Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 35-39, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945033

RESUMO

Transgender women* in the United States are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because of multiple factors, including stigma related to gender identity, unstable housing, limited employment options, and high-risk behaviors, such as sex work, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and injection drug use, that tend to increase their vulnerability to becoming infected with HIV (1,2). In a recent meta-analysis of 88 U.S. studies conducted during 2006-2017, the mean estimated laboratory-confirmed prevalence of HIV infection among transgender women was 14.2%, and the mean self-reported prevalence estimate was 21.0% (3). The Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative calls for accelerating the implementation of evidence-based strategies in the right geographic areas targeted to the right persons to end the HIV epidemic in the United States (4). HIV partner services are effective strategies offered by public health workers to persons with a diagnosis of HIV infection (index persons) and their sex or needle-sharing partners (partners), who are notified of potential HIV exposure and offered HIV testing and related services. CDC analyzed HIV partner services data submitted by 61 health departments† during 2013-2017. Among 208,304 index persons, 1,727 (0.8%) were transgender women. Overall, 71.5% of index transgender women were interviewed for partner services, which was lower than that for all index persons combined (81.1%). Among 1,089 transgender women named as partners by index persons, 71.2% were notified of potential HIV exposure, which was lower than that for all partners combined (77.1%). Fewer than half (46.5%) of notified transgender women partners were tested for HIV, and approximately one in five (18.6%) of those who were tested received a new diagnosis of HIV infection, slightly higher than for all partners combined (17.6%). Additional efforts are needed to effectively implement partner services among transgender women and identify those whose infection with HIV is undiagnosed, provide timely prevention and care services, reduce HIV transmission, and contribute to ending the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Parceiros Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(4): 97-102, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999684

RESUMO

Identifying persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are unaware of their status and linking them to care are critical steps in achieving viral suppression and reducing the risk for transmitting HIV (1). In 2017, 43% of new diagnoses of HIV infection were among persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (blacks) (2), who represent 13% of the U.S. population (3). Fewer blacks, compared with whites, were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days of diagnosis, retained in care, or virally suppressed (4). Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) is an initiative intended to reduce new HIV infections by 90% from 2020 to 2030 (5). EHE's Phase 1 is focused on 50 jurisdictions* that accounted for >50% of new diagnoses during 2016-2017 and seven states† with disproportionate HIV prevalence in rural areas (5). The purpose of this analysis was to examine HIV testing outcomes among blacks in high prevalence EHE jurisdictions, using CDC's 2017 National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation data. Blacks accounted for 43.2% of CDC-funded tests and 49.1% of new diagnoses of HIV infection. Seventy-nine percent of blacks with newly diagnosed HIV infection were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days (below the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of 85%), 71.4% interviewed for partner services, and 81.8% referred to prevention services. To achieve the goals of EHE, HIV prevention programs should focus on locally tailored evidence-based§ testing strategies to enhance and overcome barriers for linkage to and retention in care and reduce onward HIV transmission and HIV-related disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Life Sci ; 235: 116841, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494173

RESUMO

Indanyloxyacetic acid-94 (IAA-94), an intracellular chloride channel blocker, is shown to ablate cardioprotection rendered by ischemic preconditioning (IPC), N (6)-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and cyclosporin A (CsA) in both ex-vivo and in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Thus signifying the role of the IAA-94 sensitive chloride channels in mediating cardio-protection upon IR injury. Although IAA-94 sensitive chloride currents are recorded in cardiac mitoplast, there is still a lack of understanding of the mechanism by which IAA-94 increases myocardial infarction (MI) by IR injury. Mitochondria are the key arbitrators of cell life and death pathways. Both oxidative stress and calcium overload in the mitochondria, elicit pathways resulting in the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) leading to cell death. Therefore, in this study we explored the role of IAA-94 in MI and in maintaining calcium retention capacity (CRC) of cardiac mitochondria after IR. IAA-94 inhibited the CRC of the isolated cardiac mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner as measured spectrofluorimetrically using calcium green-5 N. Interestingly, IAA-94 did not change the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further, CsA a blocker of mPTP opening could not override the effect of IAA-94. We also showed for the first time that IAA-94 perfusion after ischemic event augments MI by reducing the CRC of mitochondria. To conclude, our results demonstrate that the mechanism of IAA-94 mediated cardio-deleterious effects is via modulating the mitochondria CRC, thereby playing a role in mPTP opening. These findings highlight new pharmacological targets, which can mediate cardioprotection from IR injury.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Glicolatos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicolatos/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Ratos
4.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438578

