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1.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 131-138, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduced renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at risk for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the long-term effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on renal outcomes in an exploratory analysis of the REWIND trial of the effect of dulaglutide on cardiovascular disease. METHODS: REWIND was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo and followed up at least every 6 months for outcomes. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated from urine and serum values measured in local laboratories every 12 months. The primary outcome (first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes), secondary outcomes (including a composite microvascular outcome), and safety outcomes of this trial have been reported elsewhere. In this exploratory analysis, we investigate the renal component of the composite microvascular outcome, defined as the first occurrence of new macroalbuminuria (UACR >33·9 mg/mmol), a sustained decline in eGFR of 30% or more from baseline, or chronic renal replacement therapy. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). At baseline, 791 (7·9%) had macroalbuminuria and mean eGFR was 76·9 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (SD 22·7). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1-5·9) comprising 51 820 person-years, the renal outcome developed in 848 (17·1%) participants at an incidence rate of 3·5 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 970 (19·6%) participants at an incidence rate of 4·1 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·85, 95% CI 0·77-0·93; p=0·0004). The clearest effect was for new macroalbuminuria (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·68-0·87; p<0·0001), with HRs of 0·89 (0·78-1·01; p=0·066) for sustained decline in eGFR of 30% or more and 0·75 (0·39-1·44; p=0·39) for chronic renal replacement therapy. INTERPRETATION: Long-term use of dulaglutide was associated with reduced composite renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Creatinina/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 121-130, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of glycaemic control. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with stratification by site. All investigators and participants were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for incident cardiovascular and other serious clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes (including unknown causes), which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants (mean age 66·2 years [SD 6·5], median HbA1c 7·2% [IQR 6·6-8·1], 4589 [46·3%] women) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1-5·9), the primary composite outcome occurred in 594 (12·0%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·4 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 663 (13·4%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99; p=0·026). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (536 [10·8%] in the dulaglutide group vs 592 [12·0%] in the placebo group; HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·80-1·01; p=0·067). 2347 (47·4%) participants assigned to dulaglutide reported a gastrointestinal adverse event during follow-up compared with 1687 (34·1%) participants assigned to placebo (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Dulaglutide could be considered for the management of glycaemic control in middle-aged and older people with type 2 diabetes with either previous cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 85, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single centre studies support No Touch (NT) saphenous vein graft (SVG) harvesting technique. The primary objective of the SUPERIOR SVG study was to determine whether NT versus conventional (CON) SVG harvesting was associated with improved SVG patency 1 year after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). METHODS: Adults undergoing isolated CABG with at least 1 SVG were eligible. CT angiography was performed 1-year post CABG. Leg adverse events were assessed with a questionnaire. A systematic review was performed for published NT graft patency studies and results aggregated including the SUPERIOR study results. RESULTS: Two hundred and-fifty patients were randomized across 12-centres (NT 127 versus CON 123 patients). The primary outcome (study SVG occlusion or cardiovascular (CV) death) was not significantly different in NT versus CON (NT: 7/127 (5.5%), CON 13/123 (10.6%), p = 0.15). Similarly, the proportion of study SVGs with significant stenosis or total occlusion was not significantly different between groups (NT: 8/102 (7.8%), CON: 16/107 (15.0%), p = 0.11). Vein harvest site infection was more common in the NT patients 1 month postoperatively (23.3% vs 9.5%, p < 0.01). Including this study's results, in a meta-analysis, NT was associated with a significant reduction in SVG occlusion, Odds Ratio 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval 0.29-0.82, p = 0.007 in 3 randomized and 1 observational study at 1 year postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The NT technique was not associated with improved patency of SVGs at 1-year following CABG while early vein harvest infection was increased. The aggregated data is supportive of an important reduction of SVG occlusion at 1 year with NT harvesting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01047449 .


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Veia Safena/transplante , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
4.
