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1.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(6): 778-786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serration pattern analysis helps in the classification of subepidermal autoimmune blistering disorders; more precisely, it helps to differentiate epidermolysis bullosa acquisita from other subepidermal autoimmune blistering disorders. Most of the published reports of this tool have come from a single center. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to study the utility of serration pattern analysis in classifying subepidermal autoimmune blistering disorders. METHODS: Seventy five cases of subepidermal autoimmune blistering disorders were enrolled in this prospective study. A three millimeter punch biopsy was taken from the perilesional skin or mucosa for direct immunofluorescence; indirect immunofluorescence was carried out using salt-split skin. Subclassification of subepidermal autoimmune blistering disorders was done based on direct immunofluorescence, indirect immunofluorescence on salt-split skin, indirect immunofluorescence using knockout skin and serration pattern analysis findings. RESULTS: Indirect immunofluorescence was positive in 68 cases; 14 cases showed a dermal staining pattern while the rest showed either an epidermal or a combined pattern. All patients with epidermal or combined staining patterns showed "n" serrated pattern on direct immunofluorescence. Nine patients with dermal staining on indirect immunofluorescence also revealed an "n" serration pattern on direct immunofluorescence indicating the diagnosis of anti-p200 pemphigoid, and the rest showed a "u" serrated pattern. Three patients with negative indirect immunofluorescence showed "u" serration on direct immunofluorescence while the rest showed "n" serration. LIMITATIONS: ELISA and immunoblotting could not be performed due to resource constraints. CONCLUSION: Based on indirect immunofluorescence and serration pattern analysis, classification of the majority of patients with subepidermal autoimmune blistering disorders was possible in our study. Pattern recognition is a cost-effective tool and can be easily learnt. It is recommended to be practiced in all laboratories where facilities for advanced immunological diagnosis are unavailable.

2.
Work ; 69(4): 1229-1245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting in desk-based office workers is found to be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and poor cognitive performance. Technology-based physical activity (PA) interventions using smartphone applications (SmPh app) to promote PA levels might be effective in reducing cardiometabolic risk among sedentary population but the evidence remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to investigate the effects of a technology-based PA intervention compared to PA education with a worksite manual or no intervention on PA levels, cardiometabolic risk, cognitive performance, and work productivity among desk-based employees. METHOD: A three-arm clustered randomized trial will be conducted. The study will be conducted among various administrative offices of a multifaceted university in India. Desk-based employees aged between 30 and 50 years (n = 159; 53 in each arm) will be recruited. Employees from various constituent institutions (clusters) of the university will be randomized into one of the three following groups - SMART: SmPh app-driven break reminders (visual exercise prompts) plus pedometer-based step intervention, TRADE: worksite PA education with a manual plus American College of Sports Medicine guided PA prescription, or CONTROL: usual work group. At baseline and after the 1st, 3rd and 6th month of the trial period, accelerometer-measured sitting time and PA levels, cardiometabolic risk (fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, heart rate variability, functional capacity, and subcutaneous fat), cognitive performance (executive function), sickness absenteeism and work limitations will be assessed by a blinded assessor. Therapist delivering interventions will not be blinded. CONCLUSION: This trial will determine whether a combined SmPh-app and pedometer-based intervention is more effective than education or no intervention in altering PA levels, cardiometabolic risk and cognitive performance among desk-based employees in India. This study has the potential to foster institutional recommendations for using SmPh-based technology and pedometers to promote PA and reduce sedentary behavior at work.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Smartphone , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento Sedentário , Local de Trabalho
3.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(8): 1507-1516, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999187

