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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e037202, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Having the world's second-largest tobacco-consuming population, tobacco control is a priority agenda of the Indian Government. Yet, there is no evidence of how peer influence and nature of social relationships-defined as social capital-affect tobacco use. This study aimed to explore the role of social capital and peer influence on tobacco consumption among household heads in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study was embedded within the baseline evaluation of Project Samuday. A cross-sectional multistage cluster survey was implemented in six census blocks of Hardoi and Sitapur districts of UP from June to August 2017. Self-reported tobacco consumption status of randomly selected 6218 household heads (≥18 years; men vs women=5312 vs 906) was assessed from 346 rural communities. Peer influence of tobacco use was measured by the non-self cluster proportion of tobacco consumption among respondents. Community engagement, social support, trust and social cohesion were separately measured as unique facets of social capital both at individual and community levels using the Shortened Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool in India (SASCAT-I). The explanatory power of covariates was assessed using gender-stratified generalised estimating equations (GEE) with robust-variance estimator. RESULT: Tobacco consumption patterns were starkly different for men and women (71% vs 14%). The peer influence only affected men (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.10, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.16, p<0.01), whereas women were more likely to consume tobacco if they were more engaged with community organisations (AOR=1.33, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.66, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Gender alters the way social engagement affects tobacco use in rural India. Countering peer influence on Indian men should be prioritised as a tobacco control strategy. Moreover, as gender mainstreaming is a critical egalitarian agenda in India, further research is needed to understand how social engagement affects tobacco consumption behaviours among women.

2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether incorporating mandatory prior authorization for Clostridioides difficile testing into antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist workflow could reduce testing in patients with alternative etiologies for diarrhea. DESIGN: Single center, quasi-experimental before-and-after study. SETTING: Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. PATIENTS: Adult and pediatric patients admitted between September 11, 2019 and December 10, 2019 were included if they had an order placed for 1 of the following: (1) C. difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in patients hospitalized >72 hours and received laxatives, oral contrast, or initiated tube feeds within the prior 48 hours, (2) repeat molecular multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GIPAN) testing, or (3) GIPAN testing in patients hospitalized >72 hours. INTERVENTION: A best-practice alert prompting prior authorization by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) for EIA or GIPAN testing was implemented. Approval required the provider to page the ASP pharmacist and discuss rationale for testing. The provider could not proceed with the order if ASP approval was not obtained. RESULTS: An average of 2.5 requests per day were received over the 3-month intervention period. The weekly rate of EIA and GIPAN orders per 1,000 patient days decreased significantly from 6.05 ± 0.94 to 4.87 ± 0.78 (IRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.93; P = .010) and from 1.72 ± 0.37 to 0.89 ± 0.29 (IRR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77; P = .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We identified an efficient, effective C. difficile and GIPAN diagnostic stewardship approval model.

3.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 104, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586388

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is disproportionally affecting the poor, minorities and a broad range of vulnerable populations, due to its inequitable spread in areas of dense population and limited mitigation capacity due to high prevalence of chronic conditions or poor access to high quality public health and medical care. Moreover, the collateral effects of the pandemic due to the global economic downturn, and social isolation and movement restriction measures, are unequally affecting those in the lowest power strata of societies. To address the challenges to health equity and describe some of the approaches taken by governments and local organizations, we have compiled 13 country case studies from various regions around the world: China, Brazil, Thailand, Sub Saharan Africa, Nicaragua, Armenia, India, Guatemala, United States of America (USA), Israel, Australia, Colombia, and Belgium. This compilation is by no-means representative or all inclusive, and we encourage researchers to continue advancing global knowledge on COVID-19 health equity related issues, through rigorous research and generation of a strong evidence base of new empirical studies in this field.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478813

RESUMO

Nursing home (NH) patients often acquire colonization with antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs). We show that patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics during previous hospitalizations have elevated enterococcal relative abundances on NH admission and higher risk of subsequent ARO acquisition. Our findings suggest that interventions preventing ARO spread should extend beyond NH doors.

