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1.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7640-7657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335955

RESUMO

Background: Since primary prostate cancer (PCa) can advance to the life-threatening metastatic PCa, exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa metastasis is crucial for developing the novel targeted preventive strategies for decreasing the mortality of PCa. RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an emerging regulatory mechanism for gene expression and its specific roles in PCa progression remains elusive. Methods: Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were used to detect target gene expression in PCa cells in vitro and prostate tissues from patients. RNA immunoprecipitation was conducted to analyze the specific binding of mRNA to the target protein. Migration and invasion assays were used to assess the migratory capacities of cancer cells. The correlation between target gene expression and survival rate of PCa patients was analyzed based the TCGA database. Results: We found that total RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification levels were markedly upregulated in human PCa tissues due to increased expression of methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3). Further studies revealed that the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cells were markedly suppressed upon METTL3 knockdown. Mechanistically, METTL3 mediates m6A modification of USP4 mRNA at A2696, and m6A reader protein YTHDF2 binds to and induces degradation of USP4 mRNA by recruiting RNA-binding protein HNRNPD to the mRNA. Decrease of USP4 fails to remove the ubiquitin group from ELAVL1 protein, resulting in a reduction of ELAVL1 protein. Lastly, downregulation of ELAVL1 in turn increases ARHGDIA expression, promoting migration and invasion of PCa cells. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the role of METTL3 in modulating invasion and metastasis of PCa cells, providing insight into promising therapeutic strategies for hindering PCa progressing to deadly metastases.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética
2.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 10668969211021997, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057377

RESUMO

Undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma (USRCS) represents a highly heterogeneous group of tumors. A variety of specific gene fusions of USRCS have been reported, including CIC-FOXO4, CIC-NUTM1, BCOR-MAML3, and ZC3H7B-BCOR. Here we report a case of sarcoma harboring a rare recurrent CRTC1-SS18 gene fusion, which was considered as USRCS previously. This sarcoma was composed of nests of small round cells encapsulated in a fibrous stroma. Foci of necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in the tumor. Immunohistochemistry for anaplastic lymphoma kinase showed diffuse positivity. RNA-seq results revealed a chromosomal translocation of CRTC1 gene exon 1 on chromosome 19 with SS18 gene exon 2 on chromosome 18. Thereafter, fluorescence in-situ hybridization confirmed the presence of SS18 gene and CRTC1 gene break-apart, which manifested as the splitting of red and green signals into 2 parts. A previous study showed that CRTC1-SS18 fusion sarcoma and EWSR1-CREB1 fusion angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma were clustered close in the expression profile. However, whether CRTC1-SS18 fusion sarcomas represent a high malignancy has been a matter of debate. Our study is a worthy addition to the series of rare rearrangements associated with sarcomas and may be of therapeutic relevance.

3.
Oncogene ; 40(18): 3303-3317, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846569

RESUMO

The ASPL-TFE3 fusion gene, resulting from t(X;17)(p11.2;q25.3), is one of the most commonly identified fusion genes in Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC). However, its roles and underlying mechanism in RCC development are not yet clear. Here, we identified ASPL-TFE3 fusion as the most common tRCC subtype in a Chinese population (29/126, 23.03%). This fusion protein translocated into the nucleus and promoted RCC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the fusion protein transcriptionally activated the lysosome-autophagy pathway by binding to the promoters of lysosome-related genes. Autophagy, activated by ASPL-TFE3, enabled RCC cells to escape energy stress by promoting the utilization of proteins and lipids. Moreover, we found that the ASPL-TFE3 fusion escaped regulation by the classic mTOR-TFE3 signal and instead activated phospho-mTOR and its downstream targets. Finally, targeting both autophagy and the mTOR axis resulted in a greater antiproliferative effect than single pathway inhibition. In summary, these results confirmed the ASPL-TFE3 fusion as a master regulator of metabolic adaptation mediated by autophagy in tRCC. The simultaneous manipulation of autophagy and the mTOR axis may represent a novel treatment strategy for ASPL-TFE3 fusion RCC.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 34(7): 1392-1424, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664427