RESUMO

BKCa channels, originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster as slowpoke (slo), are recognized for their roles in cellular and organ physiology. Pharmacological approaches implicated BKCa channels in cellular and organ protection possibly for their ability to modulate mitochondrial function. However, the direct role of BKCa channels in regulating mitochondrial structure and function is not deciphered. Here, we demonstrate that BKCa channels are present in fly mitochondria, and slo mutants show structural and functional defects in mitochondria. slo mutants display an increase in reactive oxygen species and the modulation of ROS affected their survival. We also found that the absence of BKCa channels reduced the lifespan of Drosophila, and overexpression of human BKCa channels in flies extends life span in males. Our study establishes the presence of BKCa channels in mitochondria of Drosophila and ascertains its novel physiological role in regulating mitochondrial structural and functional integrity, and lifespan.

5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(9): 939-943, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of combination antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis for infants whose HIV exposure is recognized near birth have been established, and the benefits of early ARV therapy are well known. Decisions about ARVs can be supported by the probability that the child has acquired HIV. METHODS: Using 2005-2010 data from Enhanced Perinatal Surveillance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we developed a tool for use at birth to help predict HIV acquisition of HIV-exposed infants to support ARV management. A logistic regression model, fit using a fully Bayesian approach, was used to determine maternal variables predictive of infant HIV acquisition. We created a score index from these variables, established the sensitivity and specificity of each possible score, and determined the distribution of scores among infants, with and without HIV, in our study population. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis of data from 8740 HIV-exposed infants (176 infected and 8564 uninfected) yielded 4 maternal variables in the perinatal HIV acquisition prediction model: sexually transmitted infection, substance use, last HIV viral load before delivery and ARV use. Using the regression coefficient estimates, we rescaled each possible score to make the maximum score equal to 100. For each score, sensitivity and specificity were determined; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.79. Median index scores for infants with HIV and without HIV were 43 (first quartile 27 and third quartile 60), and 12 (first quartile, 0 and thirs quartile, 29), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Decisions to begin infants on 3 ARVs-whether considered therapeutic or prophylactic-can be supported by data available on the day of birth.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(4): 81-86, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703079

RESUMO

Identifying persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are unaware of their infection status, linking them to HIV care, and reducing racial/ethnic disparities are important national HIV prevention goals (1). Blacks/African Americans (blacks)* are disproportionately affected by HIV infection in the United States. Although blacks represent 13% of the U.S. population (2), in 2017, 44% of diagnoses of HIV infection were in blacks, and the rate of new diagnoses in blacks (41.1 per 100,000 persons) was approximately eight times that of non-Hispanic whites (5.1) (3). HIV partner services are offered by health officials to persons with diagnosed HIV infection (index patients) and their sex- or needle-sharing partners, who are notified of their potential HIV exposure and offered HIV testing and related services (4). CDC analyzed 2016 data from the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system submitted by 59 health departments.† Among 49,266 index patients identified as potential candidates for partner services, 21,191 (43%) were black. The percentage of black index patients interviewed for partner services (76%) was higher than that for all index patients combined (73%). Among the 11,088 black partners named by index patients, 78% were notified of their potential HIV exposure. Fewer than half (47%) of those notified were tested for HIV infection. Among those tested, one in six (17%) received a new HIV diagnosis. The prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infection was particularly high among black partners who were gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (37%) and transgender persons (38%). Effective implementation of partner services is important to identify HIV infection, link patients to care or reengage them in care, and provide prevention services to reduce HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Curr Protoc Pharmacol ; 80(1): 11.21.1-11.21.17, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040212

