of prejudice were associated with less discriminatory behaviors. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of contact may increase understanding toward people with mental illness (PMI) and diminish stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors. Although prejudicial attitudes may be reduced by broadening mental health knowledge, increasing knowledge only might not ameliorate discriminatory behaviors. Future research should test mediators on contact and stigma by using longitudinal data.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146858

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) explore the prevalence and relevant influencing factors of different mental disorders 5 years after the Lushan earthquake in Ya'an, China. METHODS: An epidemiological mental health survey was conducted to identify the prevalence of mental disorders in general population in Ya'an. A multi-stage, group-matching random sampling method was adopted. Face-to-face interviews were done with a two-stage design by trained interviewers and psychiatrists. The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) was used for the diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 8876 participants who were interviewed in this study. The total 12-month and lifetime prevalence of all mental disorders were 12.5% and 14.7%, respectively. There was a significant difference between males and females in the prevalence patterns of several mental disorders. Han ethnic group had higher prevalence of anxiety disorders (2.7%), and the Tibetan group had higher prevalence of alcohol-related disorders (5.0%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the areas severely affected by the earthquake had significantly higher prevalence of depressive disorders, and the extremely severe affected areas had significantly higher prevalence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the prevalence of a range of mental disorders 5 years after the earthquake in Ya'an are high, and the prevalence of depressive and trauma- and stressor-related disorders may be influenced differently by the various severity of earthquake impact. This study may be crucial for the health policy-making, cultural-specific mental health services and long-term mental recovery after the earthquake.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-16, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148347

RESUMO

The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.

14.
BJPsych Open ; 6(6): e121, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the trend and predictors of 21-year mortality and suicide patterns in persons with schizophrenia. AIMS: To explore the trend and predictors of 21-year mortality and suicide in persons with schizophrenia in rural China. METHOD: This longitudinal follow-up study included 510 persons with schizophrenia who were identified in a mental health survey of individuals (≥15 years old) in 1994 in six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China, and followed up in three waves until 2015. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox hazard regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Of the 510 participants, 196 died (38.4% mortality) between 1994 and 2015; 13.8% of the deaths (n = 27) were due to suicide. Life expectancy was lower for men than for women (50.6 v. 58.5 years). Males consistently showed higher rates of mortality and suicide than females. Older participants had higher mortality (hazard ratio HR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) but lower suicide rates (HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.98) than their younger counterparts. Poor family attitudes were associated with all-cause mortality and death due to other causes; no previous hospital admission and a history of suicide attempts independently predicted death by suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest there is a high mortality and suicide rate in persons with schizophrenia in rural China, with different predictive factors for mortality and suicide. It is important to develop culture-specific, demographically tailored and community-based mental healthcare and to strengthen family intervention to improve the long-term outcome of persons with schizophrenia.

15.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020966009, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-stigma exerts a range of adversities for persons with severe mental illness (SMI), however, little is known about the association between peer contact, social support and self-stigma. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the mediating role of social support on the relationship between peer contact and self-stigma among persons with SMI in Hong Kong. METHODS: A total of 159 persons with SMI (schizophrenia and mood disorder) in community service centres participated in the study through completing a survey on self-stigma, social functioning, social support, perception of peer contact and mass media. Logistic regression was utilised to explore the influencing factors of self-stigma among the participants. RESULTS: The results showed that 81.1% of participants reported moderate to severe levels of self-stigma. Self-stigma was significantly associated with diverse factors (e.g. social functioning). Importantly, positive peer contact was significantly associated with lower self-stigma of persons with SMI. Social support acted as a mediator between peer contact and self-stigma. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that contact-based interventions, such as enhancing positive peer-to-peer contact, should be conducted for reducing self-stigma among persons with SMI.

16.
BJPsych Open ; 6(5): e111, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about poverty trends in people with severe mental illness (SMI) over a long time span, especially under conditions of fast socioeconomic development. AIMS: This study aims to unravel changes in household poverty levels among people with SMI in a fast-changing rural community in China. METHOD: Two mental health surveys, using ICD-10, were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China. A total of 711 and 1042 people with SMI identified in 1994 and 2015, respectively, participated in the study. The Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index was adopted to measure the changes in household poverty. These changes were decomposed into effects of growth and equity using a static decomposition method. Factors associated with household poverty in 1994 and 2015 were examined and compared by regression analyses. RESULTS: The proportion of poor households, as measured by the headcount ratio, increased significantly from 29.8% in 1994 to 39.5% in 2015. Decomposition showed that poverty in households containing people with SMI had worsened because of a redistribution effect. Factors associated with household poverty had also changed during the study period. The patient's age, ability to work and family size were of paramount significance in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the levels of poverty faced by households containing people with SMI has become more pressing with China's fast socioeconomic development. It calls for further integration of mental health recovery and targeted antipoverty interventions for people with SMI as a development priority.

17.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020951234, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether and how poverty influences the long-term outcome of persons with severe mental illness (SMI). AIMS: To explore the change of poverty status in persons with SMI from 1994 to 2015 and examine the impact of poverty status on patients' outcome in rural China. METHOD: Two mental health surveys using identical methods and International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) were conducted in 1994 and 2015 in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. RESULTS: The annual net income per person was 19.8% and 100.2% higher for the general population than for persons with SMI in 1994 and 2015 respectively. Compared with 1994 (48.2%), persons with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status (

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609353

RESUMO

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Quarentena/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
19.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(12): 1571-1580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200431

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Household poverty associated with schizophrenia has been long described. However, the mechanisms by which schizophrenia may have influenced the economic status of a household in rural communities are still unclear. This study aimed to test an integrated model of schizophrenia, social support and caregiving burden on household poverty in a rural community in China. METHODS: A mental health survey using identical methods and ICD-10 was conducted in six townships of Xinjin County (population ≥ 15 years old, n = 152,776), Chengdu, China in 2015. Identified persons with schizophrenia (n = 661) and their caregivers completed a joint questionnaire of sociodemographic information, illness conditions, social support and caregiving burden. Descriptive analysis was applied first to give an overview of the dataset. Then, multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associative factors of social support, caregiving burden and household income. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the integrated model of schizophrenia, social support, caregiving burden and household income. RESULTS: Households with patient being female, married, able to work and having better social function were better off. Larger household size, higher social support and lower caregiving burden also had salient association with higher household income. The relationship between schizophrenia and household poverty appeared to be mediated by the impacts of schizophrenia on social support and caregiving burden. CONCLUSION: There was a strong association between schizophrenia and household poverty, in which social support and caregiving burden may had played significant roles on mediating it. More precise poverty alleviation policies and interventions should focus on supporting recovery for persons with schizophrenia, as well as on increasing social support and on reducing family caregiving burden.


Assuntos
População Rural , Esquizofrenia , Cuidadores , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Apoio Social
20.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 32(6): 291-297, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480980

RESUMO

This study was performed to compare the treatment status between older (≥65 years) and younger adults (18-64 years) with severe mental illness (SMI) and explore factors associated with treatment status in rural China. Persons with SMI were identified in one mental health survey in 2015 in 6 townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. Logistic regressions were conducted to explore factors associated with treatment status. Older adults with SMI, especially major depressive disorder, reported significantly lower rates of treatment than younger group. Older age, longer duration of illness, and poor mental status were risk factors for never-treated status in these patients. Never-treated status (46.3%) and poor treatment status in these older patients are serious issues. Different treatment statuses in these patients had various influencing factors. It is crucial to develop culture-specific, community-based mental health services to improve early identification, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of older adults with SMI in rural China.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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