RESUMO

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) reviewed recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, to provide an update on existing entities, including diagnostic criteria, molecular correlates, and updated nomenclature. Key prognostic features for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain WHO/ISUP grade, AJCC/pTNM stage, coagulative necrosis, and rhabdoid and sarcomatoid differentiation. Accrual of subclonal genetic alterations in clear cell RCC including SETD2, PBRM1, BAP1, loss of chromosome 14q and 9p are associated with variable prognosis, patterns of metastasis, and vulnerability to therapies. Recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines increasingly adopt immunotherapeutic agents in advanced RCC, including RCC with rhabdoid and sarcomatoid changes. Papillary RCC subtyping is no longer recommended, as WHO/ISUP grade and tumor architecture better predict outcome. New papillary RCC variants/patterns include biphasic, solid, Warthin-like, and papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity. For tumors with 'borderline' features between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, a term "oncocytic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, not further classified" is proposed. Clear cell papillary RCC may warrant reclassification as a tumor of low malignant potential. Tubulocystic RCC should only be diagnosed when morphologically pure. MiTF family translocation RCCs exhibit varied morphologic patterns and fusion partners. TFEB-amplified RCC occurs in older patients and is associated with more aggressive behavior. Acquired cystic disease (ACD) RCC-like cysts are likely precursors of ACD-RCC. The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma requires a negative SMARCB1 (INI-1) expression and sickle cell trait/disease. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) can be distinguished from papillary RCC with overlapping morphology by losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22. MTSCC with adverse histologic features shows frequent CDKN2A/2B (9p) deletions. BRAF mutations unify the metanephric family of tumors. The term "fumarate hydratase deficient RCC" ("FH-deficient RCC") is preferred over "hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome-associated RCC". A low threshold for FH, 2SC, and SDHB immunohistochemistry is recommended in difficult to classify RCCs, particularly those with eosinophilic morphology, occurring in younger patients. Current evidence does not support existence of a unique tumor subtype occurring after chemotherapy/radiation in early childhood.

6.
Mod Pathol ; 34(6): 1167-1184, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526874

RESUMO

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly focusing on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In the era of evolving histo-molecular classification of renal neoplasia, morphology is still key. However, entities (or groups of entities) are increasingly characterized by specific molecular features, often associated either with recognizable, specific morphologies or constellations of morphologies and corresponding immunohistochemical profiles. The correct diagnosis has clinical implications leading to better prognosis, potential clinical management with targeted therapies, may identify hereditary or syndromic associations, which may necessitate appropriate genetic testing. We hope that this undertaking will further facilitate the identification of these entities in practice. We also hope that this update will bring more clarity regarding the evolving classification of renal neoplasia and will further reduce the category of "unclassifiable renal carcinomas/tumors". We propose three categories of novel entities: (1) "Novel entity", validated by multiple independent studies; (2) "Emerging entity", good compelling data available from at least two or more independent studies, but additional validation is needed; and (3) "Provisional entity", limited data available from one or two studies, with more work required to validate them. For some entities initially described using different names, we propose new terminologies, to facilitate their recognition and to avoid further diagnostic dilemmas. Following these criteria, we propose as novel entities: eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC), renal cell carcinoma with fibromyomatous stroma (RCC FMS) (formerly RCC with leiomyomatous or smooth muscle stroma), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC). Emerging entities include: eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) and thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma (TLFRCC). Finally, as provisional entities, we propose low-grade oncocytic tumor (LOT), atrophic kidney-like lesion (AKLL), and biphasic hyalinizing psammomatous renal cell carcinoma (BHP RCC).

7.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571129

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumorigenesis, recurrence, and therapy resistance. To identify critical regulators of sarcoma CSCs, we performed a reporter-based genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen and uncovered Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) as top candidate. In vitro and in vivo functional annotation defined a negative role of KLF11 in CSCs. Mechanistically, KLF11 and YAP/TEAD bound to adjacent DNA sites along with direct interaction. KLF11 recruited SIN3A/HDAC to suppress the transcriptional output of YAP/TEAD, which, in turn, promoted KLF11 transcription, forming a negative feedback loop. However, in CSCs, this negative feedback was lost because of epigenetic silence of KLF11, causing sustained YAP activation. Low KLF11 was associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy response in patients with sarcoma. Pharmacological activation of KLF11 by thiazolidinedione effectively restored chemotherapy response. Collectively, our study identifies KLF11 as a negative regulator in sarcoma CSCs and potential therapeutic target.