RESUMO

Free smartphone applications that aim to promote physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior at workplaces were questioned for its content such as technical features, behavior change techniques (BCT) and security concerns. To evaluate systematically whether smartphone apps are mapped adequately with BCTs and security concerns. Free apps in Google Play store were searched and coded for BCTs systematically in July 2020. Two reviewers independently coded apps that aimed to promote physical activity (n = 18) and reduce sedentary behavior (n = 16) using a taxonomy of 26 BCTs. BCTs, features and security concerns among apps promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior were analyzed. While the features (social support, gamification, or rewards) help increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior, the apps do not typically include the above features. Further, the apps were based on an average of 13 (4-21) BCTs. The BCTs coded most frequently were "self-monitoring" (100%), "general encouragement" (97%), and "goal setting" (n = 94%). No significant relation between user rating and BCTs was found in the apps. Majority of the free apps that aimed to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior at workplaces were not adequately based on BCTs and lacked essential features facilitating long term behavior compliance at workplaces. Hence, there is a need to develop newer applications mapped adequately with BCTs, involving the collaborative work of behavioral scientists, app developers and policymakers. Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI/2020/03/024138.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Local de Trabalho , Terapia Comportamental , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 274, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged (excessive) sitting is detrimentally associated with cardiovascular, metabolic and mental health. Moreover, prolonged sitting has been associated with poor executive function, memory, attention and visuospatial skills, which are important cognitive aspects of work performance. Breaking up prolonged sitting with standing or light-intensity exercises at the workplace is recognized as a potential measure in improving cognition. However, preliminary evidence, primarily from acute laboratory experiments, has enabled formulating hypothesis on the possible mechanistic pathways. Hence, the aim of this mapping review is to gather preliminary evidence and substantiate possible physiological mechanisms underpinning the putative effects of breaking prolonged sitting on improving cognitive function among sedentary office workers. MAPPING METHOD: We searched four databases to identify relevant studies that explored the effects of uninterrupted sitting on cognitive function. First, we introduce how prolonged sitting increases the risks of hyperglycemia, autonomic stability, inflammation, adverse hormonal changes and restrictions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and alters cognitive function. Second, we elucidate the direct and indirect effects of breaking up prolonged sitting time that may prevent a decline in cognitive performance by influencing glycaemic variability, autonomic stability, hormones (brain derived neurotrophic factor, dopamine, serotonin), vascular functions, and CBF. We highlight the importance of breaking up prolonged sitting on metabolic, vascular and endocrine functions, which in turn may improve cognitive functions and eventually foster work productivity. Improved synaptic transmission or neuroplasticity due to increased brain glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, increased endothelial shear and CBF, increased brain neurotrophic factors (dopamine) and accelerated anti-inflammatory functions are some of the hypothetical mechanisms underpinning improved cognitive functions. CONCLUSION: We postulate that improving cognitive function by breaking up prolonged sitting periods is biologically plausible with the myriad of (suggested) physiological mechanisms. Future experimental studies to ascertain the aforementioned hypothetical mechanisms and clinical trials to break sedentary behavior and improve cognitive functions in sedentary office workers are warranted.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Cognição , Humanos , Posição Ortostática , Local de Trabalho
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1163-1169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A variety of risk factors have been reported for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). But limited review on the role of antenatal perceived stress necessitated the design of the present study to evaluate the association between GDM and perceived stress during pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was carried out among 100 GDM cases and 273 matched controls, attending regular antenatal clinic at two private hospitals of Karnataka. Data was collected by personal interviews using a standard questionnaire. Perceived stress was assessed using the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Score of ≥20 was identified as high stress. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15 was used for analysis. RESULTS: Exposure rates for high maternal perceived stress among cases during pregnancy were noted. The odds of GDM were 13 folds higher among those with high antenatal stress (≥20) compared to those with low (<20) (p < 0.001) perceived stress. No correlation between maternal antenatal stress and blood glucose following OGTT was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified high perceived stress during pregnancy as a potential risk factor for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Indian J Community Med ; 45(1): 83-88, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029990

RESUMO

Background: The current recommendation in India to commence first dose of measles immunization is at 9 months of age. The effectiveness of measles vaccination is greatly impacted by the level of maternal measles antibody (MMA) during infancy. Objectives: To find the prevalence of MMA and to study the maternal and infant factors associated with persistence of MMA among the infants in a Indian rural community. Methodology: Dried blood spot sample was collected before vaccination among infants aged 9 months and above when they came for first dose of measles vaccine to assess measles-specific maternal IgG antibody titers by enzyme immunoassay. Maternal and child factors influencing persistence of MMA were collected by interviewing the mothers. Association between various factors affecting seropositivity was tested using univariate logistic regression analysis and strength of association is reported as risk ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: Based on the qualitative estimation among all the recruited children (250) in the study, 4 (1.6%) infants showed the presence of MMA whereas 25 (10%) of children had MMA on quantitative estimation. The effect of maternal factors, child nutrition, and sociodemographic factors on the presence of MMA was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of persistent MMA (IgG titer ≥200 mIU/ml) among the infants aged 9-12 months was 10%. The choice of vaccinating infants at the end of 9 months for the first dose of measles vaccine is justified as the remaining (90%) of infants were susceptible for measles infection at this age.

