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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078

RESUMO

Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Tramadol/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141383, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882544

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment worldwide and considered emerging contaminants. Their effects on growth, behavior, and physiological processes of aquatic organisms have been identified even at very low concentrations. Ecotoxicological investigations have primarily focused on single compound exposure, generally at a range of concentrations. In the natural environment, pollutants seldom occur in isolation, but little is known about the effects and risks of combinations of chemicals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of concurrent exposure to six psychoactive PhACs on locomotory behavior and life history traits of clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish were exposed to ~1 µg L-1 of the antidepressants sertraline, citalopram, and venlafaxine; the anxiolytic oxazepam; the opioid tramadol; and the widely abused psychostimulant methamphetamine. In the absence of shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly shorter distances and at lower velocity and showed significantly less activity than controls. With available shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly more distance, showed higher activity, and spent a significantly more time outside the shelter than controls. Molting, mortality, and spawning frequency did not vary significantly between the groups. Hemolymph glucose level did not vary among groups and was not correlated with observed behaviors. Results suggest that environmental concentrations of the tested compounds in combination can alter the behavior of non-target aquatic organisms as individual exposure of these compounds, which may lead to disruption of ecosystem processes due to their reduced caution in polluted conditions. Further research is needed using varied chemical mixtures, exposure systems, and habitats, considering molecular and physiological processes connected to behavior alterations.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Astacoidea , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115593, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254619

RESUMO

With increasing demand for aquaculture products, water reuse is likely to increase for aquaculture operations around the world. Herein, wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) represents low cost and sustainable treatment technologies to reduce nutrients and various contaminants of emerging concern from effluent. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of selected pharmaceuticals from several therapeutic classes by two important fish species in aquaculture with different feeding preferences (Cyprinus carpio and Sander lucioperca) and their common prey to test whether species specific accumulation occurs. Forty and nineteen from 66 selected pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were positively found in water and sediment samples, respectively from the representative WSP. After a six-month study, which corresponds to aquaculture operations, fourteen pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were detected (at a frequency of higher than 50% of samples) in at least one fish tissue collected from the WSP. We observed striking differences for species and organ specific BAFs among study compounds. Though muscle tissues consistently accumulated lower levels of the target analytes, several substances were elevated in brain, liver and kidney tissues (e.g., sertraline) of both species. Low residual concentrations of these target analytes in aquaculture products (fish fillets) suggest WSPs are promising to support the water-food nexus in aquaculture.

4.
Environ Pollut ; : 116121, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272798

RESUMO

POCIS is the most widely applied passive sampler of polar organic substances, because it was one of the first commercially available samplers for that purpose on the market, but also for its applicability for a wide range of substances and conditions. Its main weakness is the variability of sampling performance with exposure conditions. In our study we took a pragmatic approach and performed in situ calibration for a set of 76 pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in five sampling campaigns in surface water, covering various temperature and flow conditions. In individual campaigns, RS were calculated for up to 47 compounds ranging from 0.01 to 0.63 L d-1, with the overall median value of 0.10 L d-1. No clear changes of RS with water temperature or discharge could be found for any of the investigated substances. The absence of correlation of experimental RS with physical-chemical properties in combination with the lack of mechanistic understanding of compound uptake to POCIS implies that practical estimation of aqueous concentrations from uptake in POCIS depends on compound-specific experimental calibration data. Performance of POCIS was compared with grab sampling of water in seven field campaigns comprising multiple sampling sites, where sampling by both methods was done in parallel. The comparison showed that for 25 of 36 tested compounds more than 50% of POCIS-derived aqueous concentrations did not differ from median of grab sampling values more than by a factor of 2. Further, for 30 of 36 compounds, more than 80% of POCIS data did not differ from grab sampling data more than by a factor of 5. When accepting this level of accuracy, in situ derived sampling rates are sufficiently robust for application of POCIS for identification of spatial and temporal contamination trends in surface waters.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143108, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162133

