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1.
Am J Med ; 131(3): 269-275.e2, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. METHODS: Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin were consistent, irrespective of history of falling.

2.
Lancet ; 390(10104): 1737-1746, 2017 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation is underused in patients with atrial fibrillation. We assessed the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention, versus usual care, on oral anticoagulant use in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: This study was a two-arm, prospective, international, cluster-randomised, controlled trial. Patients were included who had atrial fibrillation and an indication for oral anticoagulation. Clusters were randomised (1:1) to receive a quality improvement educational intervention (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Randomisation was carried out centrally, using the eClinicalOS electronic data capture system. The intervention involved education of providers and patients, with regular monitoring and feedback. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of patients treated with oral anticoagulants from baseline assessment to evaluation at 1 year. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02082548. FINDINGS: 2281 patients from five countries (Argentina, n=343; Brazil, n=360; China, n=586; India, n=493; and Romania, n=499) were enrolled from 48 clusters between June 11, 2014, and Nov 13, 2016. Follow-up was at a median of 12·0 months (IQR 11·8-12·2). Oral anticoagulant use increased in the intervention group from 68% (804 of 1184 patients) at baseline to 80% (943 of 1184 patients) at 1 year (difference 12%), whereas in the control group it increased from 64% (703 of 1092 patients) at baseline to 67% (732 of 1092 patients) at 1 year (difference 3%). Absolute difference in the change between groups was 9·1% (95% CI 3·8-14·4); odds ratio of change in the use of oral anticoagulation between groups was 3·28 (95% CI 1·67-6·44; adjusted p value=0·0002). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a reduction in the secondary outcome of stroke in the intervention versus control groups (HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·23-0·99; log-rank p value=0·0434). INTERPRETATION: A multifaceted and multilevel educational intervention, aimed to improve use of oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation and at risk for stroke, resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of patients treated with oral anticoagulants. Such an intervention has the potential to improve stroke prevention around the world for patients with atrial fibrillation. FUNDING: Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, and Pfizer.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Educação Médica Continuada , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
3.
Am Heart J ; 192: 38-47, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938962

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia worldwide. However, there are few contemporary comparative data on AF from middle-income countries. METHODS: Baseline characteristics of the IMPACT-AF trial were analyzed to assess regional differences in presentation and antithrombotic treatment of AF from 5 middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, and Romania) and factors associated with antithrombotic treatment prescription. RESULTS: IMPACT-AF enrolled 2281 patients (69 ± 11 years, 47% women) at 48 sites. Overall, 66% of patients were on anticoagulation at baseline, ranging from 38% in China to 91% in Brazil. The top 3 reasons for not prescribing an anticoagulant were patient preference/refusal (26%); concomitant antiplatelet therapy (15%); and risks outweighing the benefits, as assessed by the physician (13%). In a multivariable model, the most significant factors associated with prescription of oral anticoagulants were no prior major bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34; 95% CI = 2.22-8.33), no alcohol abuse (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.12-4.55), and history of rheumatic valvular heart disease (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.36-3.26), with a strong predictive accuracy (c statistic = 0.85), whereas the most significant factors associated with prescription of a combination of oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were prior coronary revascularization (OR = 5.10; 95% CI = 2.88-9.05), prior myocardial infarction (OR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.38-3.63), and no alcohol abuse (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.11-4.55), with a good predictive accuracy (c statistic = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: IMPACT-AF provides contemporary data from 5 middle-income countries regarding antithrombotic treatment of AF. Lack of prior major bleeding and coronary revascularization were the most important factors associated with prescription of oral anticoagulants and their combination with antiplatelet drugs, respectively.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Circulation ; 135(12): 1136-1144, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with heart failure after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been examined in a contemporary clinical trial of surgical revascularization. This analysis describes the incidence, timing, and clinical predictors of SCD after CABG. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the STICH trial (Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure) who underwent CABG with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction were included. We excluded patients with prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and those randomized only to medical therapy. The primary outcome was SCD as adjudicated by a blinded committee. A Cox model was used to examine and identify predictors of SCD. The Fine and Gray method was used to estimate the incidence of SCD accounting for the competing risk of other deaths. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 46 months, 113 of 1411 patients who received CABG without (n = 934) or with (n = 477) surgical ventricular reconstruction had SCD; 311 died of other causes. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction at enrollment was 28±9%. The 5-year cumulative incidence of SCD was 8.5%. Patients who had SCD and those who did not die were younger and had fewer comorbid conditions than did those who died of causes other than SCD. In the first 30 days after CABG, SCD (n=5) accounted for 7% of all deaths. The numerically greatest monthly rate of SCD was in the 31- to 90-day time period. In a multivariable analysis including baseline demographics, risk factors, coronary anatomy, and left ventricular function, end-systolic volume index and B-type natriuretic peptide were most strongly associated with SCD. CONCLUSIONS: The monthly risk of SCD shortly after CABG among patients with a low left ventricular ejection fraction is highest between the first and third months, suggesting that risk stratification for SCD should occur early in the postoperative period, particularly in patients with increased preoperative end-systolic volume index or B-type natriuretic peptide. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT0002359.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Período Pós-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/análise , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
5.
Am Heart J ; 176: 107-13, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27264227