7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(12): 5837-5845, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681004

RESUMO

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) risks the affected mother-child duos not only with respect to adverse perinatal outcomes but also for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, in 2014, the Government of India (GoI) mandated universal GDM screening for all pregnant women as a part of essential obstetric care within the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) programme. Later in 2018, the domain experts from GoI envisaged pan India implementation of GDM screening services within its RCH framework by 2023. As Uttarakhand-a hilly, EAG state of north India-would also be part of this nation-wide drive; prior identification of RCH services coverage in the State assumes paramount importance, as it reflects probable executability of GDM screening services within its delivery platform. Therefore, the present review aims to assess the readiness of Uttarakhand maternal health functionary system in view of GDM national guidelines implementation at both state and district levels. In this regard, freely accessible, full-text GoI documents pertaining to GDM implementation guidelines and maternal health program of India and Uttarakhand available in public domain in English language were reviewed. The present review favors the pilot implementation in district Dehradun prior to implementing in all districts of the state. It may, however, require overall improvement in maternal health programmatic services in all parts of the State for much efficient service delivery. Effective implementation of GDM guidelines requires urgent correction in the background performance of RCH program.

8.
Ochsner J ; 19(3): 227-234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528133

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that affects various body systems. Elevated blood glucose levels cause brain malfunction, sorbitol-induced blood vessel damage, and degeneration of the nerves that can lead to dementia or cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment can result in nonadherence of patients to diabetes treatment, such as diet, medication, and exercise. Methods: We used a cross-sectional design to individually interview 194 patients with type 2 diabetes in a rural field practice area in India. A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and diabetes disease characteristics; anthropometric measurements were also collected. Cognitive dysfunction was assessed with the Kannada version (local language) of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool. Blood pressure was measured for all subjects using a standardized sphygmomanometer on the right arm with the patient in a sitting position. Results: Among the 194 diabetic subjects interviewed, 98 (50.5%) were cognitively impaired. More than half of the subjects (56.2%) were ≥65 years, and female participants (53.6%) outnumbered males (46.4%). The majority of patients (62.4%) had had diabetes for <10 years. The sociodemographic characteristics age, sex, education, occupation, and socioeconomic status and the anthropometric measurement of waist-to-hip ratio were significantly associated (P<0.05) with cognitive impairment. Disease characteristics, religion, and blood pressure showed no significant association with cognitive impairment. Conclusion: One in two individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in our study population had mild cognitive impairment. Older individuals in the low socioeconomic strata and with low levels of education were identified to be at high risk of cognitive impairment. Hence, screening and appropriate care need to be provided.

9.
Indian J Pediatr ; 86(2): 159-164, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of goiter and associated factors among school going children in Udupi district. METHODS: A school based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6-12 year old children. A sample of 30 villages was selected from the entire district by probability proportionate to size. One school was then randomly selected from each of the 30 villages. Goiter was assessed clinically and was graded as per the recommended criteria of World Health Organization (WHO)/ United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). Salt and urine samples were collected from a subsample for iodine estimation. RESULTS: A total of 2703 children were examined. The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 9.6 y (±1.9). The overall prevalence of goiter in Udupi district was found to be 9.3% with 7.0% and 2.3% having grade 1 and grade 2 goiter respectively. Prevalence of goiter was significantly higher among females [153(11.1%)] as compared to males [98(7.4%)] (p = 0.001). Of the 543 salt samples analyzed, 379 (69.8%) salt samples had adequate salt iodine content (> 15 ppm); while among the children with goiter 32 (8.4%) had inadequate salt iodine. Median iodine value was 202.12 mcg/l among the 270 urine samples tested for iodine levels. CONCLUSION: Goiter prevalence at 9.3% in the coastal district contributes to the endemicity of the public health problem. The district had adequate iodine nutrition based on median urinary iodine levels. Hence, other contributing factors for the persistence of endemic goiter need to be explored.