8.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(5): 291-299, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514585

RESUMO

Transcription factor E3-rearranged renal cell carcinoma (TFE3-RCC) has heterogenous morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features.131 pathologists with genitourinary expertise were invited in an online survey containing 23 questions assessing their experience on TFE3-RCC diagnostic work-up.Fifty (38%) participants completed the survey. 46 of 50 participants reported multiple patterns, most commonly papillary pattern (almost always 9/46, 19.5%; frequently 29/46, 63%). Large epithelioid cells with abundant cytoplasm were the most encountered cytologic feature, with either clear (almost always 10/50, 20%; frequently 34/50, 68%) or eosinophilic (almost always 4/49, 8%; frequently 28/49, 57%) cytology. Strong (3+) or diffuse (>75% of tumour cells) nuclear TFE3 IHC expression was considered diagnostic by 13/46 (28%) and 12/47 (26%) participants, respectively. Main TFE3 IHC issues were the low specificity (16/42, 38%), unreliable staining performance (15/42, 36%) and background staining (12/42, 29%). Most preferred IHC assays other than TFE3, cathepsin K and pancytokeratin were melan A (44/50, 88%), HMB45 (43/50, 86%), carbonic anhydrase IX (41/50, 82%) and CK7 (32/50, 64%). Cut-off for positive TFE3 fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) was preferably 10% (9/50, 18%), although significant variation in cut-off values was present. 23/48 (48%) participants required TFE3 FISH testing to confirm TFE3-RCC regardless of the histomorphologic and IHC assessment. 28/50 (56%) participants would request additional molecular studies other than FISH assay in selected cases, whereas 3/50 participants use additional molecular cases in all cases when TFE3-RCC is in the differential.Optimal diagnostic approach on TFE3-RCC is impacted by IHC and/or FISH assay preferences as well as their conflicting interpretation methods.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Rearranjo Gênico , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/química , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patologistas , Fenótipo , Padrões de Prática Médica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992709

RESUMO

In this work, a few-layer MXene is prepared and sprinkled on a commercial polypropylene (PP) separator by a facile spraying method to enhance the electrochemistry of the Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) cathode. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the morphology and structure of MXene. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and a contact angle tester are used to measure the bond structure and surface wettability PP and MXene/PP separator. The effect of the MXene/PP separator on the electrochemical performance of ternary NCM811 material is tested by an electrochemical workstation. The results show that the two-dimensional MXene material could improve the wettability of the separator to the electrolyte and greatly enhance the electrochemical properties of the NCM811 cathode. During 0.5 C current density cycling, the Li/NCM811 cell with MXene/PP separator remains at 166.2 mAh/g after the 100 cycles with ~90.7% retention. The Rct of MXene/PP cell is measured to be ~28.0 Ω. Combining all analyses results related to MXene/PP separator, the strategy by spraying the MXene on commercial PP is considered as a simple, convenient, and effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of the Ni-rich NCM811 cathode and it is expected to achieve large-scale in high-performance lithium-ion batteries in the near future.

10.
J Pathol ; 251(4): 365-377, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418203

RESUMO

The classification of the distinct group of mesenchymal neoplasms, first described as 'Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa)' and for which the term 'melanotic Xp11 neoplasm' or 'Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation' has recently been proposed, remains challenging and controversial. We collected 27 melanotic Xp11 neoplasms, the largest series to date, for a comprehensive evaluation. Fourteen of the cases, together with eight alveolar soft part sarcomas (ASPS), nine conventional PEComas and a control group of seven normal tissues were submitted to RNA sequencing. Follow-up available in 22 patients showed 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival of 47.6 and 35.7%, respectively, which were similar to ASPS and significantly worse than conventional PEComa. Univariate analysis of location (occurring in the kidney versus not kidney), infiltrative growth pattern, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic activity ≥2/50 high-power fields (HPF), necrosis and lymphovascular invasion were found to be associated with overall survival and/or disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis identified that location was the only factor found to independently correlate with disease-free survival. More importantly, RNA sequencing-based clustering analysis segregated melanotic Xp11 neoplasm and ASPS from other tumors, including conventional PEComa and Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma, and formed a compact cluster representative of the largely similar expression signature. Here we clearly define the true biologic nature of melanotic Xp11 neoplasms which are distinctive malignant mesenchymal tumors, rather than simply PEComa variants with occasionally unpredictable behavior. Meanwhile, melanotic Xp11 neoplasm and ASPS more likely represent phenotypic variants of the same entity, which is distinct from conventional PEComa and Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma. Based on these important findings, melanotic Xp11 neoplasm might be reclassified into a distinctive entity together with ASPS, independent from PEComa, in future revisions of the current WHO categories of tumors of soft tissue and bone for the improved reclassification. © 2020 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/classificação , Neoplasias Renais/classificação , Neoplasias de Células Epitelioides Perivasculares/classificação , Sarcoma Alveolar de Partes Moles/classificação , Translocação Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Células Epitelioides Perivasculares/genética , Neoplasias de Células Epitelioides Perivasculares/patologia , Sarcoma Alveolar de Partes Moles/genética , Sarcoma Alveolar de Partes Moles/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(4): 152867, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067803