RESUMO

Intracellular organelles are membranous structures central for maintaining cellular physiology and the overall health of the cell. To maintain cellular function, intracellular organelles are required to tightly regulate their ionic homeostasis. Any imbalance in ionic concentrations can disrupt energy production (mitochondria), protein degradation (lysosomes), DNA replication (nucleus), or cellular signaling (endoplasmic reticulum). Ionic homeostasis is also important for volume regulation of intracellular organelles and is maintained by cation and anion channels as well as transporters. One of the major classes of ion channels predominantly localized to intracellular membranes is chloride intracellular channel proteins (CLICs). They are non-canonical ion channels with six homologs in mammals, existing as either soluble or integral membrane protein forms, with dual functions as enzymes and channels. Provided in this overview is a brief introduction to CLICs, and a summary of recent information on their localization, biophysical properties, and physiological roles. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/fisiologia , Animais , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto , Canais de Cloreto/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Organelas
8.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 6(3): 201-208, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facile, environmental friendly synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles is of paramount importance when its biological applications are considered. OBJECTIVE: Current study reports phyto-fabrication of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Piper betel leaves as stabilizing and capping agent using co-precipitation method. RESULTS: P betel synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (PZnO) was characterized using Powder X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. PXRD pattern demonstrated hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation (100) plane confirmed by JCPDS file 36-1451. UV- Vis spectroscopy showed peak at 370 nm due to band edge of semiconductor, the PZnO. The average particle size determined by DLS measurement was 69 nm and morphologically the particles were short rod shaped and agglomerated as demonstrated by SEM images. Antibacterial activity of PZnO against dental pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidphillus was performed using well-diffusion method and antioxidant activity against 2, 2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and were compared with ZnO used in clinical dentistry (DZnO). PZnO showed higher antioxidant activity of ~70% at 200 µg/mL with consistent activity at lower aliquots. PZnO showed higher antimicrobial activity than DZnO against both tested microbes and also exhibited inhibitory effects in concentration as low as 3.25 µg/mL. Cytotoxicity study using Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell lines showed <40% cellular growth inhibition by both PZnO and DZnO, indicating their benignity towards selected cell lines. CONCLUSION: Phyto-fabricated facile PZnO nanoparticles having demonstrable antibacterial and antioxidant activity can be considered for use in clinical dentistry after further clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Piper , Extratos Vegetais , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Células 3T3 BALB , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Odontologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Zinco/química
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6910, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720608

RESUMO

Ion channels maintain numerous physiological functions and regulate signaling pathways. They are the key targets for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), acting as signaling switches between ROS and ionic homeostasis. We have carried out a paraquat (PQ) screen in Drosophila to identify ion channels regulating the ROS handling and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Our screen has revealed that α1-subunits (D-type, T-type, and cacophony) of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) handle PQ-mediated ROS stress differentially in a gender-based manner. Since ROS are also involved in determining the lifespan, we discovered that the absence of T-type and cacophony decreased the lifespan while the absence of D-type maintained a similar lifespan to that of the wild-type strain. VGCCs are also responsible for electrical signaling in cardiac cells. The cardiac function of each mutant was evaluated through optical coherence tomography (OCT), which revealed that α1-subunits of VGCCs are essential in maintaining cardiac rhythmicity and cardiac function in an age-dependent manner. Our results establish specific roles of α1-subunits of VGCCs in the functioning of the aging heart.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Sinalização do Cálcio , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Ecocardiografia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 194, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746365