Assuntos
Bócio/diagnóstico , Bócio/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Bócio/urina , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Iodo , Masculino , Prevalência , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 57(4): 522-527, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to find the utility of three dimensional (3-D) ultrasound and Doppler sonography in differentiating benign and malignant endometrial lesions and to ascertain the association of sonology parameters with type, grade and stage of endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women attending the gynaecology department of a tertiary care hospital, with a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma endometrium were subjected to three dimensional power Doppler ultrasound evaluation and assessment of vascular patterns. VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis) software was used to assess volume, Vascularisation Index (VI), Flow Index (FI) and Vascularisation Flow Index (VFI). Ultrasound parameters were compared with histologic diagnosis to evaluate the diagnostic performance using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve. RESULTS: Sixty-four women were included in the study, 33 with benign and 31 with malignant endometrial lesions. Larger endometrial volume and higher Doppler indices correlated with malignant lesions. The variables with good discriminatory potential between benign and malignant status were VI and VFI, having a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of around 80%. VFI (adjusted odds ratio of 40.4; (95% CI - 8.46-192.88), p value < 0.001) was the only significant variable identified by multivariate logistic regression, when adjusted for age and post-menopausal status. Multiple global and focal vessel pattern was seen predominantly in malignant cases (specificity 93.9%), although the sensitivity was low (61.2%). Higher stages and grades of tumour and non-endometrioid types had higher Doppler indices, and requires further evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: 3-D ultrasound has good discrimination potential between benign and malignant endometrial lesions and could be useful as a screening tool. However, utility of 3-D tool for differentiation between tumour characteristics needs further validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/irrigação sanguínea , Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos
11.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 21(5): 665-669, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989871

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In view of the growing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) globally and associated microvascular and macrovascular complications, the study was done to assess the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic neuropathy among T2DM patients attending a tertiary care hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: T2DM patients' ≥30 years of both gender, presenting to the Medicine Department at a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) questionnaire to assess symptoms and Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) scoring to assess clinical signs were used. RESULTS: A total of 273 patients were included. The mean age was 57.8 ± 11.5 years. The male to female distribution was 75% (202) and 25% (71), respectively. According to DNS instrument, 41.4% patients scored positive for the presence of neuropathy while only 24.5% had neuropathy according to DNE score. The proportion of males affected by neuropathy was more than females. 43.1% males had a positive DNS score while only 27.2% of them had a positive DNE score. Duration of the disease was positively correlated with neuropathy. Neuropathy was more prevalent among people who had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure as per DNS and DNE instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a higher proportion of males to be affected by neuropathy. Hence, more detailed evaluation must be accorded to elderly male diabetic patients with longer duration of the disease. Lifestyle modifications and watchful screening need to be incorporated as part of routine patient health education during follow-up clinic visits.

12.
Scientifica (Cairo) ; 2016: 5489015, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27190681

RESUMO

Introduction. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable degree with onset or recognition during pregnancy. As prevalence of diabetes is linked to impaired glucose tolerance during antenatal period, routine antenatal screening of GDM is required. However, screening tests for GDM remain controversial. Objective. To review different diagnostic criteria for GDM. Materials and Methods. Freely accessible, full-text articles from 1964 to 2015, available in PubMed in English language, pertaining to screening of GDM were reviewed. Results. First diagnostic criteria for GDM in 1964 by O'Sullivan and Mahan, modified by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) in 1979 and Carpenter in 1982. The cut-off value as per WHO definition of GDM was 140 mg/dL, 2 hours after 75 g glucose intake. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI), in 2006, endorsed WHO criteria but irrespective of the last meal timings. Being cost-effective, it formed the basis of national guidelines for Indians in 2014. Conclusions. As typical clinical scenarios are usually varied, practical guidelines that meet the constraints of low-resource settings like India are required.