RESUMO

BRM, a key subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is an important tumor suppressor gene in multiple tumors. BRM is not mutated, but rather epigenetically silenced in a variety of tumor types, which is different from many anti-cancer genes. In addition, histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) inhibitors are known to reverse BRM silencing, but they also inactivate it via acetylation of its c-terminus. HDAC inhibitors have been reported to be effective at pharmacologically restoring BRM and thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth. But we do not know which HDAC inhibitor, if any, regulate BRM in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). By using seven types of HDAC inhibitors, we found that Pan-HDAC inhibitors restored BRM protein expression. Despite their ability to restore BRM expression, these HDAC inhibitors also blocked BRM function when present. However, after their removal, we observed that BRM expression remained elevated for several days, and during this period, BRM activity was detected. In addition, HDAC3 and HDAC9 regulate BRM expression and function, especially for HDAC3 inhibitor, RGFP966. Our study demonstrated that knockdown of BRM promoted RCC cells proliferation, migration and invasion. RGFP966 inhibited the tumor progression of clear cell RCC by restoring BRM expression both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, HDAC3 is potential targets for clinical treatment, and our study provides a new approach for targeted therapy of BRM-negative clear cell RCC.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(4): 477-489, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764220

RESUMO

Xp11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features. We sought to identify variant fusions in TFEB translocation RCC. A total of 31 cases of TFEB RCCs were selected for the current study; MALAT1-TFEB fusion was identified in 25 cases (81%, 25/31) using fusion probes. The remaining 6 cases (19%, 6/31) were further analyzed by RNA sequencing and 5 of them were detected with TFEB-associated gene fusions, including 2 ACTB-TFEB, 1 EWSR1-TFEB, 1 CLTC-TFEB, and 1 potential PPP1R10-TFEB (a paracentric inversion of the TFEB gene, consistent with "negative" TFEB split FISH result, and advising a potential diagnostic pitfall in detecting TFEB gene rearrangement). Four of the 5 fusion transcripts were successfully validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Morphologically, approximately one third (29%, 9/31) of TFEB RCCs showed typical biphasic morphology. The remaining two thirds of the cases (71%, 22/31) exhibited nonspecific morphology, with nested, sheet-like, or papillary architecture, resembling other types of renal neoplasms, such as clear cell RCC, Xp11 RCC, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), or papillary RCC. Although cases bearing a MALAT1-TFEB fusion demonstrated variable morphologies, all 9 cases featuring typical biphasic morphology were associated with MALAT1-TFEB genotype. Accordingly, typical biphasic morphology suggests MALAT1-TFEB fusion, whereas atypical morphology did not suggest the specific type of fusion. Isolated or clustered eosinophilic cells were a common feature in TFEB RCCs, which may be a useful morphology diagnostic clue for TFEB RCCs. Clinicopathologic variables assessment showed that necrosis was the only morphologic feature that correlated with the aggressive behavior of TFEB RCC (P=0.004). In summary, our study expands the genomic spectrum and the clinicopathologic features of TFEB RCCs, and highlights the challenges of diagnosis and the importance of subtyping of this tumor by combining morphology and multiple molecular techniques.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Translocação Genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Renais/química , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Cancer ; 10(21): 5256-5263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602276

RESUMO

Although the inactivation of BRM plays oncogenic roles in tumorigenesis, regulation mechanism is rarely studied in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Thus, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of BRM inactivation and explore the tumor suppressing roles of BRM in the development of clear cell RCC. We verified that hypermethylation of the BRM promoter was correlated with decreased expression of BRM by multi-omics analysis based on the TCGA database. This result was further confirmed in our own tumor tissues. Moreover, BRM inhibited the ability of proliferation and invasion of RCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this, BRM overexpressing virtually inhibited the xenograft tumor growth of ACHN cells in vivo. Finally we found that BRM promoted cell apoptosis and cellular cycle arrest in G2/M. In conclusion, our study confirms that the hypermethylation of BRM promoters plays oncogenic roles by the transcription inhibition of BRM in RCC, and the tumor suppressor gene BRM inhibits RCC cell vitality in vitro and in vivo.