RESUMO

Aims: Activation and expression of large conductance calcium and voltage-activated potassium channel (BKCa) by pharmacological agents have been implicated in cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury possibly by regulating mitochondrial function. Given the non-specific effects of pharmacological agents, it is not clear whether activation of BKCa is critical to cardioprotection. In this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanistic role of BKCa in cardioprotection from IR injury by genetically activating BKCa channels. Methods and Results: Hearts from adult (3 months old) wild-type mice (C57/BL6) and mice expressing genetically activated BKCa (Tg-BKCa R207Q, referred as Tg-BKCa) along with wild-type BKCa were subjected to 20 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion with or without ischemic preconditioning (IPC, 2 times for 2.5 min interval each). Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was recorded using Millar's Mikrotip® catheter connected to ADInstrument data acquisition system. Myocardial infarction was quantified by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Our results demonstrated that Tg-BKCa mice are protected from IR injury, and BKCa also contributes to IPC-mediated cardioprotection. Cardiac function parameters were also measured by echocardiography and no differences were observed in left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening and aortic velocities. Amplex Red® was used to assess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in isolated mitochondria by spectrofluorometry. We found that genetic activation of BKCa reduces ROS after IR stress. Adult cardiomyocytes and mitochondria from Tg-BKCa mice were isolated and labeled with Anti-BKCa antibodies. Images acquired via confocal microscopy revealed localization of cardiac BKCa in the mitochondria. Conclusions: Activation of BKCa is essential for recovery of cardiac function after IR injury and is likely a factor in IPC mediated cardioprotection. Genetic activation of BKCa reduces ROS produced by complex I and complex II/III in Tg-BKCa mice after IR, and IPC further decreases it. These results implicate BKCa-mediated cardioprotection, in part, by reducing mitochondrial ROS production. Localization of Tg-BKCa in adult cardiomyocytes of transgenic mice was similar to BKCa in wild-type mice.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8500, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819106

RESUMO

Chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) are non-classical ion channels lacking a signal sequence for membrane targeting. In eukaryotes, they are implicated in cell volume regulation, acidification, and cell cycle. CLICs resemble the omega class of Glutathione S-transferases (GST), yet differ from them in their ability to form ion channels. They are ubiquitously found in eukaryotes but no prokaryotic homolog has been characterized. We found that indanyloxyacetic acid-94 (IAA-94), a blocker of CLICs, delays the growth of Escherichia coli. In silico analysis showed that the E. coli stringent starvation protein A (SspA) shares sequence and structural homology with CLICs. Similar to CLICs, SspA lacks a signal sequence but contains an omega GST fold. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that SspA auto-inserts into lipid bilayers and forms IAA-94-sensitive ion channels. Substituting the ubiquitously conserved residue leucine 29 to alanine in the pore-forming region increased its single-channel conductance. SspA is essential for cell survival during acid-induced stress, and we found that acidic pH increases the open probability of SspA. Further, IAA-94 delayed the growth of wild-type but not sspA null mutant E. coli. Our results for the first time show that CLIC-like proteins exist in bacteria in the form of SspA, forming functional ion channels.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Cloretos/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Essenciais , Glicolatos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viabilidade Microbiana
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(24): 629-635, 2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640800

RESUMO

Identifying persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are unaware of their infection, linking them to HIV medical care, and reducing health disparities are important national goals (1). Of the 8,841 teens and young adults aged 13-24 years (collectively referred to as youths in this report) who received a diagnosis of HIV in 2014, 70% were young men who have sex with men (MSM) (2). In the same year, an estimated 52% of young MSM living with HIV were unaware of their infection compared with 15% among all persons living with HIV (3). An average of 22% of high school students who have had sexual intercourse and 33% of young adults (persons aged 18-24 years) reported ever receiving an HIV test (4). CDC recommends screening all persons aged 13-64 years, with annual rescreening for persons at high risk for HIV infection (5). Analysis of CDC-funded program data for youths submitted by 61 health departments in 2015 revealed that young MSM, who accounted for 83% of new diagnoses among all youths in non-health care facilities, received 28% of HIV tests.* The 2020 national goal is to link at least 85% of HIV-positive persons to HIV medical care within 30 days of diagnosis. In this analysis, 66% of youths who received positive test results for HIV infection were linked to care within 90 days of diagnosis. Increasing the number of youths at risk for HIV infection who are tested for HIV on a regular basis and ensuring that youths who receive positive test results for HIV are rapidly linked to and retained in appropriate medical care, including early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, are essential steps for reducing HIV infection in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Porto Rico , Estados Unidos , Ilhas Virgens Americanas , Adulto Jovem
13.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 240: 211-227, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718058