J Pain ; 20(8): 980-993, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844507

RESUMO

Persistent postsurgical pain is defined as pain localized to the area of surgery of a duration of ≥2 months and is, unfortunately, a common complication after breast cancer surgery. Although there is insufficient evidence to support any preventative strategy, prior literature suggests the possible efficacy of intravenous lidocaine and perioperative pregabalin in preventing persistent pain after surgery. To determine feasibility of conducting a larger definitive trial, we conducted a multicenter 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 100 female patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Patients were randomized to receive an intraoperative lidocaine infusion (1.5 mg/kg bolus followed by 2 mg/kg/h) or placebo and perioperative pregabalin (300 mg preoperatively, 75 mg twice daily for 9 days) or placebo. All feasibility criteria were surpassed; recruitment of 100 patients was accomplished within 42 weeks, with a follow-up rate of 100% and study drug compliance of ≥80%. At 3 months, 53% of patients reported persistent neuropathic pain. Although there was no interaction between lidocaine and pregabalin, lidocaine decreased the development of persistent neuropathic pain (43.1% vs 63.3%; relative risk = .68; 95% confidence interval = .47-1.0). Pregabalin did not reduce persistent pain (60% vs 46%; relative risk = 1.3; 95% confidence interval = .90-1.90) and neither pregabalin nor lidocaine impacted acute postoperative pain, opioid consumption, pain interference, or quality of life. Our pilot trial successfully demonstrated feasibility and provided promising data for conducting further trials of intraoperative lidocaine infusions during breast cancer surgeries. Clinical trial number: NCT02240199 PERSPECTIVE: This article reports the findings of a pilot randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effects of perioperative pregabalin and intraoperative lidocaine infusions in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. This trial demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a larger trial and provided promising data that these interventions may decrease the development of persistent pain.

5.
J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr ; 32(2): 286-295, Fev. 2019. tabela, gráfico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1023938

RESUMO

Serial echocardiographic studies in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are scarce. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether therapy with benznidazole modifies the progression of cardiac impairment and to identify baseline echocardiographic parameters related to prognosis. METHODS: A prospective sub study was conducted in 1,508 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy randomized to benznidazole or placebo, who underwent two-dimensional echocardiography at enrollment, 2 years, and final follow-up (5.4 years). Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV wall motion score index (WMSI), indexed left atrial volume, and chamber dimensions were collected and correlated to all-cause death and a composite hard outcome using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, most patients had normal chamber dimensions, and 70.5% had preserved LV ejection fractions. During follow-up, all chamber dimensions increased similarly in both treatment arms. LV ejection fraction was comparably reduced (55.7 ± 12.7% to 52.1 ± 14.6% vs 56.3 ± 12.7% to 52.8 ± 14.1%) and LV WMSI similarly increased (1.31 ± 0.41 to 1.49 ± 0.03 and 1.27 ± 0.38 to 1.51 ± 0.03) for the benznidazole and placebo groups, respectively (P > .05). A higher baseline LV WMSI was identified in subjects who died compared with those alive at final echocardiography (1.76 ± 0.517 vs 1.271 ± 0.393, P < .0001). There was a significant (P < .0001) graded increase in the risk for the composite outcome with worsening LV WMSI (hazard ratios, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.69-3.06] and 6.42 [95% CI, 4.94-8.33]) and also of death (hazard ratios, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.62-3.71] and 8.99 [95% CI, 6.3-12.82]) for 1 < LV WMSI < 1.5 and LV WMSI > 1.5, respectively. Both LV WMSI and indexed left atrial volume remained independent predictors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Trypanocidal treatment had no effect on echocardiographic progression of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy over 5.4 years. Despite normal global LV systolic function, regional wall motion abnormalities and indexed left atrial volume identified patients at higher risk for hard adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Chagas cardiomyopathy; Echocardiography; Prognosis; Trypanocidal therapy. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Prognóstico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica
6.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(2): 286-295.e3, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serial echocardiographic studies in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are scarce. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether therapy with benznidazole modifies the progression of cardiac impairment and to identify baseline echocardiographic parameters related to prognosis. METHODS: A prospective substudy was conducted in 1,508 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy randomized to benznidazole or placebo, who underwent two-dimensional echocardiography at enrollment, 2 years, and final follow-up (5.4 years). Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV wall motion score index (WMSI), indexed left atrial volume, and chamber dimensions were collected and correlated to all-cause death and a composite hard outcome using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, most patients had normal chamber dimensions, and 70.5% had preserved LV ejection fractions. During follow-up, all chamber dimensions increased similarly in both treatment arms. LV ejection fraction was comparably reduced (55.7 ± 12.7% to 52.1 ± 14.6% vs 56.3 ± 12.7% to 52.8 ± 14.1%) and LV WMSI similarly increased (1.31 ± 0.41 to 1.49 ± 0.03 and 1.27 ± 0.38 to 1.51 ± 0.03) for the benznidazole and placebo groups, respectively (P > .05). A higher baseline LV WMSI was identified in subjects who died compared with those alive at final echocardiography (1.76 ± 0.517 vs 1.271 ± 0.393, P < .0001). There was a significant (P < .0001) graded increase in the risk for the composite outcome with worsening LV WMSI (hazard ratios, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.69-3.06] and 6.42 [95% CI, 4.94-8.33]) and also of death (hazard ratios, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.62-3.71] and 8.99 [95% CI, 6.3-12.82]) for 1 < LV WMSI < 1.5 and LV WMSI > 1.5, respectively. Both LV WMSI and indexed left atrial volume remained independent predictors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Trypanocidal treatment had no effect on echocardiographic progression of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy over 5.4 years. Despite normal global LV systolic function, regional wall motion abnormalities and indexed left atrial volume identified patients at higher risk for hard adverse clinical outcomes.

7.
Lancet ; 391(10137): 2325-2334, 2018 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and deaths, which anticoagulation therapy could prevent. Dabigatran prevents perioperative venous thromboembolism, but whether this drug can prevent a broader range of vascular complications in patients with MINS is unknown. The MANAGE trial assessed the potential of dabigatran to prevent major vascular complications among such patients. METHODS: In this international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients from 84 hospitals in 19 countries. Eligible patients were aged at least 45 years, had undergone non-cardiac surgery, and were within 35 days of MINS. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive dabigatran 110 mg orally twice daily or matched placebo for a maximum of 2 years or until termination of the trial and, using a partial 2-by-2 factorial design, patients not taking a proton-pump inhibitor were also randomly assigned (1:1) to omeprazole 20 mg once daily, for which results will be reported elsewhere, or matched placebo to measure its effect on major upper gastrointestinal complications. Research personnel randomised patients through a central 24 h computerised randomisation system using block randomisation, stratified by centre. Patients, health-care providers, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary efficacy outcome was the occurrence of a major vascular complication, a composite of vascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-haemorrhagic stroke, peripheral arterial thrombosis, amputation, and symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The primary safety outcome was a composite of life-threatening, major, and critical organ bleeding. Analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01661101. FINDINGS: Between Jan 10, 2013, and July 17, 2017, we randomly assigned 1754 patients to receive dabigatran (n=877) or placebo (n=877); 556 patients were also randomised in the omeprazole partial factorial component. Study drug was permanently discontinued in 401 (46%) of 877 patients allocated to dabigatran and 380 (43%) of 877 patients allocated to placebo. The composite primary efficacy outcome occurred in fewer patients randomised to dabigatran than placebo (97 [11%] of 877 patients assigned to dabigatran vs 133 [15%] of 877 patients assigned to placebo; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·55-0·93; p=0·0115). The primary safety composite outcome occurred in 29 patients (3%) randomised to dabigatran and 31 patients (4%) randomised to placebo (HR 0·92, 95% CI 0·55-1·53; p=0·76). INTERPRETATION: Among patients who had MINS, dabigatran 110 mg twice daily lowered the risk of major vascular complications, with no significant increase in major bleeding. Patients with MINS have a poor prognosis; dabigatran 110 mg twice daily has the potential to help many of the 8 million adults globally who have MINS to reduce their risk of a major vascular complication [corrected]. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim and Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Hemorragia/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/prevenção & controle , Efeito Placebo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/efeitos dos fármacos , Troponina/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
8.
Anesth Analg ; 126(4): 1150-1157, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative ß-blockade reduces the incidence of myocardial infarction but increases that of death, stroke, and hypotension. The elderly may experience few benefits but more harms associated with ß-blockade due to a normal effect of aging, that of a reduced resting heart rate. The tested hypothesis was that the effect of perioperative ß-blockade is more significant with increasing age. METHODS: To determine whether the effect of perioperative ß-blockade on the primary composite event, clinically significant hypotension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death varies with age, we interrogated data from the perioperative ischemia evaluation (POISE) study. The POISE study randomly assigned 8351 patients, aged ≥45 years, in 23 countries, undergoing major noncardiac surgery to either 200 mg metoprolol CR daily or placebo for 30 days. Odds ratios or hazard ratios for time to events, when available, for each of the adverse effects were measured according to decile of age, and interaction term between age and treatment was calculated. No adjustment was made for multiple outcomes. RESULTS: Age was associated with higher incidences of the major outcomes of clinically significant hypotension, myocardial infarction, and death. Age was associated with a minimal reduction in resting heart rate from 84.2 (standard error, 0.63; ages 45-54 years) to 80.9 (standard error, 0.70; ages >85 years; P < .0001). We found no evidence of any interaction between age and study group regarding any of the major outcomes, although the limited sample size does not exclude any but large interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of perioperative ß-blockade on the major outcomes studied did not vary with age. Resting heart rate decreases slightly with age. Our data do not support a recommendation for the use of perioperative ß-blockade in any age subgroup to achieve benefits but avoid harms. Therefore, current recommendations against the use of ß-blockers in high-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery apply across all age groups.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Metoprolol/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Metoprolol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Anesth Analg ; 125(1): 162-169, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the frequency of new clinically important atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery and its increased association with the risk of stroke at 30 days, there are limited data informing their prediction, association with outcomes, and management. METHODS: We used the data from the PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation trial to determine, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the association of new clinically important AF with 30-day outcomes, and to assess management of these patients. We also aimed to derive a clinical prediction rule for new clinically important AF in this population. We defined new clinically important AF as new AF that resulted in symptoms or required treatment. We recorded an electrocardiogram 6 to 12 hours postoperatively and on the 1st, 2nd, and 30th days after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 211 (2.5% [8351 patients]; 95% confidence interval, 2.2%-2.9%) patients developed new clinically important AF within 30 days of randomization (8140 did not develop new AF). AF was independently associated with an increased length of hospital stay by 6.0 days (95% confidence interval, 3.5-8.5 days) and vascular complications (eg, stroke or congestive heart failure). The usage of an oral anticoagulant at the time of hospital discharge among patients with new AF and a CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 was 6.9%, 10.2%, 23.0%, 9.4%, and 33.3%, respectively. Two independent predictors of patients developing new clinically important AF were identified (ie, age and surgery). The prediction rule included the following factors and assigned weights: age ≥85 years (4 points), age 75 to 84 years (3 points), age 65 to 74 years (2 points), intrathoracic surgery (3 points), major vascular surgery (2 points), and intra-abdominal surgery (1 point). The incidence of new AF based on scores of 0 to 1, 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6 was 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.1%, and 5.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Age and surgery are independent predictors of new clinically important AF in the perioperative setting. A minority of patients developing new clinically important AF with high CHADS2 scores are discharged on an oral anticoagulant. There is a need to develop effective and safe interventions to prevent this outcome and to optimize the management of this event when it occurs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Abdome/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
10.
Lancet ; 388(10046): 761-75, 2016 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. METHODS: We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated, with 99% confidence intervals. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher (OR 2·98, 99% CI 2·72-3·28; PAR 47·9%, 99% CI 45·1-50·6), regular physical activity (0·60, 0·52-0·70; 35·8%, 27·7-44·7), apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio (1·84, 1·65-2·06 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·8%, 22·2-31·9 for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), diet (0·60, 0·53-0·67 for highest vs lowest tertile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index [mAHEI]; 23·2%, 18·2-28·9 for lowest two tertiles vs highest tertile of mAHEI), waist-to-hip ratio (1·44, 1·27-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·6%, 13·3-25·3 for top two tertiles vs lowest), psychosocial factors (2·20, 1·78-2·72; 17·4%, 13·1-22·6), current smoking (1·67, 1·49-1·87; 12·4%, 10·2-14·9), cardiac causes (3·17, 2·68-3·75; 9·1%, 8·0-10·2), alcohol consumption (2·09, 1·64-2·67 for high or heavy episodic intake vs never or former drinker; 5·8%, 3·4-9·7 for current alcohol drinker vs never or former drinker), and diabetes mellitus (1·16, 1·05-1·30; 3·9%, 1·9-7·6) were associated with all stroke. Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 90·7% of the PAR for all stroke worldwide (91·5% for ischaemic stroke, 87·1% for intracerebral haemorrhage), and were consistent across regions (ranging from 82·7% in Africa to 97·4% in southeast Asia), sex (90·6% in men and in women), and age groups (92·2% in patients aged ≤55 years, 90·0% in patients aged >55 years). We observed regional variations in the importance of individual risk factors, which were related to variations in the magnitude of ORs (rather than direction, which we observed for diet) and differences in prevalence of risk factors among regions. Hypertension was more associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke, whereas current smoking, diabetes, apolipoproteins, and cardiac causes were more associated with ischaemic stroke (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Ten potentially modifiable risk factors are collectively associated with about 90% of the PAR of stroke in each major region of the world, among ethnic groups, in men and women, and in all ages. However, we found important regional variations in the relative importance of most individual risk factors for stroke, which could contribute to worldwide variations in frequency and case-mix of stroke. Our findings support developing both global and region-specific programmes to prevent stroke. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Stroke Network, Health Research Board Ireland, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, The Health & Medical Care Committee of the Regional Executive Board, Region Västra Götaland (Sweden), AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada), Pfizer (Canada), MSD, Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland, and The Stroke Association, with support from The UK Stroke Research Network.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Atividade Motora , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 32(11): 1332-1339, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27062239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers have been shown to improve risk stratification in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS); however, they have not been integrated into risk prediction tools. METHODS: C-reactive-protein, N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and haemoglobin A1C were measured in 6447 patients with NSTEACS who were enrolled in the Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events trial. A risk score to predict cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 1 year was developed by incorporating biomarkers that were independently predictive of events with traditional variables, electrocardiogram, and troponin-T. Model discrimination was evaluated using c-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement, and net reclassification index, and validated using bootstrap methods. RESULTS: During 1 year of follow-up, 686 patients experienced a CV event. Each biomarker predicted CV death, MI, or stroke; however, only NT-proBNP and haemoglobin A1C improved model discrimination, increasing the c-statistic (0.66-0.71), integrated discrimination improvement to 3.4%, and net reclassification index to 17.5% (P < 0.0001 for all measures). A risk score ranging from 0 to 20 points including variables for age, prior MI/stroke, sex, ST-segment deviation, troponin-T, NT-proBNP, and haemoglobin A1C classified individuals into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups with rates of CV death, MI, stroke of 3.7%, 9.1%, 17.8%, respectively. The absolute benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy vs aspirin alone was 1.0%, 4.7%, and 3.0% in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of NT-proBNP and haemoglobin A1C to 5 standard variables creates a 7-variable risk score that improves prediction of CV events at 1 year and aids in risk-based selection of patients with NSTEACS for dual antiplatelet therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Troponina T/sangue
12.
CMAJ ; 188(5): 329-336, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26668200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning is a simple therapy that may reduce cardiac and kidney injury. We undertook a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of this therapy on markers of heart and kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients at high risk of death within 30 days after cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to undergo remote ischemic preconditioning or a sham procedure after induction of anesthesia. The preconditioning therapy was three 5-minute cycles of thigh ischemia, with 5 minutes of reperfusion between cycles. The sham procedure was identical except that ischemia was not induced. The primary outcome was peak creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) within 24 hours after surgery (expressed as multiples of the upper limit of normal, with log transformation). The secondary outcome was change in creatinine level within 4 days after surgery (expressed as log-transformed micromoles per litre). Patient-important outcomes were assessed up to 6 months after randomization. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 128 patients to remote ischemic preconditioning and 130 to the sham therapy. There were no significant differences in postoperative CK-MB (absolute mean difference 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.07 to 0.36) or creatinine (absolute mean difference 0.06, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.23). Other outcomes did not differ significantly for remote ischemic preconditioning relative to the sham therapy: for myocardial infarction, relative risk (RR) 1.35 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.17); for acute kidney injury, RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.78); for stroke, RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.34 to 3.07); and for death, RR 1.47 (95% CI 0.65 to 3.31). INTERPRETATION: Remote ischemic precnditioning did not reduce myocardial or kidney injury during cardiac surgery. This type of therapy is unlikely to substantially improve patient-important outcomes in cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01071265.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet ; 388(1046): 761-775, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34758

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifi able risk factors for stroke in diff erent regions of the world,and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. Methods We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute fi rst stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke,and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks(PARs) were calculated, with 99% confi dence intervals...(AU)


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Controle , Risco
14.
Am Heart J ; 170(5): 903-13, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26542498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of guideline-recommended cardiac medications post-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is common and associated with increased mortality. DERLA-STEMI tested an intervention to improve long-term adherence to cardiac medications post-STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between September 2011 and December 2012, STEMI patients from one health region in Ontario, who underwent an angiogram during their admission and survived to discharge, were cluster randomized (by primary care provider) to intervention or control. The intervention was an automated system of personalized, educational-reminders sent to the patient and their family physician, urging long-term use of secondary-prevention medications. Interventions were mailed at 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 months after discharge. A total of 852 eligible participants were randomized to intervention (n = 424, 287 clusters) and control (n = 428, 295 clusters); 87% completed a 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome, defined as the proportion of participants taking (persistence) all 4-cardiovascular medication classes (acetylsalicylic acid, angiotensin blockers, statin, and ß-blocker) at 12 months, was 58.4% (intervention) and 58.9% (control; adjusted odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.77-1.36). Medication adherence, as assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Score, was statistically significantly better in the intervention group as compared with control (65.3% vs 58.0%, adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.01-1.81). CONCLUSION: The results suggest suboptimal use of 4 of 4 cardiac medication classes at 12 months. There was no significant difference compared with usual care in the persistence to guideline-recommended medications post-STEMI when participants (and their family physicians) receive repeated postal reminders.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Eletrocardiografia , Adesão à Medicação , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo
15.
N Engl J Med ; 373(14): 1295-306, 2015 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26323937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of trypanocidal therapy in patients with established Chagas' cardiomyopathy is unproven. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized study involving 2854 patients with Chagas' cardiomyopathy who received benznidazole or placebo for up to 80 days and were followed for a mean of 5.4 years. The primary outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first event of any of the components of the composite outcome of death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, insertion of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, cardiac transplantation, new heart failure, stroke, or other thromboembolic event. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 394 patients (27.5%) in the benznidazole group and in 414 (29.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.07; P=0.31). At baseline, a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay was performed on blood samples obtained from 1896 patients; 60.5% had positive results for Trypanosoma cruzi on PCR. The rates of conversion to negative PCR results (PCR conversion) were 66.2% in the benznidazole group and 33.5% in the placebo group at the end of treatment, 55.4% and 35.3%, respectively, at 2 years, and 46.7% and 33.1%, respectively, at 5 years or more (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The effect of treatment on PCR conversion varied according to geographic region: in Brazil, the odds ratio for PCR conversion was 3.03 (95% CI, 2.12 to 4.34) at 2 years and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.33 to 2.63) at 5 or more years; in Colombia and El Salvador, the odds ratio was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.98) at 2 years and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.45) at 5 or more years; and in Argentina and Bolivia, the odds ratio was 2.63 (95% CI, 1.89 to 3.66) at 2 years and 2.79 (95% CI, 1.99 to 3.92) at 5 or more years (P<0.001 for interaction). However, the rates of PCR conversion did not correspond to effects on clinical outcome (P=0.16 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Trypanocidal therapy with benznidazole in patients with established Chagas' cardiomyopathy significantly reduced serum parasite detection but did not significantly reduce cardiac clinical deterioration through 5 years of follow-up. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00123916; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN13967269.).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Carga Parasitária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Falha de Tratamento , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
16.
CMAJ Open ; 3(1): E1-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25844361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although considered the evidence-based best therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), many patients do not receive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of health care resource distribution and constraints. This study describes the clinical management and outcomes of all patients identified with STEMI within a region, including those who did not receive primary PCI. METHODS: This study used a prospective cohort design. Patients presenting with STEMI to PCI- and non-PCI-capable hospitals in one integrated health region in Ontario were included in the study. The primary objective was to examine use of reperfusion strategies and timeliness of care. Secondary objectives included determining (through regression models) which variables were associated with mortality within 90 days, and describing patient uptake of risk-reducing therapies and activities post-STEMI. RESULTS: Between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2013, data were collected on 2247 consecutive patients presenting with STEMI. Patients presenting to the PCI-capable hospital were more likely to receive primary PCI (82.5% v. 65.2%, p < 0.001) and be treated within optimal treatment times. However, there was no appreciable difference in mortality at 90 days post-STEMI between patients presenting to PCI- and non-PCI-capable hospitals (7.8% v. 7.5%, p = 0.82), even after adjustment for acuity on presentation. Despite recognized risk factors, many patients were not taking evidence-based medications for risk factor modification before STEMI. INTERPRETATION: A systematic approach to regional STEMI care focusing on timely access to the best available therapies, rather than the type of reperfusion provided alone, can yield favourable outcomes.

17.
Can J Cardiol ; 31(3): 314-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25746022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early invasive intervention is associated with shorter length of stay (LOS) and similar outcomes in a delayed strategy in lower-risk patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS), but is superior in higher-risk patients. However, early invasive intervention might be constrained by the need to mobilize the on-call team on weekends. We evaluated costs associated with an early vs delayed invasive intervention strategy, including patients who present on weekends. METHODS: Health care utilization was extracted from the Timing of Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndromes (TIMACS) trial for Canadian patients from case report forms. Only direct costs were considered and only hospitalization events were included. Canadian unit costs were applied to health care resources consumed for all patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS: Early invasive intervention reduced LOS costs by $2808 (95% confidence interval [CI], $4,629-$987). Total costs per Canadian patient for early invasive intervention were $16,579 (95% CI, $14,949-$18,209) compared with $19,517 (95% CI, $17,897-$21,136) for the delayed invasive approach. This resulted in a savings of $2938 (95% CI, $5236-$640). Findings were confirmed using bootstrap simulation. Sensitivity analyses confirmed savings regardless of proportion of cases done on weekends. All subgroup costs favoured early intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Early invasive strategy was cost-saving, even on weekends, for Canadian NSTEACS patients because of significant LOS savings. Because many high-risk NSTEACS patients receive delayed intervention because of weekend catheterization laboratory status, these findings support opening catheterization laboratories on weekends to facilitate the use of early invasive intervention.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/economia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/economia , Tratamento de Emergência/economia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/economia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Canadá , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Med Econ ; 17(6): 415-22, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24702256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Timing of Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndromes (TIMACS) trial demonstrated that early invasive intervention (within 24 hours) was similar to a delayed approach (after 36 hours) overall but improved outcomes were seen in patients at high risk. However, the cost implications of an early versus delayed invasive strategy are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A third-party perspective of direct cost was chosen and United States Medicare costs were calculated using average diagnosis related grouping (DRG) units. Direct medical costs included those of the index hospitalization (including clinical, procedural and hospital stay costs) as well as major adverse cardiac events during 6 months of follow-up. Sensitivity and sub-group analyses were performed. The average total cost per patient in the early intervention group was lower compared with the delayed intervention group (-$1170; 95% CI -$2542 to $202). From the bootstrap analysis (5000 replications), the early invasive approach was associated with both lower costs and better clinical outcomes regarding death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke in 95.1% of the cases (dominant strategy). In high-risk patients (GRACE score ≥141), the net reduction in cost was greatest (-$3720; 95% CI -$6270 to -$1170). Bootstrap analysis revealed 99.8% of cases were associated with both lower costs and better clinical outcomes (death/MI/stroke). LIMITATIONS: We were unable to evaluate the effect of community care and investigations without hospitalization (office visits, non-invasive testing, etc). Medication costs were not captured. Indirect costs such as loss of productivity and family care were not included. CONCLUSIONS: An early invasive management strategy is as effective as a delayed approach and is likely to be less costly in most patients with acute coronary syndromes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/economia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e55815, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23418462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids), health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking) and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio) were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia), accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30) and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001) and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01) and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01). Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1) was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure) was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides) was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia) was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005). LDL-C was a bridging variable between the lipid factors and glycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health, health behaviours and placenta to fetal weight ratio are associated with newborn cardiometabolic traits over and above gestational age. Future investigations are needed to determine if these factors remain important determinants of cardiometabolic health throughout childhood.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Ann Intern Med ; 154(8): 523-8, 2011 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21502650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Each year, millions of patients worldwide have a perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) after noncardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics and short-term outcome of perioperative MI. DESIGN: Cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00182039) SETTING: 190 centers in 23 countries. PATIENTS: 8351 patients included in the POISE (PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation) trial. MEASUREMENTS: Four cardiac biomarker or enzyme assays were measured within 3 days of surgery. The definition of perioperative MI included either autopsy findings of acute MI or an elevated level of a cardiac biomarker or enzyme and at least 1 of the following defining features: ischemic symptoms, development of pathologic Q waves, ischemic changes on electrocardiography, coronary artery intervention, or cardiac imaging evidence of MI. RESULTS: Within 30 days of random assignment, 415 patients (5.0%) had a perioperative MI. Most MIs (74.1%) occurred within 48 hours of surgery; 65.3% of patients did not experience ischemic symptoms. The 30-day mortality rate was 11.6% (48 of 415 patients) among patients who had a perioperative MI and 2.2% (178 of 7936 patients) among those who did not (P < 0.001). Among patients with a perioperative MI, mortality rates were elevated and similar between those with (9.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 4.76 [95% CI, 2.68 to 8.43]) and without (12.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 4.00 [CI, 2.65 to 6.06]) ischemic symptoms. LIMITATION: Cardiac markers were measured only until day 3 after surgery, and additional asymptomatic MIs may have been missed. CONCLUSION: Most patients with a perioperative MI will not experience ischemic symptoms. Data suggest that routine monitoring of troponin levels in at-risk patients is needed after surgery to detect most MIs, which have an equally poor prognosis regardless of whether they are symptomatic or asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Período Perioperatório , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Troponina/sangue
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