14.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(11): 152651, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563285

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a novel entity of rare tumors with only 10 cases reported in the literature. Three RCC cases bearing VCL-ALK gene fusion were all young African American patients and associated with sickle cell trait notably. In contrast to the 3 reported cases, this neoplasm occurred in a middle-age woman (57 years old) without any evidence of sickle cell trait and demonstrated an infiltrating growth pattern with tubular, tubulopapillary, and tubulocystic structures, overlapping with collecting duct carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma. Abundant intraluminal mucin was also noted significantly in the histologic sections. Immunostaining showed strong membranous labeling for ALK protein. We applied a large panel-targeted next-generation sequencing to explore the molecular alterations in the current case, revealing a driver oncogene VCL-ALK gene fusion co-occurring with pathogenic mutations in EP300 and TRRAP genes. Thereafter, fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was used to detect the ALK gene rearrangement. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of a VCL-ALK gene fusion, a fusion of VCL exon 16 to ALK exon 20. Our report draws the attention to the possibility that VCL-ALK genotype can be involved in older patients unassociated with sickle cell trait, also expanding the spectrum to ALK-rearranged RCC.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Vinculina/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fusão Oncogênica
15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(9): 152521, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277953

RESUMO

Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and Xp11 translocation renal mesenchymal tumor are distinct tumor entity. To broaden the spectrum of Xp11 neoplasms, we investigated a novel tumor exhibiting morphologies overlapping Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated RCC and the mesenchymal counterpart with melanocytic differentiation by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RNA sequencing, as well as literature review. Histologically, the tumor was composed of three different types of tumor cells, including a large proportion of clear cells, small round cells, and a few spindle cells, presenting a relatively clear border in the majority area. The nuclei of all tumor cells showed extensively and strong positive expressions of TFE3. Whereas, the clear cells positively expressed the RCC-related markers including PAX8, RCC marker and CD10, and negatively expressed HMB45; On the contrary, the small round cells and spindle cells positively expressed melanocytic marker HMB45, and negatively expressed PAX8, RCC marker and CD10. The ki67 index was higher in the small round cells and spindle cells than that in the clear cells. FISH revealed the rearrangement of TFE3 gene in all the three types of cells. The NONO-TFE3 fusion gene was detected in all tumor cells by RNA sequencing. This unique Xp11 translocation-associated neoplasm might represent a distinct entity overlapping Xp11 translocation RCC and the mesenchymal counterpart with melanocytic differentiation, broadening the spectrum of Xp11 neoplasms. The patient died of tumor recurrence and lung metastasis after seven months after the surgery suggesting those tumors have an unfavorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Evolução Fatal , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Masculino , Melanócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Translocação Genética
16.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 25(2): 139-143, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216200

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype and treatment of primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the pathomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemical markers of 23 cases of primary testicular DLBCL as well as their clinicopathological features with a review of the relevant literature. The patients were aged 48-76 (mean 61.4) years, 82.6% over 50 years, and all clinically presented with painless progressive unilateral testicular swelling, 9 cases in the left and the other 14 in the right testis. RESULTS: Histologically, the lymphomas were composed of large atypical cells with prominent karyokinesis and diffusely infiltrated the testicular parenchyma. The neoplastic cells were positive for B-cell markers. Five of the patients were followed up for 2 to 32 months, of whom 4 survived and 1 died at 9 months. CONCLUSIONS: Primary testicular DLBCL is a rare tumor with an invasive biological behavior, mostly found in elderly males and easily misdiagnosed or missed in diagnosis. Histopathology plays a key role and immunohistochemical markers are of high value in the definite diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the tumor.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Testículo/patologia , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9972, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967346