RESUMO

Mitochondrial structural and functional integrity defines the health of a cell by regulating cellular metabolism. Thus, mitochondria play an important role in both cell proliferation and cell death. Cancer cells are metabolically altered compared to normal cells for their ability to survive better and proliferate faster. Resistance to apoptosis is an important characteristic of cancer cells and given the contribution of mitochondria to apoptosis, it is imperative that mitochondria could behave differently in a tumor situation. The other feature associated with cancer cells is the Warburg effect, which engages a shift in metabolism. Although the Warburg effect often occurs in conjunction with dysfunctional mitochondria, the relationship between mitochondria, the Warburg effect, and cancer cell metabolism is not clearly decoded. Other than these changes, several mitochondrial gene mutations occur in cancer cells, mitochondrial biogenesis is affected and mitochondria see structural and functional variations. In cancer pharmacology, targeting mitochondria and mitochondria associated signaling pathways to reduce tumor proliferation is a growing field of interest. This chapter summarizes various changes in mitochondria in relevance to cancer, behavior of mitochondria during tumorigenesis, and the progress on using mitochondria as a therapeutic target for cancer.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(40): 1099-1103, 2016 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736833

RESUMO

The 2015 National HIV/AIDS Strategy provides an updated plan to address health disparities in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1,2). Hispanics/Latinos* are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. In 2014, 23% of HIV diagnoses were among Hispanics/Latinos, who represented 16% of the U.S. population (3). To examine HIV testing services, CDC analyzed 2014 data from the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation (NHM&E) system submitted by 60 CDC-funded health departments† and 151 community-based organizations. Among Hispanics/Latinos tested, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) had the highest percentage of HIV diagnoses (2%). MSM accounted for 19.8% of HIV test events conducted among Hispanics/Latinos and 63.8% of Hispanics/Latinos who received an HIV diagnosis in non-health care settings.§ Approximately 60% of Hispanics/Latinos who received an HIV diagnosis were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days; this percentage was lower in the South than in other U.S. Census regions. HIV prevention programs that are focused on expanding routine HIV screening and targeting and improving linkage to medical care and other services (e.g., partner services) for Hispanics/Latinos can help identify undiagnosed HIV cases and reduce HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160676, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27505063

RESUMO

Non-thermal plasma is increasingly being recognized for a wide range of medical and biological applications. However, the effect of non-thermal plasma on physiological functions is not well characterized in in vivo model systems. Here we use a genetically amenable, widely used model system, Drosophila melanogaster, to develop an in vivo system, and investigate the role of non-thermal plasma in blood cell differentiation. Although the blood system in Drosophila is primitive, it is an efficient system with three types of hemocytes, functioning during different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Blood cell differentiation in Drosophila plays an essential role in tissue modeling during embryogenesis, morphogenesis and also in innate immunity. In this study, we optimized distance and frequency for a direct non-thermal plasma application, and standardized doses to treat larvae and adult flies so that there is no effect on the viability, fertility or locomotion of the organism. We discovered that at optimal distance, time and frequency, application of plasma induced blood cell differentiation in the Drosophila larval lymph gland. We articulate that the augmented differentiation could be due to an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon non-thermal plasma application. Our studies open avenues to use Drosophila as a model system in plasma medicine to study various genetic disorders and biological processes where non-thermal plasma has a possible therapeutic application.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/citologia , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Data Brief ; 7: 1038-44, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27104215

RESUMO

Chloride intracellular channel (CLICs) proteins show 60-70% sequence identity to each other, and exclusively localize to the intracellular organelle membranes and cytosol. In support of our recent publication, "Molecular identity of cardiac mitochondrial chloride intracellular channel proteins" (Ponnalagu et al., 2016) [1], it was important to characterize the specificity of different CLIC paralogs/ortholog (CLIC1, CLIC4, CLIC5 and DmCLIC) antibodies used to decipher their localization in cardiac cells. In addition, localization of CLICs in the other organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cardiomyocytes was established. This article also provides data on the different primers used to show the relative abundance of CLIC paralogs in cardiac tissue and the specificity of the various CLIC antibodies used. We demonstrate that the predominant CLICs in the heart, namely CLIC1, CLIC4 and CLIC5, show differential distribution in endoplasmic reticulum. CLIC1 and CLIC4 both show co-localization to the endoplasmic reticulum whereas CLIC5 does not.