13.
Int J Prev Med ; 5(8): 992-8, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25489447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes are major risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Adherence is a primary determinant of the effectiveness of treatment because poor adherence attenuates optimum clinical benefit and paves the way for complications. METHODS: The cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out among men and women aged 30 years and above in the field practice area of a medical college to assess treatment compliance with respect to hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study comprised of 426 subjects, already diagnosed with hypertension (287) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (139). During house visits, data were collected by personal face-to-face interview using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Compliance was determined by indirect methods, which included self-reporting and interviews with the patients. RESULTS: Compliance to hypertension treatment was found to be 82.2%, while 83.6% of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus were on regular medication. Among the individuals on regular medication, 88 (37.3%) of them had controlled blood pressure. Although the compliance was good, blood pressure control was not optimal. Adherence was better among females as compared with males. Literacy status and socio-economic background were not found to be associated with treatment compliance. High cost of treatment for hypertension (39.3%) and diabetes (30.4%) and asymptomatic nature of the disease were the most common reasons cited for not taking regular medications. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to hypertension and diabetes treatment was good. High cost of medications and asymptomatic nature of the disease were the reasons identified among the non-adherent patients.

14.
ISRN Obstet Gynecol ; 2014: 935982, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25006487

RESUMO

Introduction. Preterm birth is the leading cause of newborn deaths and the second leading cause of death in children under five years old. Three-quarters of them could be saved with current, cost-effective interventions. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of preterm birth in a secondary care hospital in Southern India. Methods. In the case-control study, records of 153 antenatal women with preterm birth were included as cases. Age matched controls were women who had a live birth after 37 weeks of gestational age. Gestational age at delivery and associated risk factors were analyzed. Results. The preterm birth rate was 5.8%. Common risk factors associated with preterm birth were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (21.4%), height <1.50 m (16.8%), premature rupture of membranes (17.5%), and fetal distress (14.9%). Mean birth weight for preterm babies was 2452 grams while the birth weight for term babies was 2978 grams. Conclusion. The commonest obstetrical risk factor for preterm birth was hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and nonobstetrical risk factor was height <1.50 m. The percentage of preterm birth was low, comparable to developing countries.

15.
ISRN Prev Med ; 2013: 574973, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24967139

RESUMO

Hypertension is a premier risk factor for cardiovascular disease which can be recognized if sought and treated effectively. Effective management of high blood pressure is possible when the magnitude of the problem is identified. So, a cross-sectional community based survey among 1,239 respondents aged ≥30 years was designed to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic correlates of hypertension among adults aged ≥30 years. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The prevalence of hypertension was 43.3%, with the prevalence being more among males (51.6%) as compared to females (38.9%). Of the total prevalence 23.1% (287) were known cases, and 20.2% (250) were newly detected cases. Based on the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC VII) on high blood pressure, prehypertension was noted among 38.7%. Advancing age, male gender, current diabetic status, central obesity, overweight and obesity as defined by body mass index, and family history of hypertension were identified as significant correlates for hypertension by multivariate logistic regression.

16.
Int J Prev Med ; 3(5): 365-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22708033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non communicable diseases (NCD) will account for 73% of deaths and 60% of the global disease burden by 2020. Physical activity plays a major role in the prevention of these non-communicable diseases. The stress involved in meeting responsibilities of becoming a physician may adversely affect the exercise habits of students. So, the current study aimed to study the practice of physical activity among undergraduate medical students. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 240 undergraduate medical students. Quota sampling method was used to identify 60 students from each of the four even semesters. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for data entry and analysis and results are expressed as percentages and proportions. RESULTS: In our study, 55% were 20 to 22 years old. Over half of the students were utilizing the sports facilities provided by the university in the campus. Majority of students 165 (69%) had normal body mass index (BMI), (51) 21% were overweight, while 7 (3%) were obese. Of the 62% who were currently exercising, the practice of physical activity was more among boys as compared to girls (62% v/s 38%). Lack of time 46 (60.5%), laziness (61.8%), and exhaustion from academic activities (42%) were identified as important hindering factors among medical students who did not exercise. CONCLUSION: A longitudinal study to follow-up student behavior throughout their academic life is needed to identify the factors promoting the practice of physical activity among students.