RESUMO

The relationship between autophagy and tumour is well studied, but tumour cell morphological changes associated with autophagy defects are rarely reported, especially in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We collected 10 renal tumour samples with characteristic eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (ECIs) and found that the ECIs were majorly composed of sequestosome 1/P62, neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1 (NBR1), PEX14, and CATALASE1 (CAT1). Further, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that ECIs were aggregates of proteinaceous material and peroxisomes. These results confirmed that ECIs in RCCs were the products of autophagy defects. The presence of ECIs was correlated with high Fuhrman grade components of RCCs. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing confirmed that tumours with ECIs showed somatic mutations or high frequency of genetic variations in autophagy-related (ATG) genes, such as ATG7, ATG5, and ATG10. These results indicate that nucleotide changes in ATG genes are associated with autophagy defect, ECI formation, and even tumour grade in RCCs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Autofagia/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/ultraestrutura , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
J BUON ; 23(3): 795-799, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Galangin is an important flavonoid that has been reported to be of immense pharmacological importance. It has been shown to have a number of bioactivities which range from anticancer to antimicrobial. In this study the effects of Galangin were studied on the proliferation of the A498 kidney cancer cells. METHODS: The antiproliferative effects were tested by MTT assay. Apoptosis was checked by subjecting the A498 cell to DAPI and annexin V/PI double staining. The effect on the cell migration and invasion was assessed by Boyden chamber assays. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins was examined by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Galangin inhibited the proliferation of the kidney cancer A498 cells. The IC50 of Galangin against the A498 cancer cells was 15 µM. The anticancer effects of Galangin were due to induction of apoptosis in the A498 cancer cells as indicated by DAPI and annexin V/PI staining. Furthermore, Galangin could increase the expression of Bax, Cyt-c and decrease the expression of Bcl-2. Galangin could also inhibit the migration and invasion of the kidney cancer cells and also suppress the expression of some of the important proteins of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Galangin could prove a useful new molecule in the treatment of kidney carcinoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1085, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868030

RESUMO

Cyclic dinucleotides are bacterial signal transducers that bind to host intracellular protein, stimulator of interferon genes (STING) encoded by Tmem173. In this study, we demonstrate that STING triggers adaptive immune responses that control Th17 differentiation. Cyclic dinucleotides recognition enables classical dendritic cells (cDCs) that predominantly express CD103 to induce Th17 lymphocytes in an IL-6/IL-1ß-dependent manner in gut. STING expression in human lamina propria is associated with the severity of mucosal inflammation and clinical disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Mice deficient in Tmem173 fail to mount Th17 responses to cyclic dinucleotides or prevent immune evasion of enteroinvasive pathogens. In summary, STING in mucosal cDCs controls Th17 subspecification that is essential for host defenses against microbial infection in gut-associated immune system.

20.
Mod Pathol ; 31(9): 1346-1360, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713041

RESUMO

Both Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms are characterized by a variety of gene fusions involving TFE3. It has been known that tumors with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features; however, further in-depth investigations of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers are needed in order to explore more meaningful clinicopathologic correlations. A total of 22 unusual cases of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers were selected for the current study; 20 cases were further analyzed by RNA sequencing to explore their TFE3 gene fusion partners. RNA sequencing identified 17 of 20 cases (85%) with TFE3-associated gene fusions, including 4 ASPSCR1/ASPL-TFE3, 3 PRCC-TFE3, 3 SFPQ/PSF-TFE3, 1 NONO-TFE3, 4 MED15-TFE3, 1 MATR3-TFE3, and 1 FUBP1-TFE3. The results have been verified by fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The remaining 2 cases with specific pathologic features highly suggestive of MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma were identified by fusion FISH assay. We provide the detailed morphologic and immunophenotypic description of the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, which frequently demonstrate extensively cystic architecture, similar to multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, and expressed cathepsin K and melanotic biomarker Melan A. This is the first time to correlate the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma with specific clinicopathologic features. We also report the first case of the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm with MED15-TFE3 gene fusion. Additional novel TFE3 gene fusion partners, MATR3 and FUBP1, were identified. Cases with ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, and NONO-TFE3 gene fusion showed a wide variability in morphologic features, including invasive tubulopapillary pattern simulating collecting duct carcinoma, extensive calcification and ossification, and overlapping and high columnar cells with nuclear grooves mimicking tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, we respectively evaluated the ability of TFE3 immunohistochemistry, TFE3 FISH, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing to subclassify Xp11 translocation-associated cancers. In summary, our study expands the list of TFE3 gene fusion partners and the clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers, and highlights the importance of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers combining morphology, immunohistochemistry, and multiple molecular techniques.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos X , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
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