17.
Mitochondrion ; 27: 6-14, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26777142

RESUMO

Emerging evidences demonstrate significance of chloride channels in cardiac function and cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Unlike mitochondrial potassium channels sensitive to calcium (BKCa) and ATP (KATP), molecular identity of majority of cardiac mitochondrial chloride channels located at the inner membrane is not known. In this study, we report the presence of unique dimorphic chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) proteins namely CLIC1, CLIC4 and CLIC5 as abundant CLICs in the rodent heart. Further, CLIC4, CLIC5, and an ortholog present in Drosophila (DmCLIC) localize to adult cardiac mitochondria. We found that CLIC4 is enriched in the outer mitochondrial membrane, whereas CLIC5 is present in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Also, CLIC5 plays a direct role in regulating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our study highlights that CLIC5 is localized to the cardiac mitochondria and directly modulates mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/enzimologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(7): 3546-62, 2015 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25779050

RESUMO

Identification of components essential to chromosome structure and behaviour remains a vibrant area of study. We have previously shown that invadolysin is essential in Drosophila, with roles in cell division and cell migration. Mitotic chromosomes are hypercondensed in length, but display an aberrant fuzzy appearance. We additionally demonstrated that in human cells, invadolysin is localized on the surface of lipid droplets, organelles that store not only triglycerides and sterols but also free histones H2A, H2Av and H2B. Is there a link between the storage of histones in lipid droplets and the aberrantly structured chromosomes of invadolysin mutants? We have identified a genetic interaction between invadolysin and nonstop, the de-ubiquitinating protease component of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) chromatin-remodelling complex. invadolysin and nonstop mutants exhibit phenotypic similarities in terms of chromosome structure in both diploid and polyploid cells. Furthermore, IX-14(1)/not(1) transheterozygous animals accumulate mono-ubiquitinated histone H2B (ubH2B) and histone H3 tri-methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Whole mount immunostaining of IX-14(1)/not(1) transheterozygous salivary glands revealed that ubH2B accumulates surprisingly in the cytoplasm, rather than the nucleus. Over-expression of the Bre1 ubiquitin ligase phenocopies the effects of mutating either the invadolysin or nonstop genes. Intriguingly, nonstop and mutants of other SAGA subunits (gcn5, ada2b and sgf11) all suppress an invadolysin-induced rough eye phenotype. We conclude that the abnormal chromosome phenotype of invadolysin mutants is likely the result of disrupting the histone modification cycle, as accumulation of ubH2B and H3K4me3 is observed. We further suggest that the mislocalization of ubH2B to the cytoplasm has additional consequences on downstream components essential for chromosome behaviour. We therefore propose that invadolysin plays a crucial role in chromosome organization via its interaction with the SAGA complex.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Metaloendopeptidases/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Teste de Complementação Genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética
19.
Development ; 140(23): 4647-56, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24255094

RESUMO

Stem cells and their progenitors are maintained within a microenvironment, termed the niche, through local cell-cell communication. Systemic signals originating outside the niche also affect stem cell and progenitor behavior. This review summarizes studies that pertain to nutritional effects on stem and progenitor cell maintenance and proliferation in Drosophila. Multiple tissue types are discussed that utilize the insulin-related signaling pathway to convey nutritional information either directly to these progenitors or via other cell types within the niche. The concept of systemic control of these cell types is not limited to Drosophila and may be functional in vertebrate systems, including mammals.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA