Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 106
Filtrar
1.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(3): 282-283, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108498
2.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 30(1): 17-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839403

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of respiratory muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) remains incompletely understood. 21 adult patients with DM1 (11 men, 42 ± 13 years) and 21 healthy matched controls underwent spirometry, manometry, and diaphragm ultrasound. In addition, surface electromyography of the diaphragm and the obliquus abdominis muscle was performed following cortical and posterior cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) of the phrenic nerves or magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots. Magnetic stimulation was combined with invasive recording of the twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressure (twPdi and twPgas) in 10 subjects per group. The following parameters were reduced in DM1 patients compared to control subjects: maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP; 40.3 ± 19.2 vs. 95.8 ± 28.5 cmH2O, p < 0.01), diaphragm thickening ratio (DTR; 2.0 ± 0.4 vs. 2.7 ± 0.6, p < 0.01), twPdi following CMS (10.8 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 10.1 cmH2O, p = 0.03), and amplitude of diaphragm compound muscle action potentials (0.10 ± 0.25 vs. 0.46 ± 0.35 mV; p = 0.04). MIP and DTR were significantly correlated with the muscular impairment rating scale (MIRS) score. Maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) was reduced in DM1 patients compared to controls (41.3 ± 13.4 vs. 133.8 ± 28.0 cmH2O, p < 0.01) and showed negative correlation with the MIRS score. Pgas following a maximum cough was markedly lower in patients than in controls (71.9 ± 43.2 vs. 102.4 ± 35.5 cmH2O) but without statistical significance (p = 0.06). In DM1, respiratory muscle weakness relates to clinical disease severity and involves inspiratory and probably expiratory muscle strength. Axonal phrenic nerve pathology may contribute to diaphragm dysfunction.

3.
Lung ; 197(6): 721-726, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676976

RESUMO

It is unclear whether there are cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters which may indicate poor prognosis in the early course of fibrosing interstitial lung disease. 27 untreated consecutive subjects (13 idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP), 14 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); 19 male; age 69 ± 10 years) were enrolled in this observational pilot study. Subjects underwent routine pulmonary function testing and CPET. Statistically, the t test and the Mann-Whitney-U test were applied in the presence of normal and non-normal distribution (according to Shapiro-Wilk), respectively. Analyzing the whole cohort, only mild functional impairments were determined. Comparison of iNSIP and IPF groups detected significant differences for the CPET parameters V'O2Peak[%pred] (p = 0.011), V'O2/kgPeak (p = 0.033), Watt[%pred] (p = 0.048), V'E/V'CO2 (Rest: p = 0.016; AT: p = 0.011; Peak: p = 0.019; Slope: p = 0.040), V'E/V'O2 (Rest: p = 0.033 AT: p = 0.014; Peak: p = 0.035). CPET parameters may indicate IPF-specific impairments even in mild disease. It may be hypothesized that these parameters are early biomarkers of poor prognosis.

4.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(6): 679-686, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate respiratory muscle function in adults with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: Fourteen patients with FSHD (9 men, 53 ± 16 years of age) and 14 matched controls underwent spirometry, diaphragm ultrasound, and measurement of twitch gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressures (twPgas and twPdi; n = 10) after magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots and the phrenic nerves. The latter was combined with recording of diaphragm compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs; n = 14). RESULTS: The following parameters were significantly lower in patients vs controls: forced vital capacity (FVC); maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure; peak cough flow; diaphragm excursion amplitude; and thickening ratio on ultrasound, twPdi (11 ± 5 vs 20 ± 6 cmH2 O) and twPgas (7 ± 3 vs 25 ± 20 cmH2 O). Diaphragm CMAP showed no group differences. FVC correlated inversely with the clinical severity scale score (r = -0.63, P = .02). DISCUSSION: In FSHD, respiratory muscle weakness involves both the diaphragm and the expiratory abdominal muscles.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/complicações , Condução Nervosa , Nervo Frênico , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais , Espirometria , Vértebras Torácicas , Ultrassonografia , Capacidade Vital
5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(153)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604817

RESUMO

Central sleep apnoea (CSA) including periodic breathing is prevalent in more than one-third of patients with heart failure and is highly and independently associated with poor outcomes. Optimal treatment is still debated and well-conducted studies regarding efficacy and impact on outcomes of available treatment options are limited, particularly in cardiac failure with preserved ejection fraction. While continuous positive airway pressure and oxygen reduce breathing disturbances by 50%, adaptive servoventilation (ASV) normalises breathing disturbances by to controlling the underlying mechanism of CSA. Results are contradictory regarding impact of ASV on hard outcomes. Cohorts and registry studies show survival improvement under ASV, while secondary analyses of the large SERVE-HF randomised trial showed an excess mortality in cardiac failure with reduced ejection fraction. The current priority is to understand which phenotypes of cardiac failure patients may benefit from treatment guiding individualised and personalised management.