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common, increasing as the population ages, and a major cause of embolic stroke. While oral anticoagulation (OAC) is highly effective at preventing stroke in patients with AF, it continues to be underused in eligible patients worldwide. The objective of this prospective, cluster randomized controlled trial (IMPACT-AF; ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02082548) is to determine whether a comprehensive customized intervention will increase the rate and persistence of use of OAC in patients with AF. IMPACT-AF will be conducted in approximately 50 centers in 5 low- to middle-income countries. Before randomization, sites within countries will be paired to match in size, practice type and baseline rate of OAC use. Site pairs will be randomized to intervention versus control. In total, 40 to 70 patients with AF and at least 2 CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors will be enrolled at each site using a consecutive enrollment strategy, with the goal of capturing actual practice patterns. We aim for patients with a new diagnosis of AF to comprise at least 30% of the study cohort. Assuming an average baseline OAC use of 60% and a post-intervention use of 70% with a post-control rate of 60%, there will be roughly 94-98% power with 25 clusters per group (intracluster correlation coefficient of 0.02). While this trial focuses on improving treatment use and reducing preventable strokes, we also aim to better understand the reasons for OAC underuse. This will improve the intervention with the goal of creating educational recommendations to improve care for patients with AF.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Embolia Intracraniana , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/classificação , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Melhoria de Qualidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 20(5): 630-6, 2016 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While therapeutic hypothermia has been the standard of care for patients who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), recent trials have led to an advisory statement recommending a focus on targeted in-hospital temperature management and against initiation of prehospital hypothermia with rapid infusion of cooled saline. The aim of this study is to review the experience with therapeutic hypothermia in North Carolina. METHODS: We studied patients who suffered OHCA in North Carolina in 2012 captured in the CARES database as part of the Heart Rescue Project. We excluded patients without return of spontaneous circulation and patients without an advanced airway placed in the field to reduce selection bias. Bivariate distributions and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine differences in survival to discharge and positive neurological outcome. RESULTS: 847 patients were included in the analysis of pre-hospital hypothermia. Of these patients, 55% received prehospital hypothermia. Prehospital initiation of hypothermia was associated with higher survival to hospital discharge (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.32) and improved neurologic outcome at discharge (OR 1.56 95% CI 1.01-2.40). In patients who survived to hospital admission (n = 537), in-hospital hypothermia was associated with a non-significant trend toward better survival to discharge (p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: We found that patients who received prehospital hypothermia had improved outcomes, a finding that may be due to a greater likelihood of receiving in-hospital hypothermia or a reflection of higher quality of pre-hospital care. These findings support ongoing efforts to improve all aspects of the chain of survival after cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 4(12)2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26627878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension are at high risk for stroke. Previous studies have shown elevated risk of stroke in patients with AF who have a history of hypertension (regardless of blood pressure [BP] control) and in patients with elevated BP. We assessed the association of hypertension and BP control on clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE (n=18 201), BP was evaluated as history of hypertension requiring treatment and elevated BP (systolic ≥140 and/or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg) at study entry and any point during the trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models including BP as a time-dependent covariate. A total of 15 916 (87.5%) patients had a history of hypertension requiring treatment. In patients with elevated BP measurement at any point during the trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was significantly higher (HR, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.86), as was hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.26-2.72) and ischemic stroke (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.90). Rates of major bleeding were lower in patients with a history of hypertension (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98) and nonsignificantly lower in patients with elevated BP at study entry (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03). The benefit of apixaban versus warfarin on preventing stroke or systemic embolism was consistent among patients with and without a history of hypertension (P interaction=0.27), BP control at baseline (P interaction=0.43), and BP control during the trial (P interaction=0.97). CONCLUSIONS: High BP measurement at any point during the trial was independently associated with a substantially higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism. These results strongly support efforts to treat elevated BP as an important strategy to optimally lower risk of stroke in patients with AF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00412984.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Scientifica (Cairo) ; 2014: 901586, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25215263

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and accounts for one-third of hospitalizations for rhythm disorders in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation averages 1% and increases with age. With the aging of the population, the number of patients with atrial fibrillation is expected to increase 150% by 2050, with more than 50% of atrial fibrillation patients being over the age of 80. This increasing burden of atrial fibrillation will lead to a higher incidence of stroke, as patients with atrial fibrillation have a five- to sevenfold greater risk of stroke than the general population. Strokes secondary to atrial fibrillation have a worse prognosis than in patients without atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran), and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban) are all oral anticoagulants that have been FDA approved for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation. This review will summarize the experience of anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation with a focus on the experience at the Duke Clinic Research Institute.

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