RESUMO

Reservoirs are known to alter temperature and flow regimes, shift nutrient cycles, reduce downstream species diversity and enable a predominantly upstream spread of non-native species. However, information about the seasonal dynamics of the spread of non-natives from a reservoir to its tributaries and the further consequences regarding the spatial distribution of native species is rare. We observed the occurrence of fish in the Vltava River and its tributaries (Elbe catchment area, central Europe) upstream of the Lipno Reservoir for five consecutive years. We radio-tagged two non-native and four native species. To detect assemblage spatial variability, we sampled sites in the study area by electrofishing twice per year (spring and autumn). We expected seasonal trends in non-native species appearance in upstream reservoir tributaries and, conversely, low motivation of native fishes to descend to the reservoir. By analysing nearly 3000 individuals of 21 species from the longitudinal profile of the study area, we observed an effect of reservoir distance on the native species ratio in the upper Vltava catchment area, i.e., an increase in distance increased the native species proportion, and the opposite was observed for non-native species. Analyses of 3798 tracking positions of 193 tagged individuals showed massive spring dispersal of non-native species from the reservoir to the main tributary, the Vltava River, and their return to the reservoir for wintering. Their upstream movement positively correlated with an increase in flow rate. Native Salmo trutta showed a specific shift from the Vltava River to smaller streams during the summer, when the presence of non-native species in the Vltava River was most significant. These findings indicate that non-native species repeatedly spread from the reservoir to the upstream river stretch and its tributaries and potentially compete with native species for resources.

6.
Environ Pollut ; : 115888, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158621

RESUMO

With increasing population growth and climate change, de facto reuse practices are predicted to increase globally. We investigated a longitudinal gradient within the Uhlava River, a representative watershed, where de facto reuse is actively occurring, during Fall and Spring seasons when instream flows vary. We observed human pharmaceutical levels in the river to continuously increase from the mountainous areas upstream to downstream locations and a potable intake location, with the highest concentrations found in small tributaries. Significant relationship was identified between mass flow of pharmaceuticals and the size of human populations contributing to wastewater treatment plant discharges. Advanced ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration effectively removed pharmaceuticals from potable source waters. We observed a higher probability of encountering a number of targeted pharmaceuticals during colder Spring months when stream flows were elevated compared to warmer conditions with lower flows in the Fall despite a dilution paradigm routinely applied for surface water quality assessment and management efforts. Such observations translated to greater water quality hazards during these higher Spring flows. Future water monitoring efforts should account for periods when higher chemical uses occur, particularly in the face of climate change for regions experiencing population growth and de facto reuse.

7.
Environ Int ; 146: 106188, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096467

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

8.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957289

RESUMO

Methamphetamine, mainly consumed as an illicit drug, is a potent addictive psychostimulant that has been detected in surface water at concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per litre, especially in Middle and East Europe. The aim of this study was to expose brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) to environmental (1 µg L-1) and higher (50 µg L-1) concentrations of methamphetamine for 35 days with a four-day depuration phase to assess the possible negative effects on fish health. Degenerative liver and heart alterations, similar to those described in mammals, were observed at both concentrations, although at different intensities. Apoptotic changes in hepatocytes, revealed by activated caspase-3, were found in exposed fish. The parent compound and a metabolite (amphetamine) were detected in fish tissues in both concentration groups, in the order of kidney > liver > brain > muscle > plasma. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.13 to 80. A therapeutic plasma concentration was reached for both compounds in the high-concentration treatment. This study indicates that chronic environmental concentrations of methamphetamine can lead to health issues in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo
9.
PeerJ ; 8: e9356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714655