17.
Indian J Community Med ; 37(4): 256-8, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23293441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi has created a significant therapeutic problem as these strains have developed resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials for the treatment of typhoid fever. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical profile and sensitivity patterns to anti-typhoid drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 106 culture-positive typhoid cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital during the years 2005-2008. RESULTS: Records of 106 patients were evaluated, 83 (78.3%) males and 23 (21.7%) females. Fever was present in all patients. Headache in 63 (59.4%) patients and generalized body ache in 53 (32.5%) patients were the most common symptoms, while spleenomegaly in 47 (44.3%) patients and hepatomegaly in 42 (39.6%) patients were the common presenting signs. A maximum sensitivity of 96.6% was observed with cephalosporins, whereas a resistance of 29.2% was seen with fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION: A high degree of sensitivity was noted to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and sulphonamides, showing a trend of roll-back of sensitivity to conventional antibiotics.

18.
Australas Med J ; 4(1): 53-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23393501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disease condition that is highly prevalent in both developed and developing countries. Obesity accounts for 60% of cases of diabetes, 40% cases of hypertension and 20% of coronary heart disease and stroke. Although obesity is a silent killer in the third world countries, there is less focus on the problem, as the nations are still staggering with problems due to infectious and parasitic diseases. So, the current study was undertaken to highlight the problem. METHOD: A cross-sectional community based survey, among individuals of either sex, aged 30 years and above was carried out on 1,239 respondents, using a two-stage stratified, random sampling technique. Data was collected by personal face to face interview using a pre-designed questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. RESULTS: The overweight category included 21.4% of the subjects. Obesity as per Body Mass Index (BMI) criteria was seen in 6.6% of the individuals but abdominal and truncal obesity was present among 51.7% and 62.1% respectively. Literacy up to secondary education and graduation were identified by the multivariate analysis to be associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of central obesity was found to be high, and hence, lifestyle changes and improved physical activity needs promotion among the general population.

19.
Indian J Community Med ; 35(3): 386-90, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21031102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India is one of the seven identified countries in the South-East Asia region regularly reporting dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks and may soon transform into a major niche for dengue infection in the future with more and more new areas being struck by dengue epidemics OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical manifestations, trend and outcome of all confirmed dengue cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Record-based study conducted in a coastal district of Karnataka. Required data from all the laboratory confirmed cases from 2002 to 2008 were collected from Medical Records Department (MRD) and analyzed using SPSS 13.5 version. RESULTS: Study included 466 patients. Majority were males, 301(64.6%) and in the and in the age group of 15-44 years, 267 (57.5%). Maximum number of cases were seen in 2007, 219 (47%) and in the month of September, 89 (19.1%). The most common presentation was fever 462 (99.1%), followed by myalgia 301 (64.6%), vomiting 222 (47.6%), headache 222 (47.6%) and abdominal pain 175 (37.6%). The most common hemorrhagic manifestation was petechiae 84 (67.2%). 391 (83.9%) cases presented with dengue fever, 41 (8.8%) dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 34 (7.3%) with dengue shock syndrome. Out of 66 (14.1%) patients who developed clinical complications, 22 (33.3%) had ARDS and 20 (30.3%) had pleural effusion. Deaths reported were 11(2.4%). CONCLUSION: Community awareness, early diagnosis and management and vector control measures need to be strengthened, during peri-monsoon period, in order to curb the increasing number of dengue cases.

20.
Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries ; 30(2): 80-5, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20535311

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate the prevalence and study the socio-demographic correlates of type 2 diabetes among adults aged 30 years and above. SETTING AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional community-based survey, among individuals of either sex, aged 30 years and above was carried out in the field practice area of a medical college. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study was carried out on 1,239 respondents, using a two-stage, stratified, random sampling technique. Data was collected by a personal, face-to-face interview followed by blood sugar estimation using a glucometer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Was performed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes was 16%. Self-reported diabetes was 11.2%, while 4.8% of previously normal people were found to have high fasting capillary blood glucose levels. Increasing age showed two-fold, four-fold, and six-fold higher odds for 40 - 49, 50 - 59, and >/= 60 years age group, respectively, as compared to the 30 - 39 year age group (P < 0.001). Nineteen percent of the males had diabetes, (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.88). In the high socioeconomic strata, 32% of the subjects had diabetes (P = 0.018 unadjusted odds ratio 3.29, 95% CI = 1.40 - 7.74). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of diabetes in this coastal population needs further evaluation.

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