6.
Respiration ; 98(4): 301-311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (twPdi) following magnetic stimulation (MS) of the phrenic nerves is the gold standard for non-volitional assessment of diaphragm strength. Expiratory muscle function can be investigated using MS of the abdominal muscles and measurement of twitch gastric pressure (twPgas). OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether twitch pressures following MS of the phrenic and lower thoracic nerve roots can be predicted noninvasively by diaphragm ultrasound parameters and volitional tests of respiratory muscle strength. METHODS: Sixty-three healthy subjects underwent standard spirometry, measurement of maximum inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory pressure (PEmax), and diaphragm ultrasound. TwPdi following cervical MS of the phrenic nerve roots and twPgas after lower thoracic MS (twPgas-Thor) were measured using esophageal and gastric balloon catheters inserted transnasally. Using surface electrodes, compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) were simultaneously recorded from the diaphragm or obliquus abdominis muscles, respectively. RESULTS: Forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) was significantly correlated with twPdi (r = 0.37; p = 0.003) and its components (twPgas and twitch esophageal pressure, twPes). Diaphragm excursion velocity during tidal breathing was correlated to twPes (r = 0.44; p = 0.02). No prediction of twitch pressures was possible from CMAP amplitude, forced vital capacity (FVC), or PImax. TwPgas-Thor was correlated with FEF25-75 (r = 0.46; p = 0.05) and diaphragm thickness at total lung capacity (r = 0.38; p = 0.04) but could not be predicted from CMAP amplitude, FVC, or PEmax. CONCLUSIONS: TwPdi and twPgas-Thor cannot be predicted from volitional measures of respiratory muscle strength, diaphragm and abdominal CMAP, or diaphragm ultrasound. Invasive recording of esophageal and gastric pressures following MS remains indispensable for objective assessment of respiratory muscle strength.

7.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(153)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366458

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome affects about 13% of the male and 7-9% of the female population. Hypoxia, oxidative stress and systemic inflammation link OSA and cardiovascular and metabolic consequences, including coronary artery disease. Current research has identified several clinical phenotypes, and the combination of breathing disturbances during sleep, systemic effects and end-organ damage might help to develop personalised therapeutic approaches. It is unclear whether OSA is a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and might affect its outcome. On the one hand, OSA in patients with ACS may worsen prognosis; on the other hand, OSA-related hypoxaemia could favour the development of coronary collaterals, thereby exerting a protective effect. It is unknown whether positive airway pressure treatment may influence adverse events and consequences of ACS. In non-sleepy patients with OSA and stable coronary artery disease, randomised controlled trials failed to show that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment protected against cardiovascular events. Conversely, uncontrolled studies suggested positive effects of CPAP treatment in such patients. Fewer data are available in subjects with ACS and OSA, and results of randomised controlled studies on the effects of CPAP are expected shortly. Meanwhile, the search for reliable markers of risk continues. Recent studies suggest that daytime sleepiness may indicate a more severe OSA phenotype with regard to cardiovascular risk. Finally, some studies suggest sex-related differences. The picture is still incomplete, and the potential role of OSA in patients with ACS awaits confirmation, as well as clear definition of subgroups with different degrees of risk.