RESUMO

Background: The aquatic environment has been contaminated with various anthropogenic pollutants, including psychoactive compounds that may alter the physiology and behavior of free-living organisms. The present study focused on the condition and related mortality of the juvenile chub (Squalius cephalus). The aim of the study was to test whether the adverse effects of the antidepressants sertraline and citalopram, the analgesic tramadol and the illicit drug methamphetamine, on fish condition exist under environmentally relevant concentrations and whether these effects persist after a depuration period. Innovative analyses of the fish brain concentrations of these compounds were performed with the aim to show relationship between compound brain tissue concentration and fish condition. Methods: The laboratory experiment consisted of 42 days of exposure and a subsequent 14-day depuration period with regular monitoring of the condition and mortality of exposed and control fish. Identical methodology, including individual brain concentration analyses for the tested compounds, was applied for all substances. Additional study on feeding under sertraline exposure was also conducted. The feeding was measured from the 28th day of the exposure, three times in a week, by observation of food intake during 15 minutes in social environment. Results: The effects of particular psychoactive compounds on chub condition varied. While sertraline induced a lower condition and increased mortality, the effects of methamphetamine were inverse, and tramadol and citalopram had no significant effect at all. Individual brain concentrations of the tested compounds showed that the effects of sertraline and methamphetamine on fish condition were increased with brain concentration increases. Additionally, the food intake was reduced in case of sertraline. In contrast, there was no relationship between tramadol and citalopram brain tissue concentration and fish condition, suggesting that the concentration-dependent effect is strongly compound-specific. Methamphetamine was the only compound with a persistent effect after the depuration period. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the brain concentration evidence approach and suggest that changes in fish condition and other related parameters can be expected in freshwater ecosystems polluted with specific psychoactive compounds.

10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(18): 4353-4361, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372276

RESUMO

Recent state-of-the-art methods developed for the analysis of polar xenobiotics from different types of biological matrices usually employ liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. However, there are limitations when a small amount of sample mass is available. For example, individual benthic invertebrates or fish tissue samples often weigh less than 100 mg (e.g., brain, liver) but are necessary to understand environmental fate and bioaccumulation dynamics. We developed ultra-fast methods based on a direct sample introduction technique. This included coupling laser diode thermal desorption with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS). We then quantitated a common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (citalopram) in brain tissues of individual juvenile fish after in vivo exposure to environmentally relevant concentration. Two mass spectrometric methods based on low (LDTD-APCI-triple quadrupole (QqQ)-MS/MS) and high (LDTD-APCI-high-resolution product scan (HRPS)) resolutions were developed and evaluated. Individual instrument conditions were optimized to achieve an accurate and robust analytical method with minimum sample preparation requirements. We achieved very good recovery (97-108%) across the range of 1-100 ng g-1 for LDTD-APCI-HRPS. LDTD-APCI-QqQ-MS/MS showed poorer performance due to interferences from the matrix at the lowest concentration level. LDTD-APCI ionization was successfully validated for analysis of non-filtered sample extracts. Evaluation of final methods was performed for a set of real fish brain samples, including comparison of LDTD-APCI-HRPS with a previously validated LC-heated electrospray ionization-HRPS method. This new LDTD-APCI-HRPS method avoids the chromatographic step and provides important benefits such as analysis of limited sample masses, lower total sample volume (typically µL), and reduction in analysis time per sample run to a few seconds. Graphical abstract.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245179

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH), a central nervous system stimulant used as a recreational drug, is frequently found in surface waters at potentially harmful concentrations. To determine effects of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant levels on nontarget organisms, we analysed cardiac and locomotor responses of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus to acute stress during a 21-day exposure to METH at 1 µg L-1 followed by 14 days depuration. Heart rate and locomotion were recorded over a period of 30 min before and 30 min after exposure to haemolymph of an injured conspecific four times during METH exposure and four times during the depuration phase. Methamphetamine-exposed crayfish showed a weaker cardiac response to stress than was observed in controls during both exposure and depuration phases. Similarly, methamphetamine-exposed crayfish, during METH exposure, showed lower locomotor reaction poststressor application in contrast to controls. Results indicate biological alterations in crayfish exposed to METH at low concentration level, potentially resulting in a shift in interactions among organisms in natural environment.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Metanfetamina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062094

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring and surveillance studies of pharmaceuticals routinely examine occurrence of substances without current information on human consumption patterns. We selected 10 streams with diverse annual flows and differentially influenced by population densities to examine surface water occurrence and fish accumulation of select psychoactive medicines, for which consumption is increasing in the Czech Republic. We then tested whether passive sampling can provide a useful surrogate for exposure to these substances through grab sampling, body burdens of young of year fish, and tissue specific accumulation of these psychoactive contaminants. We identified a statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationship between ambient grab samples and passive samplers in these streams when psychoactive contaminants were commonly quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, though we did not observe relationships between passive samplers and tissue specific pharmaceutical accumulation. We further observed smaller lotic systems with elevated contamination when municipal effluent discharges from more highly populated cities contributed a greater extent of instream flows. These findings identify the importance of understanding age and species specific differences in fish uptake, internal disposition, metabolism and elimination of psychoactive drugs across surface water quality gradients.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135138, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000346

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) have been increasingly detected in freshwater and marine waterbodies worldwide and are recognized as major emerging micropollutant threat to the aquatic environment. Despite their low concentrations in the environment, there is evidence of effects on non-target aquatic organisms in natural habitats. To assess the potential effects of PhACs on its burrowing behavior, we exposed the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii to methamphetamine or tramadol at the environmentally relevant concentration of 1 µg/L. Methamphetamine-exposed females constructed burrows of lower depth and volume relative to individual weight than did controls. Tramadol-exposed females consistently exhibited a tendency for smaller burrows, but this difference was not significant. Exposed males showed a non-significant tendency to excavate larger burrows compared with the control. Control and tramadol-treated females maintained the natural tendency of constructing relatively deeper and/or larger-volume burrows compared with males. This sex-related pattern was not detected in the methamphetamine group. The rate of human therapeutic PhAC usage is relatively stable year-round, and impacts on crayfish burrowing can be particularly damaging during periods of drought, when the dilution of waste waters is reduced, and burrowing becomes a critical survival strategy. Our results suggest that an increasingly broad range of environmental impacts of PhACs on non-target organisms can be expected in natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Ecossistema , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Meio Ambiente , Água Doce , Humanos
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212248

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds are major contaminants of aquatic environments that show direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the illicit drug methamphetamine and the antidepressant sertraline on clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish exposed to the environmentally relevant concentrations of methamphetamine of ∼1 µg L-1 did not exhibit significant differences from unexposed controls in distance moved, velocity, and activity level with or without available shelter. Sertraline-exposed (∼1 µg L-1) crayfish were significantly more active, regardless of available shelter, and moved greater distances when shelter was available, compared to control crayfish. Crayfish exposed to methamphetamine and sertraline spent significantly more time outside the shelters compared to controls. Sertraline-exposed crayfish spawned more frequently and showed higher mortality than controls. The results suggest that the low environmental concentrations of the tested compounds could alter the behavior and life history traits of crayfish, resulting in higher reproductive effort and mortality.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Sertralina/toxicidade , Animais , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 211: 173-180, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991163

RESUMO

Interspecific relationships frequently determine the effect a pollutant can have on an organism, and this is especially true in closely interacting species such as hosts and parasites. The high spatial and temporal variability of contaminant concentrations combined with the movement of aquatic biota can further influence the consequences that are associated with contamination. We used a full factorial design for the exposed and unexposed partners of the relationship between the parasitic larvae (glochidia) of the European freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) and its host fish (Squalius cephalus) to identify the sources of variation in the sublethal endpoints of species interaction (the intensity of parasite attachment, the spatial position of glochidia on the host body, and encapsulation success). We used the water-borne human pharmaceutical compounds methamphetamine (a central nervous system stimulant) and tramadol (an opioid) at environmentally relevant concentrations (˜ 6.7 and 3.8 nmol L-1 of methamphetamine and tramadol, respectively) as a proxy for contaminant exposure because these compounds are emerging aquatic stressors that are known for high spatial and temporal variability in their detected concentration levels. The relationship between the bivalve and the fish species was influenced by the preceding contact with both methamphetamine and tramadol, but this effect was highly asymmetric. Our experimental design enabled us to identify the specific changes in the relationship outcome that are elicited by the exposure of individual partners, such as the significant increase in glochidia infection success rate from 59.6 ± 3.9% to 78.7 ± 2.8% (means ± s.e.) that was associated with host exposure to methamphetamine. Additionally, the significant interaction effect of the exposure was demonstrated by the lowered proportion of glochidia attached to gills after the coexposure of both partners to tramadol. The impact of pharmaceuticals on wild aquatic host-parasite relationships provides an example of the risks that are associated with the unintentional discharge of biologically active compounds into freshwater habitats. Given the increasing evidence showing the ecological impact of waste pharmaceuticals, the use of multitrophic interaction endpoints after joint and unilateral exposures provides an important step towards the realistic risk assessment of these compounds.


Assuntos
Anodonta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anodonta/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Brânquias/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Toxicidade
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 662: 655-661, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703723

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide, little is known about their ecological effect on aquatic biota and ecosystems. Drug-induced behaviour changes could have a substantial impact on consumer-resource interactions influencing stability of the community and ecosystem. We combined laboratory experiments and functional response modelling to investigate effects of real wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, as well as environmentally relevant concentrations of the antidepressants citalopram and opioid pain medication tramadol, on trophic interactions. Our biological system consisted of dragonfly Aeshna cyanea larvae as predator of common carp Cyprinus carpio fry. Exposure to WWTP effluent significantly increased A. cyanea maximum feeding rate, while those parameters in tramadol and citalopram-exposed larvae were significantly lower from unexposed control group. This suggested the potential of all tested pollutants to have an effect on consumer-resource equilibrium in aquatic ecosystems. While WWTP effluent strengthened interaction strength (IS) of consumer-resource interaction dynamics making the food web more vulnerable to fluctuation and destabilization, tramadol and citalopram could inhibit the potential oscillations of the consumer-resource system by weakening the IS. Similar studies to reveal the potential of pervasive pharmaceuticals to change of consumer-resource interactions dynamics are needed, especially when real WWTP effluent consisting of mixture of various pharmaceuticals displayed very different effect from single compounds tested.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/fisiologia , Citalopram/efeitos adversos , Odonatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Tramadol/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Odonatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Odonatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/análise
17.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
18.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 92-99, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098510

RESUMO

Monitoring the contamination level in aquatic environments and assessing the impact on aquatic life occurs throughout the world. In the present study, an approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of various industrial and municipal pollutants was used to investigate the effect of aquatic environmental contamination on fish. Monitoring was performed in ten rivers in the Czech Republic (Berounka, Dyje, Elbe, Luznice, Odra, Ohre, Otava, Sázava, Svratka, and Vltava rivers, with one or two locations in each river) at the same sites that were regularly monitored within the Czech National Monitoring Program in 2007-2011. Health status, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, total cytochrome P450 content, and the plasma vitellogenin concentration were assessed in wild chub (Squalius cephalus) males caught at the monitored sites. The contamination level was the highest in the Svratka River downstream of Brno. Among all measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites were the major contributors of POPs in fish muscle. Elbe, Odra, and Svratka rivers were identified as the most polluted. Fish from these locations showed reduced gonad size, increased vitellogenin concentration in male plasma, EROD, and total cytochrome P450 content. These biomarkers can be used for future environmental monitoring assessments. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to the decision to support local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , República Tcheca , DDT/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Qualidade da Água
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 625: 1494-1509, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996446

RESUMO

Concerns about the effect of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on the health of freshwater ecosystems have increased. In this study, a unique approach was designed to show the effect of an STP effluent-dominated stream on native wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed under fully natural conditions. Zivny stream is located in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. The downstream site of Zivny stream is an STP-affected site, which receives 25% of its water from Prachatice STP effluent. Upstream, however, is a minimally polluted water site and it is considered to be the control site. Native fish were collected from the upstream site, tagged, and distributed to both upstream and downstream sites. After 30, 90, and 180days, fish were recaptured from both sites to determine whether the downstream site of the Zivny stream is associated with the effects of environmental pollution. Several biomarkers indicating the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities, cytochrome P450 activity, xenoestrogenic effects, bacterial composition, and lipid composition were investigated. Additionally, polar chemical contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)) were quantified using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Fifty-three PPCPs were detected in the downstream site; 36 of those were constantly present during the 180-day investigation period. Elevated hepatic 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) (after 90days) and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males were detected in fish downstream of the STP effluent during all sampling events. An increase in the fishes' total fat content was also observed, but with low levels of ω-3 fatty acid in muscle tissue. Two bacterial taxa related to activated sludge were found in the intestines of fish from downstream. Our results show that Prachatice STP is a major source of PPCPs in the Zivny stream, which has biological consequences on fish physiology.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Truta/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , República Tcheca , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Rios/química , Esgotos , Truta/microbiologia , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
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