5.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371595

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can result in severe disease and death, with no accurate models that allow for early prediction of adverse outcomes. To address this need, we sought to develop serum-based biomarker models to predict CDI outcomes. We prospectively collected sera ≤48 h after diagnosis of CDI in two cohorts. Biomarkers were measured with a custom multiplex bead array assay. Patients were classified using IDSA severity criteria and the development of disease-related complications (DRCs), which were defined as ICU admission, colectomy, and/or death attributed to CDI. Unadjusted and adjusted models were built using logistic and elastic net modeling. The best model for severity included procalcitonin (PCT) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with an area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.81). The best model for 30-day mortality included interleukin-8 (IL-8), PCT, CXCL-5, IP-10, and IL-2Rα with an AUC of 0.89 (0.84 to 0.95). The best model for DRCs included IL-8, procalcitonin, HGF, and IL-2Rα with an AUC of 0.84 (0.73 to 0.94). To validate our models, we employed experimental infection of mice with C. difficile Antibiotic-treated mice were challenged with C. difficile and a similar panel of serum biomarkers was measured. Applying each model to the mouse cohort of severe and nonsevere CDI revealed AUCs of 0.59 (0.44 to 0.74), 0.96 (0.90 to 1.0), and 0.89 (0.81 to 0.97). In both human and murine CDI, models based on serum biomarkers predicted adverse CDI outcomes. Our results support the use of serum-based biomarker panels to inform Clostridioides difficile infection treatment.IMPORTANCE Each year in the United States, Clostridioides difficile causes nearly 500,000 gastrointestinal infections that range from mild diarrhea to severe colitis and death. The ability to identify patients at increased risk for severe disease or mortality at the time of diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) would allow clinicians to effectively allocate disease modifying therapies. In this study, we developed models consisting of only a small number of serum biomarkers that are capable of predicting both 30-day all-cause mortality and adverse outcomes of patients at time of CDI diagnosis. We were able to validate these models through experimental mouse infection. This provides evidence that the biomarkers reflect the underlying pathophysiology and that our mouse model of CDI reflects the pathogenesis of human infection. Predictive models can not only assist clinicians in identifying patients at risk for severe CDI but also be utilized for targeted enrollment in clinical trials aimed at reduction of adverse outcomes from severe CDI.

6.
Infect Immun ; 88(6)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284366

RESUMO

Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infection, and advanced age is a risk factor for C. difficile infection. Disruption of the intestinal microbiota and immune responses contribute to host susceptibility and severity of C. difficile infection. However, the specific impact of aging on immune responses during C. difficile infection remains to be well described. This study explores the effect of age on cellular and cytokine immune responses during C. difficile infection. Young mice (2 to 3 months old) and aged mice (22 to 28 months old) were rendered susceptible to C. difficile infection with the antibiotic cefoperazone and then infected with C. difficile strains with varied disease-causing potentials. We observe that the host age and the infecting C. difficile strain influenced the severity of disease associated with infection. Tissue-specific CD45+ immune cell responses occurred at the time of peak disease severity in the ceca and colons of all mice infected with a high-virulence strain of C. difficile; however, significant deficits in intestinal neutrophils and eosinophils were detected in aged mice, with a corresponding decrease in circulating CXCL1, an important neutrophil recruiter and activator. Interestingly, this lack of intestinal granulocyte response in aged mice during severe C. difficile infection was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in circulating white blood cells, granulocytes, and interleukin 17A (IL-17A). These findings demonstrate that age-related alterations in neutrophils and eosinophils and systemic cytokine and chemokine responses are associated with severe C. difficile infection and support a key role for intestinal eosinophils in mitigating C. difficile-mediated disease severity.

8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Since owning a cat or dog could enrich the gut microbiome, we hypothesized that it would be protective against CDI. AIMS: We conducted a survey study on patients tested for CDI in order to assess whether living in the presence of a pet is associated with a decreased risk of CDI. METHODS: We surveyed subjects aged 18-90 over a 14-month period using a retrospective case-control design. Subjects with CDI were matched by gender and age to patients who tested negative and had no prior history of CDI. A web-based survey was provided to subjects by mail or assisted by phone. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess for associations between CDI and the various risk factors. RESULTS: 205 CDI positive and 205 CDI negative subjects (response rate of 50.2%) were included. After matching for age and sex, living with a cat or dog was not associated with negative CDI testing. Exploratory multivariable modeling identified an unexpected association between positive CDI testing and high meat intake (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.21-3.77) as well as between positive CDI testing and cat allergies (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.02-3.46). CONCLUSION: Living with a cat or dog was not associated with negative CDI testing. Several novel risk factors for CDI have been identified including high meat intake and cat allergies.

10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advent of PCR-based stool testing has identified a greatly increased number of infectious agents in IBD, but their clinical significance is unknown. AIMS: To determine the infectious agent prevalence and the clinical significance of these infectious agents in IBD patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of GI infections among IBD patients with active and quiescent disease versus healthy controls. Among actively inflamed patients, we compared clinical characteristics, medication use, and disease course between those with positive and negative tests. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty-three IBD patients and 52 healthy volunteers were included. The IBD group was divided into active Crohn's disease (CD, n = 113), inactive CD (n = 53), active ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 128), and inactive UC (n = 39). A significantly higher percentage of actively inflamed patients had positive stool tests (31.1%) compared to those with quiescent disease (7.6%, P = < 0.001) and healthy controls (13.5%, P = 0.01). In actively inflamed patients, shorter symptom duration and the use of multiple immunosuppressive agents were significantly associated with positive stool tests. Escalation of immunosuppressive therapy was less frequent in those with positive (61.3%) than with negative tests (77.7%, P = < 0.01). However, the need for surgery (13.3% vs. 18.7%, respectively, P = 0.31) and hospitalization (14.7% vs. 17.5%, respectively, P = 0.57) in 90 days was not significantly different. CONCLUSION: GI infections are common in IBD patients with active disease. Evaluating patients for infection may help avoid unnecessary escalation of immunosuppressants, especially during an acute flare or combination immunosuppression.

11.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) carries an increased risk of primary and recurrent Clostridiodes difficile infection (rCDI), and CDI is associated with UC flares. We hypothesized that specific fecal microbial changes associate with UC flare and rCDI. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 57 patients with UC and CDI, CDI only, and UC only. Stool samples were collected at baseline, at the end of antibiotic therapy, and after reconstitution for 16S rRNA sequencing. The primary outcomes were recurrent UC flare and rCDI. Logistic regression and Lasso models were constructed for analysis. RESULTS: There were 21 (45.7%) patients with rCDI, whereas 11 (34.4%) developed UC flare. Patients with rCDI demonstrated significant interindividual (P = 0.008) and intraindividual differences (P = 0.004) in community structure by Jensen-Shannon distance (JSD) compared with non-rCDI. Two cross-validated Lasso regression models predicted risk of rCDI: a baseline model with female gender, hospitalization for UC in the past year, increased Ruminococcaceae and Verrucomicrobia, and decreased Eubacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Veillonellaceae (AuROC, 0.94); and a model 14 days after completion of antibiotics with female gender, increased Shannon diversity, Ruminococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, and decreased community richness and Faecalibacterium (AuROC, 0.9). Adding JSD between baseline and post-treatment samples to the latter model improved fit (AuROC, 0.94). A baseline model including UC hospitalization in the past year and increased Bacteroidetes was associated with increased risk for UC flare (AuROC, 0.88). CONCLUSION: Fecal microbial features at baseline and after therapy predict rCDI risk in patients with and without UC. These results may help risk stratify patients to guide management.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(11): ofz409, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687419

RESUMO

Objective: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) frequently causes colitis following antibiotic exposure and is a leading cause of gastrointestinal infectious mortality. Infection in the small bowel, C. difficile enteritis (CDE), was previously thought impossible, but case series have challenged this dogma. Clostridioides difficile enteritis prevalence, severity, and potential risk factors are unknown. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all total colectomy patients over a 20-year period at our institution. C. difficile enteritis was defined by clinical symptoms and positive C. difficile stool testing after colectomy. We compared CDE cases to controls using multivariable analysis to identify potential CDE risk factors. Results: C. difficile enteritis occurred in 44 of 855 (5.1%) patients, a median of 130 days after colectomy. Compared to controls, CDE patients were similar in age, gender, and presence of immunosuppression. The majority (64%) had antibiotics <30 days prior to CDE. In multivariable analysis, CDE risk factors included perioperative acid suppression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-5.04; P = .009), colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease (HR, 2.95; CI, 1.29-6.72; P = .010), colectomy for CDI (HR, 9.95; CI, 2.70-36.63; P ≤ .001), and ß-lactam use in the setting of enteral feeds (HR, 17.83; CI, 2.75-115.68; P = .003). C. difficile enteritis presented with severe disease half of the time, with 81.8% requiring hospitalization. Conclusions: C. difficile enteritis is a rare clinical entity that should be considered in postcolectomy patients presenting with CDI symptoms, even years after surgery. Like traditional CDI, likely CDE risk factors include acid suppression and inflammatory bowel disease. Prior antibiotic use in the setting of enteral feeds may amplify CDE risk. C. difficile enteritis often presents as severe disease and frequently requires hospitalization.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028287, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The initial treatment for high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is endoscopic resection of the tumour followed by BCG therapy. In those who develop recurrence, the standard treatment is radical cystectomy. Despite the advancement in surgical technique and postoperative care, the degree of morbidity associated with radical cystectomy remains high, therefore less invasive treatment modalities are desirable. Therapies targeting the programmed death (PD) pathway have shown promise in urothelial carcinoma. We undertook the current study to determine the safety and efficacy of administering pembrolizumab (a monoclonal antibody targeting the interaction between PD-1 and its ligand) in combination with BCG in high-risk NMIBC. METHODS: This is a single-centre phase I safety and efficacy study of pembrolizumab used in combination with intravesicular BCG treatment for subjects with pathologically documented high-risk NMIBC despite having received two courses of induction therapy or BCG treatment followed by maintenance BCG. Fifteen subjects will be enrolled, patients will receive treatment with 200 mg of pembrolizumab every 21 days, starting 2 weeks from the initial endoscopic resection and continuing for 6 weeks after the final dose of BCG. The primary objective is to determine the safety of administering pembrolizumab at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks in conjunction with intravesicular BCG treatment in patients with high-risk NMIBC who have failed previous treatment. Secondary objectives are to determine the 19 weeks and the 3, 12 and 24 months post-treatment completion complete response rate with combined pembrolizumab and intravesicular BCG therapy in the aforementioned patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Henry Ford Hospital. The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a scientific conference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02324582.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e027147, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinician scarcity in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) often results in de facto task shifting; this raises concerns about the quality of care. This study examines if a long-term mentoring programme improved the ability of auxiliary nurse-midwives (ANMs), who function as paramedical community health workers, to provide quality care during childbirth, and how they compared with staff nurses. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental post-test with matched comparison group. SETTING: Primary health centres (PHC) in the state of Bihar, India; a total of 239 PHCs surveyed and matched analysis based on 190 (134 intervention and 56 comparison) facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Analysis based on 335 ANMs (237 mentored and 98 comparison) and 42 staff nurses (28 mentored and 14 comparison). INTERVENTION: Mentoring for a duration of 6-9 months focused on nurses at PHCs to improve the quality of basic emergency obstetric and newborn care. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Nurse ability to provide correct actions in managing cases of normal delivery, postpartum haemorrhage and neonatal resuscitation assessed using a combination of clinical vignettes and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. RESULTS: Mentoring increased correct actions taken by ANMs to manage normal deliveries by 17.5 (95% CI 14.8 to 20.2), postpartum haemorrhage by 25.9 (95% CI 22.4 to 29.4) and neonatal resuscitation 28.4 (95% CI 23.2 to 33.7) percentage points. There was no significant difference between the average ability of mentored ANMs and staff nurses. However, they provided only half the required correct actions. There was substantial variation in ability; 41% of nurses for normal delivery, 60% for postpartum haemorrhage and 45% for neonatal resuscitation provided less than half the correct actions. Ability declined with time after mentoring was completed. DISCUSSION: Mentoring improved the ability of ANMs to levels comparable with trained nurses. However, only some mentored nurses have the ability to conduct quality deliveries. Continuing education programmes are critical to sustain quality gains.

15.
SAGE Open Med ; 7: 2050312119851006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205698

RESUMO

Objectives: Despite many advances in medicine, not all individuals with HIV are able to achieve complete virologic suppression. This retrospective study identifies variables associated with persistent HIV viremia in an academic clinic. Methods: We studied 66 HIV-infected patients with a viral load of >200 copies/mL over 1 year, with controls matched 1:1 via a propensity score utilizing age at diagnosis, era of diagnosis, gender, and initial CD4 count. We collected data on multiple variables including medications, adherence, comorbidities, hospitalizations, and insurance status. Conditional logistic regression was used for unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: A total of 66 viremic cases/matched controls were included. Fewer viremic patients were on antiretroviral therapy for all 12 months (45% vs 77%; odds ratio: 0.33, p = .018) and fewer were of white race (52% vs 70%; odds ratio: 0.49, p = .053). Hospitalization (11% vs 3%; odds ratio: 10, p = .028), underinsurance (20% vs 1%; odds ratio: 5.87, p = .022), and conflicting personal beliefs about their disease (17% vs 3%; odds ratio: 5.5, p = .027) were more common in viremic patients. Psychiatric illness increased the odds of viremia in patients who had four or more visits (odds ratio: 1.63/6.64 with four/five clinic visits, respectively). Conclusion: Psychiatric illness is an important contributor to the presence of persistent viremia in HIV-infected patients and deserves further study.

16.
Pain Res Manag ; 2019: 9675654, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198479

RESUMO

Pain is common among patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). However, there are very limited data on chronic pain among HNC patients treated with radiation therapy (XRT). In this retrospective study, we focused on the characteristics of chronic post-XRT pain in such patients. Post-XRT pain is common among HNC patients; however, we found discrepancy between frequency of treatment and frequency of chronic pain, suggesting poor documentation of pain in the medical records. Among patients who reported to have chronic post-XRT pain, most of them described having severe pain and used descriptors of neuropathic pain. Pharynx was the commonest site of cancer as well as the commonest site of cancer-related chronic pain; squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological pattern, and opioids were used most often to treat such chronic pain. There was a significant association between chronic pain and number of sites of pain, and chronic pain was also associated with use of opioids.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Infect Dis (Auckl) ; 12: 1178633719852626, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223234

RESUMO

Background: The majority of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are triggered by nonbacterial causes, yet most patients receive antibiotics. Treatment guided by procalcitonin (PCT), a sensitive biomarker of bacterial infection, safely decreases antibiotic use in many controlled trials. We evaluated PCT implementation for inpatients with AECOPD at a large academic hospital. Methods: All patients admitted for AECOPD during the first 6 months of PCT-guided therapy were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective cohort study. Patients with PCT performed were compared with those without PCT. The primary outcome was antibiotic days of therapy (DOT). Secondary outcomes included 30-day readmission and mortality. Results: Of the 238 AECOPD admissions, 73 (31%) had PCT performed. Procalcitonin-tested patients were more likely to meet systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, require intensive care unit (ICU)-level care, and have a longer length of stay (LOS) compared with those without PCT. Even after adjustment for these factors, PCT-tested patients received more inpatient DOT and there was no difference in total DOT. However, a low PCT value (<0.25 ng/mL) was associated with a 25.5% (P ⩽ .001) decrease in intravenous (IV) antibiotic DOT. Guideline-recommended follow-up testing was rare (12%). Procalcitonin measurement had no effect on 30-day readmission or mortality. Conclusions: In this real-world analysis of inpatients with AECOPD, PCT-guided therapy was poorly adopted by providers and was not associated with a decrease in total antibiotic DOT. However, a low PCT level was associated with a 25.5% decrease in IV antibiotic DOT, suggesting increased comfort stepping down from IV to PO therapy.

18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(5): ofz186, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139672

RESUMO

Background: Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile infection (CDI) is a health care-associated infection that can lead to serious complications. Potential complications include intensive care unit (ICU) admission, development of toxic megacolon, need for colectomy, and death. However, identifying the patients most likely to develop complicated CDI is challenging. To this end, we explored the utility of a machine learning (ML) approach for patient risk stratification for complications using electronic health record (EHR) data. Methods: We considered adult patients diagnosed with CDI between October 2010 and January 2013 at the University of Michigan hospitals. Cases were labeled complicated if the infection resulted in ICU admission, colectomy, or 30-day mortality. Leveraging EHR data, we trained a model to predict subsequent complications on each of the 3 days after diagnosis. We compared our EHR-based model to one based on a small set of manually curated features. We evaluated model performance using a held-out data set in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results: Of 1118 cases of CDI, 8% became complicated. On the day of diagnosis, the model achieved an AUROC of 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.83). Using data extracted 2 days after CDI diagnosis, performance increased (AUROC, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95), outperforming a model based on a curated set of features (AUROC, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91). Conclusions: Using EHR data, we can accurately stratify CDI cases according to their risk of developing complications. Such an approach could be used to guide future clinical studies investigating interventions that could prevent or mitigate complicated CDI.

20.
New Phytol ; 223(3): 1166-1172, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919449

RESUMO

Although primarily valued for their suitability for oceanographic applications and soil moisture estimation, microwave remote sensing observations are also sensitive to plant water content (Mw ). Since Mw depends on both plant water status and biomass, these observations have the potential to be useful for a range of plant drought response studies. In this paper, we introduce the principles behind microwave remote sensing observations to illustrate how they are sensitive to plant water content and discuss the relationship between landscape-scale Mw and common stand-scale metrics, including plant-scale relative water content, live fuel moisture content and leaf water potential. Lastly, we discuss how various sensor types can be leveraged for specific applications depending on the spatio-temporal resolution needed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Micro-Ondas , Plantas/química , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Água/química , Modelos Biológicos
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