8.
Sleep Breath ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463779

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A nocturnal non-dipping or rise in blood pressure (BP) is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. This study aimed to test whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can reduce nocturnal BP and normalize the 24-h BP profile in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and erectile dysfunction as a surrogate for endothelial dysfunction (ED). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen consecutive patients with OSA and ED on stable antihypertensive medication (age 55.8 ± 9.5 years, body mass index 35.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnoea index 66.1 ± 27.4/h) were treated with CPAP for 6 months (average daily use 5.8 ± 2.3 h). Twenty-four hour BP recordings were performed using a portable monitoring device. Rising was defined as an increase, whereas non-dipping was defined as a fall in nocturnal BP of less than 10% compared to daytime values. Serum noradrenaline levels as markers of sympathetic activity were measured at baseline and at 6 month follow up. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced after CPAP therapy (128.5 ± 14 to 122.9 ± 11 mmHg, p = 0.036; 76.2 ± 9 to 70.5 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.007). The frequency of non-dipping and rising nocturnal systolic BP, as well as mean nocturnal heart rate, was reduced after CPAP treatment (73 to 27%, p = 0.039; 20 to 7%, p = 0.625; from 81.5 ± 10 to 74.8 ± 8 beats per minute p = 0.043). Serum levels of noradrenaline were significantly lower after CPAP therapy (398 ± 195 ng/l vs. 303 ± 135 ng/l, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe OSA and clinically apparent ED, CPAP therapy was associated with a decrease in nocturnal BP and serum noradrenaline levels, as well as a normalization of the 24-h BP profile.

10.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 24(3): 283-293, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393643

RESUMO

Diaphragm weakness in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A (CMT1A) is usually associated with severe disease manifestation. This study comprehensively investigated phrenic nerve conductivity, inspiratory and expiratory muscle function in ambulatory CMT1A patients. Nineteen adults with CMT1A (13 females, 47 ± 12 years) underwent spiromanometry, diaphragm ultrasound, and magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves and the lower thoracic nerve roots, with recording of diaphragm compound muscle action potentials (dCMAP, n = 15), transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures (twPdi and twPgas, n = 12). Diaphragm motor evoked potentials (dMEP, n = 15) were recorded following cortical magnetic stimulation. Patients had not been selected for respiratory complaints. Disease severity was assessed using the CMT Neuropathy Scale version 2 (CMT-NSv2). Healthy control subjects were matched for age, sex, and body mass index. The following parameters were significantly lower in CMT1A patients than in controls (all P < .05): forced vital capacity (91 ± 16 vs 110 ± 15% predicted), maximum inspiratory pressure (68 ± 22 vs 88 ± 29 cmH2 O), maximum expiratory pressure (91 ± 23 vs 123 ± 24 cmH2 O), and peak cough flow (377 ± 135 vs 492 ± 130 L/min). In CMT1A patients, dMEP and dCMAP were delayed. Patients vs controls showed lower diaphragm excursion (5 ± 2 vs 8 ± 2 cm), diaphragm thickening ratio (DTR, 1.9 [1.6-2.2] vs 2.5 [2.1-3.1]), and twPdi (8 ± 6 vs 19 ± 7 cmH2 O; all P < .05). DTR inversely correlated with the CMT-NSv2 score (r = -.59, P = .02). There was no group difference in twPgas following abdominal muscle stimulation. Ambulatory CMT1A patients may show phrenic nerve involvement and reduced respiratory muscle strength. Respiratory muscle weakness can be attributed to diaphragm dysfunction alone. It relates to neurological impairment and likely reflects a disease continuum.

11.
Chest ; 156(5): 926-932, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air travel is physically demanding and, because obesity is rising, physicians increasingly need to assess whether such patients can fly safely. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two routinely used exercise tests, 50-m walk test and 6-min walk test, and hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) in obese individuals. We further explored the diagnostic potential of perceived dyspnea as measured with the Borg scale because this is often recorded subsequent to walking tests. METHODS: In this prospective study, we examined 21 obese participants (10 women, age 51 ± 15 [mean  ±  SD], BMI 36 ± 5  kg/m2). The most prevalent comorbidity was COPD (n = 11). The reference standard for in-flight hypoxia, defined as oxygen saturation below 90%, was established in an altitude chamber. Diagnostic accuracy of each index test was estimated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Of the 21 participants, 13 (9 with COPD) were identified with in-flight hypoxia. HCT was the only test separating the reference groups significantly with AUC 0.87 (95% CI,  0.62-0.96). Neither of the walking tests predicted noticeably above chance level: 50 m walk test had an AUC of 0.63 (0.36-0.84) and 6MWT had an AUC of 0.64 (0.35-0.86). We further observed good prognostic ability of subjective dyspnea assessment when recorded after 6MWT with an AUC of 0.80 (0.55-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: In-flight hypoxia in obese individuals can be predicted by HCT but not by simple walking tests.

12.
Respiration ; 98(2): 95-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291632

RESUMO

Central sleep apnea (CSA) comprises a variety of breathing patterns and clinical entities. They can be classified into 2 categories based on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood. Nonhypercapnic CSA is usually characterized by a periodic breathing pattern, while hypercapnic CSA is based on hypoventilation. The latter CSA form is associated with central nervous, neuromuscular, and rib cage disorders as well as obesity and certain medication or substance intake. In contrast, nonhypercapnic CSA is typically accompanied by an overshoot of the ventilation and often associated with heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, and stay in high altitude. CSA and hypoventilation syndromes are often considered separately, but pathophysiological aspects frequently overlap. An integrative approach helps to recognize underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and to choose adequate therapeutic strategies. Research in the last decades improved our insights; nevertheless, diagnostic tools are not always appropriately chosen to perform comprehensive sleep studies. This supports misinterpretation and misclassification of sleep disordered breathing. The purpose of this article is to highlight unresolved problems, raise awareness for different pathophysiological components and to discuss the evidence for targeted therapeutic strategies.

13.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(8): 618-627, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327549

RESUMO

Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) causes myopathy of skeletal and respiratory muscles, and phrenic nerve pathology putatively contributes to diaphragm weakness. The aim of this study was to investigate neural contributions to diaphragm dysfunction, usefulness of diaphragm ultrasound, and involvement of expiratory abdominal muscles in LOPD. Thirteen patients with LOPD (7 male, 51±17 years) and 13 age- and gender-matched controls underwent respiratory muscle strength testing, ultrasound evaluation of diaphragm excursion and thickness, cortical and cervical magnetic stimulation (MS) of the diaphragm with simultaneous recording of surface electromyogram and twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (twPdi; n = 6), and MS of the abdominal muscles with recording of twitch gastric pressure (twPgas; n = 6). The following parameters were significantly reduced in LOPD patients versus controls: forced vital capacity (p<0.01), maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (both p<0.001), diaphragm excursion velocity (p<0.05), diaphragm thickening ratio (1.8 ±â€¯0.4 vs. 2.6 ±â€¯0.6, p<0.01), twPdi following cervical MS (12.0 ±â€¯6.2 vs. 19.4 ±â€¯4.8 cmH2O, p<0.05), and twPgas following abdominal muscle stimulation (8.8 ±â€¯8.1 vs. 34.6 ±â€¯17.1 cmH2O, p<0.01). Diaphragm motor evoked potentials and compound muscle action potentials showed no between-group differences. In conclusion, phrenic nerve involvement in LOPD could not be electrophysiologically confirmed. Ultrasound supports assessment of diaphragm function. Abdominal expiratory muscles are functionally involved in LOPD.

14.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1411-1421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308647

RESUMO

Background: Despite the encouraging results of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients, it is also evident that some patients do not tolerate NIV or do not benefit from it. We conducted a study in which COPD patients with stable, chronic hypercapnia were treated with NIV and nasal high-flow (NHF) to compare effectiveness. Methods: In a multi-centered, randomized, controlled, cross-over design, patients received 6 weeks of NHF ventilation followed by 6 weeks of NIV ventilation or vice-versa (TIBICO) between 2011 and 2016. COPD patients with stable daytime hypercapnia (pCO2≥50 mmHg) were recruited from 13 German centers. The primary endpoint was pCO2 changes from baseline blood gas, lung function, quality of life (QoL), the 6 min walking test, and duration of device use were secondary endpoints. Results: A total of 102 patients (mean±SD) age 65.3±9.3 years, 61% females, body mass index 23.1±4.8 kg/m2, 90% GOLD D, pCO2 56.5±5.4 mmHg were randomized. PCO2 levels decreased by 4.7% (n=94; full analysis set; 95% CI 1.8-7.5, P=0.002) using NHF and 7.1% (95% CI 4.1-10.1, P<0.001) from baseline using NIV (indistinguishable to intention-to-treat analysis). The difference of pCO2 changes between the two devices was -1.4 mmHg (95% CI -3.1-0.4, P=0.12). Both devices had positive impact on blood gases and respiratory scores (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire). Conclusions: NHF may constitute an alternative to NIV in COPD patients with stable chronic hypercapnia, eg, those not tolerating or rejecting NIV with respect to pCO2 reduction and improvement in QoL.


Assuntos
Hipercapnia/terapia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Administração Intranasal , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipercapnia/diagnóstico , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 25(6): 561-569, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313744

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure and substantially impairs survival. If optimal cardiac treatment fails, alternative therapeutical options, including positive airway pressure (PAP) therapies, drugs or application of oxygen and carbon dioxide are considered to suppress CSA which interfere with the complex underlying pathophysiology. Most recently, unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) has been studied in these patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to critically evaluate efficacy, potential harm and positioning of PNS in current treatment algorithms. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from case series and limited randomized controlled trials demonstrate the feasibility of the invasive approach and acceptable peri-interventional adverse events. PNS reduces CSA by 50%, a figure comparable with continuous PAP or oxygen. However, PNS cannot improve any comorbid upper airways obstruction. A number of fatalities due to malignant cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiac events have been reported, although the association with the therapy is unclear. SUMMARY: PNS offers an additional option to the therapeutical portfolio. Intervention-related adverse events and noninvasive alternatives need clear discussion with the patient. The excess mortality in the SERVE-HF study has mainly been attributed to sudden cardiac death. Therefore, previous cardiac fatalities under PNS urge close observation in future studies as long-term data are missing.

16.
Respiration ; 98(4): 283-293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The twitch interpolation technique is a promising tool for assessing central drive to the diaphragm. It is used to quantify the degree of voluntary diaphragm activation during predefined breathing maneuvers. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to (a) determine reference values for the level of voluntary activation of the diaphragm using the twitch occlusion technique in healthy adults and (b) explore the association between central drive to the diaphragm and volitional tests of respiratory muscle strength. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers aged 26 ± 14 years (18 male) were enrolled. Twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) was determined at relaxed functional residual capacity in response to cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) of the phrenic nerves. The subjects were then instructed to gradually increase voluntary activation of the diaphragm, and the effects of superimposed magnetic stimuli on voluntary Pdi were assessed. RESULTS: The twitch Pdi amplitude following CMS linearly decreased with increasing inspiratory effort. The resulting diaphragm voluntary activation index (DVAI) during maximal voluntary contraction was 75 ± 15% irrespective of gender or age. Twitch duration, half relaxation time, and area under the curve of superimposed Pdi deflections did not show a linear but an exponential association with increasing voluntary activation of the diaphragm. More than 2/3 of the decrease in the above values was evident after 1/3 of voluntary diaphragm contraction. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was inversely correlated with the DVAI. CONCLUSIONS: Twitch interpolation allows for assessment of central drive to the diaphragm. The maximum DVAI is independent of gender or age, and significantly related to FVC but not to maximum inspiratory pressure or Pdi as direct measures of diaphragm strength.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246252

RESUMO

Importance: To date, no consensus exists regarding optimal perioperative care of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing upper airway (UA) surgery. These patients are at risk related to anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, among other risks associated with difficult airway control, and may require intensified perioperative management. Objective: To provide a consensus-based guideline by reviewing available literature and collecting expert opinion during an international consensus meeting with experts from relevant speciliaties. Evidence Review: In a consensus meeting conducted on April 4, 2018, a total of 47 questions covering preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care were formulated by 12 international experts with extensive clinical experience in the field of UA surgery for OSA. Systematic literature searches were performed by an independent information specialist and 6 researchers according to the Oxford and GRADE systems, and 164 articles published on or before December 31, 2011, were included in the analysis. Two moderators chaired the meeting according to the Amsterdam Delphi Method, including iteration of literature conclusions, expert discussion, and voting rounds. Consensus was reached when there was 70% or more agreement among experts. Findings: Of 47 questions, 35 led to a recommendation or statement. The remaining 12 questions provided no additional information and were excluded in the judgment of experts. Consensus was reached for 32 recommendations. For 1 question there was less than 70% agreement among experts; therefore, consensus was not achieved. Highlights of these recommendations include (1) postoperative bleeding is a complication described for all types of UA surgery; (2) OSA is a relative risk factor for difficult mask ventilation and intubation, and plans for difficult airway management should be considered and implemented; (3) safe perioperative care should be provided, with aspects such as OSA severity, adherent use of positive airway pressure, type of surgery, and comorbidities taken into account; (4) although there is no direct evidence to date, in patients undergoing UA surgery, preoperative treatment with positive airway pressure may reduce the risk of postoperative airway complications; and (5) alternative pain management options perioperatively to reduce opioid use should be considered. Conclusions and Relevance: This consensus contains 35 recommendations and statements on the perioperative care of patients with OSA undergoing UA surgery and may be used as a guideline in daily practice.

18.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(5): 375-384, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study determined normal values for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the diaphragm following cortical and cervical magnetic stimulation (COMS and CEMS) of the phrenic nerves in healthy adults. METHODS: Using surface electrodes, diaphragmatic MEP and CMAP were recorded in 70 subjects (34 ± 13 years, 25 men) following supramaximal cortical magnetic stimulation and CEMS at functional residual capacity and using a standardized inspiratory pressure trigger (-0.5 kPa). All healthy volunteers underwent standard spirometry and measurement of maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure. RESULTS: At functional residual capacity, upper limit of normal for MEP latency was 25 ms in men and 23 ms in women (p < 0.05), and upper limit of normal for CMAP latency was 6 ms. In contrast to MEP and CMAP amplitude, corresponding latencies showed little interindividual and intraindividual variability. Use of an inspiratory pressure trigger enhanced reproducibility and amplitude of diaphragm MEP. Diaphragm responses to both cortical and cervical magnetic stimulation were symmetrical and independent of age (in our cohort), with higher values for latency and amplitude in men (each p < 0.05). Diaphragm CMAP amplitude showed weak-moderate correlations with forced vital capacity (r = 0.47; p < 0.01), maximum inspiratory pressure (r = 0.39; p < 0.01), and maximum expiratory pressure (r = 0.32; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Combination of cortical magnetic stimulation and CEMS of the phrenic nerves is feasible and allows noninvasive assessment of both central and peripheral conductivity of the diaphragm and the inspiratory pathway.


Assuntos
Diafragma/inervação , Diafragma/fisiologia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Campos Magnéticos , Nervo Frênico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Eletromiografia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 266: 47-53, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029769

RESUMO

Insufficient normal values exist regarding twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (twPdi) derived from standardized cervical and cortical magnetic stimulation (MS) of the diaphragm. Therefore, 63 subjects (24 men, 39 women; 34 ± 13 years) underwent transcortical and posterior cervical MS of the diaphragm with simultaneous recording of twitch oesophageal and gastric pressures (twPes, twPgas). Following cortical MS at functional residual capacity, twPdi amplitudes showed high intra-individual variability which was markedly reduced when an inspiratory pressure trigger was applied. Lower limit of the 95% confidence interval computed around the mean value (LLN) was 12 cmH2O, independent of gender or age. Following cervical MS of the phrenic nerves, twPdi amplitudes were well reproducible and unaffected by gender, but age-dependent (age 18-30: LLN 23 cmH2O; age ≥ 30: LLN 16 cmH2O; p < 0.05). The inspiratory pathway can be assessed using cervical MS of the phrenic nerves. If transcranial motor cortex stimulation of the diaphragm is also applied, a standardized inspiratory pressure trigger is recommended. Dynamics of diaphragm contraction appear to be age-dependent.

20.
Respiration ; 98(1): 38-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper airway stimulation (UAS) is a treatment approach for patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea who cannot adhere to continuous positive airway pressure therapy. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate added patient benefit and cost-effectiveness of UAS in the German health care system. METHODS: We used a decision-analytic Markov model to project major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke), motor vehicle collision (MVC), mortality, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. The assumed reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index with UAS compared to no treatment is based on German real-world data. Other input data were derived from the literature, public statistics, and multivariate regression. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in Euros per QALY gained, both discounted at 3%. RESULTS: UAS was projected to reduce event risks (10-year relative risk for stroke, MI, cardiovascular death, and MVC: 0.76, 0.64, 0.65, and 0.34, respectively), and to increase survival by 1.27 years. While the UAS strategy incurred an additional 1.02 QALYs within the patient lifetime, there were also additional costs of EUR 45,196, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 44,446 per QALY gained. -Conclusions: In the present model-based analysis, UAS therapy provides meaningful benefit to patient-relevant endpoints and is a cost-effective therapy in the German setting.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA