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1.
Trends Plant Sci ; 27(5): 415-417, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090818

RESUMO

Plants can acquire increased freezing tolerance through cold-acclimation involving the ICE1-CBF-COR pathway. Recently, Lee et al. investigated a potential link between the functional activation of CBF and cellular redox state. We propose that redox-mediated CBF activation could be a hub of low temperature as well as light signaling in the cold-acclimation process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
2.
J Appl Genet ; 63(1): 73-86, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561842

RESUMO

Triticale is a cereal of high economic importance; however, along with the increase in the area of this cereal, it is more often infected by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis, which causes powdery mildew. The rapid development of molecular biology techniques, in particular methods based on molecular markers may be an important tool used in modern plant breeding. Development of genetic maps, location of the QTLs defining the region of the genome associated with resistance and selection of markers linked to particular trait can be used to select resistant genotypes as well as to pyramidize several resistance genes in one variety. In this paper, we present a new, high-density genetic map of triticale doubled haploids (DH) population "Grenado" × "Zorro" composed of DArT, silicoDArT, and SNP markers. Composite interval mapping method was used to detect eight QTL regions associated with the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and 15 regions with the average value of powdery mildew infection (avPM) based on observation conducted in 3-year period in three different locations across the Poland. Two regions on rye chromosome 4R, and single loci on 5R and 6R were reported for the first time as regions associated with powdery mildew resistance. Among all QTLs, 14 candidate genes were identified coded cyclin-dependent kinase, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like protein as well as AMEIOTIC 1 homolog DYAD-like protein, DETOXIFICATION 16-like protein, and putative disease resistance protein RGA3. Three of identified candidate genes were found among newly described QTL regions associated with powdery mildew resistance in triticale.


Assuntos
Triticale , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941932

RESUMO

Strawberry is one of the plants sensitive to salt and alkalinity stress. Light quality affects plant growth and metabolic activities. However, there is no clear answer in the literature on how light can improve the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus of this species under salt and alkalinity stress. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different spectra of supplemental light on strawberry (cv. Camarosa) under salt and alkalinity stress conditions. Light spectra of blue (with peak 460 nm), red (with peak 660 nm), blue/red (1:3), white/yellow (1:1) (400-700 nm) and ambient light were used as control. There were three stress treatments: control (no stress), alkalinity (40 mM NaHCO3), and salinity (80 mM NaCl). Under stress conditions, red and red/blue light had a positive effect on CO2 assimilation. In addition, blue/red light increased intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) under both stress conditions. Salinity and alkalinity stress decreased OJIP curves compared to the control treatment. Blue light caused an increase in its in plants under salinity stress, and red and blue/red light caused an increase in its in plants under alkalinity. Both salt and alkalinity stress caused a significant reduction in photosystem II (PSII) performance indices and quantum yield parameters. Adjustment of light spectra, especially red light, increased these parameters. It can be concluded that the adverse effects of salt and alkalinity stress on photosynthesis can be partially alleviated by changing the light spectra.


Assuntos
Fragaria/fisiologia , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fotossíntese , Salinidade , Estresse Salino
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206693

RESUMO

Plant overwintering may be affected in the future by climate change. Low-temperature waterlogging, associated with a predicted increase in rainfall during autumn and winter, can affect freezing tolerance, which is the main component of winter hardiness. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of change in freezing tolerance caused by low-temperature waterlogging in Lolium perenne, a cool-season grass that is well adapted to a cold climate. The work included: (i) a freezing tolerance test (plant regrowth after freezing); (ii) analysis of plant phytohormones production (abscisic acid [ABA] content and ethylene emission); (iii) measurement of leaf water content and stomatal conductance; (iv) carbohydrate analysis; and (v) analysis of Aco1, ABF2, and FT1 transcript accumulation. Freezing tolerance may be improved as a result of cold waterlogging. The mechanism of this change is reliant on multifaceted actions of phytohormones and carbohydrates, whereas ethylene may counteract ABA signaling. The regulation of senescence processes triggered by concerted action of phytohormones and glucose signaling may be an essential component of this mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Etilenos/metabolismo , Congelamento , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/metabolismo , Água , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800930

RESUMO

Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), a pseudocereal crop, produces a large number of flowers, but this does not guarantee high seed yields. This species demonstrates strong abortion of flowers and embryos. High temperatures during the generative growth phase result in an increase in the degeneration of embryo sacs. The aim of this study was to investigate proteomic changes in flowers and leaves of two common buckwheat accessions with different degrees of heat tolerance, Panda and PA15. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze the proteome profiles. Analyses were conducted for flower buds, open flowers capable of fertilization, and wilted flowers, as well as donor leaves, i.e., those growing closest to the inflorescences. High temperature up-regulated the expression of 182 proteins. The proteomic response to heat stress differed between the accessions and among their organs. In the Panda accession, we observed a change in abundance of 17, 13, 28, and 11 proteins, in buds, open and wilted flowers, and leaves, respectively. However, in the PA15 accession there were 34, 21, 63, and 21 such proteins, respectively. Fifteen heat-affected proteins were common to both accessions. The indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase chloroplastic-like isoform X2 accumulated in the open flowers of the heat-sensitive cultivar Panda in response to high temperature, and may be a candidate protein as a marker of heat sensitivity in buckwheat plants.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma , Termotolerância/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/biossíntese , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/genética , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/biossíntese , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494371

RESUMO

Mechanisms involved in the de-acclimation of herbaceous plants caused by warm periods during winter are poorly understood. This study identifies the genes associated with this mechanism in winter barley. Seedlings of eight accessions (four tolerant and four susceptible to de-acclimation cultivars and advanced breeding lines) were cold acclimated for three weeks and de-acclimated at 12 °C/5 °C (day/night) for one week. We performed differential expression analysis using RNA sequencing. In addition, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme activity analyses were used to investigate changes in the expression of selected genes. The number of transcripts with accumulation level changed in opposite directions during acclimation and de-acclimation was much lower than the number of transcripts with level changed exclusively during one of these processes. The de-acclimation-susceptible accessions showed changes in the expression of a higher number of functionally diverse genes during de-acclimation. Transcripts associated with stress response, especially oxidoreductases, were the most abundant in this group. The results provide novel evidence for the distinct molecular regulation of cold acclimation and de-acclimation. Upregulation of genes controlling developmental changes, typical for spring de-acclimation, was not observed during mid-winter de-acclimation. Mid-winter de-acclimation seems to be perceived as an opportunity to regenerate after stress. Unfortunately, it is competitive to remain in the cold-acclimated state. This study shows that the response to mid-winter de-acclimation is far more expansive in de-acclimation-susceptible cultivars, suggesting that a reduced response to the rising temperature is crucial for de-acclimation tolerance.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Transcriptoma
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824486

RESUMO

Though winter-hardiness is a complex trait, freezing tolerance was proved to be its main component. Species from temperate regions acquire tolerance to freezing in a process of cold acclimation, which is associated with the exposure of plants to low but non-freezing temperatures. However, mechanisms of cold acclimation in Lolium-Festuca grasses, important for forage production in Europe, have not been fully recognized. Thus, two L. multiflorum/F. arundinacea introgression forms with distinct freezing tolerance were used herein as models in the comprehensive research to dissect these mechanisms in that group of plants. The work was focused on: (i) analysis of cellular membranes' integrity; (ii) analysis of plant photosynthetic capacity (chlorophyll fluorescence; gas exchange; gene expression, protein accumulation, and activity of selected enzymes of the Calvin cycle); (iii) analysis of plant antioxidant capacity (reactive oxygen species generation; gene expression, protein accumulation, and activity of selected enzymes); and (iv) analysis of Cor14b accumulation, under cold acclimation. The more freezing tolerant introgression form revealed a higher integrity of membranes, an ability to cold acclimate its photosynthetic apparatus and higher water use efficiency after three weeks of cold acclimation, as well as a higher capacity of the antioxidant system and a lower content of reactive oxygen species in low temperature.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Festuca/genética , Congelamento , Introgressão Genética , Lolium/genética , Festuca/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781659

RESUMO

Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms have been proved several times to be good models to identify key components of grass metabolism involved in the mechanisms of tolerance to water deficit. Here, for the first time, a relationship between photosynthetic and antioxidant capacities with respect to drought tolerance of these forms was analyzed in detail. Two closely related L. multiflorum/F. arundinacea introgression forms distinct in their ability to re-grow after cessation of prolonged water deficit in the field were selected and subjected to short-term drought in pots to dissect precisely mechanisms of drought tolerance in this group of plants. The studies revealed that the form with higher drought tolerance was characterized by earlier and higher accumulation of abscisic acid, more stable cellular membranes, and more balanced reactive oxygen species metabolism associated with a higher capacity of the antioxidant system under drought conditions. On the other hand, both introgression forms revealed the same levels of stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation, and consequently, intrinsic water use efficiency under drought and recovery conditions. However, simultaneous higher adjustment of the Calvin cycle to water deficit and reduced CO2 availability, with respect to the accumulation and activity of plastid fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, were clearly visible in the form with higher drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Secas , Festuca/fisiologia , Lolium/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Água , Festuca/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lolium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solo/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365894

RESUMO

Impact of photosynthetic and antioxidant capacities on drought tolerance of two closely related forage grasses, Festuca arundinacea and Festuca glaucescens, was deciphered. Within each species, two genotypes distinct in drought tolerance were subjected to a short-term drought, followed by a subsequent re-watering. The studies were focused on: (i) analysis of plant physiological performance, including: water uptake, abscisic acid (ABA) content, membrane integrity, gas exchange, and relative water content in leaf tissue; (ii) analysis of plant photosynthetic capacity (chlorophyll fluorescence; gene expression, protein accumulation, and activity of selected enzymes of the Calvin cycle); and (iii) analysis of plant antioxidant capacity (reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; gene expression, protein accumulation and activity of selected enzymes). Though, F. arundinacea and F. glaucescens revealed different strategies in water uptake, and partially also in ABA signaling, their physiological reactions to drought and further re-watering, were similar. On the other hand, performance of the Calvin cycle and antioxidant system differed between the analyzed species under drought and re-watering periods. A stable efficiency of the Calvin cycle in F. arundinacea was crucial to maintain a balanced network of ROS/redox signaling, and consequently drought tolerance. The antioxidant capacity influenced mostly tolerance to stress in F. glaucescens.


Assuntos
Secas , Festuca/metabolismo , Festuca/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192224

RESUMO

Plant tolerance to environmental stress is determined by a very complicated network composed of many intra- and extracellular factors. The aim of this study was to select candidate genes involved in responses to freezing and drought in barley on the basis of previous proteomic studies and to analyze changes in their expression caused by application of both stress factors. Six candidate genes for freezing tolerance (namely the genes encoding elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), ferredoxin-NADP reductase, a 14-3-3a protein, ß-fructofuranosidase, CBF2A and CBF4B) and six for drought tolerance (encoding transketolase, periplasmic serine protease, triosephosphate isomerase, a protein with a co-chaperon region (GroEs), pfam14200 and actin) were chosen arbitrarily on the basis of in silico bioinformatic analyses. The expression levels of these genes were measured under control and stress conditions in six DH (doubled haploid) lines with differing freezing and drought tolerance. The results of gene expression analysis confirmed the roles of the candidate genes preselected in this study on the basis of previous proteome analysis in contributing to the differences in freezing and drought tolerance observed in the studied population of DH lines of winter barley.


Assuntos
Secas , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Haploidia , Hordeum/fisiologia , Proteoma , Estresse Fisiológico , Adaptação Biológica , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteômica/métodos
11.
J Plant Physiol ; 244: 153049, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760347

RESUMO

Diversity arrays technology (DArT) marker sequences for barley were used for identifying new potential candidate genes for freezing tolerance (FT). We used quantitative trait loci (QTL) genetic linkage maps for FT and photosynthetic acclimation to cold for six- and two-row barley populations, and a set of 20 DArT markers obtained using the association mapping of parameters for photosynthetic acclimation to low temperatures in barley for the bioinformatics analyses. Several nucleotide and amino acid sequence, annotation databases and associated algorithms were used to identify the similarities of six of the marker sequences to potential genes involved in plant low temperature response. Gene ontology (GO) annotations based on similarities to database sequences were assigned to these marker sequences, and indicated potential involvement in signal transduction pathways in response to stress factors and epigenetic processes, as well as auxin transport mechanisms. Furthermore, relative gene expressions for three of six of new identified genes (Hv.ATPase, Hv.DDM1, and Hv.BIG) were assessed within four barley genotypes of different FT. A physiological assessment of FT was conducted based on plant survival rates in two field-laboratory and one laboratory experiments. The results suggested that plant survival rate after freezing but not the degree of freezing-induced leaf damage between the tested accessions can be correlated with the degree of low-temperature downregulation of the studied candidate genes, which encoded proteins involved in the control of plant growth and development. Additionally, candidate genes for qRT-PCR suitable for the analysis of cold acclimation response in barley were suggested after validation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Hordeum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento , Ontologia Genética , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216685

RESUMO

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) belongs to the common cultivated grass species in Central and Western Europe. Despite being considered to be susceptible to drought, it is frequently used for forming the turf in urban green areas. In such areas, the water deficit in soil is recognized as one of the most important environmental factors, which can limit plant growth. The basic aim of this work was to explore the mechanisms standing behind the changes in the photosynthetic apparatus performance of two perennial ryegrass turf varieties grown under drought stress using comprehensive in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence signal analyses and plant gas exchange measurements. Drought was applied after eight weeks of sowing by controlling the humidity of the roots ground medium at the levels of 30, 50, and 70% of the field water capacity. Measurements were carried out at four times: 0, 120, and 240 h after drought application and after recovery (refilling water to 70%). We found that the difference between the two tested varieties' response resulted from a particular re-reduction of P700+ (reaction certer of PSI) that was caused by slower electron donation from P680. The difference in the rate of electron flow from Photosystem II (PSII) to PSI was also detected. The application of the combined tools (plants' photosynthetic efficiency analysis and plant gas exchange measurements) allowed exploring and explaining the specific variety response to drought stress.


Assuntos
Lolium/química , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/química , Secas , Fluorescência , Lolium/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/química
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828338

RESUMO

One hundred and nine accessions of spring barley seedlings were phenotyped under soil drought conditions. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction (OJIP) parameters, leaf water content, relative turgidity, net assimilation rate (P N), and water use efficiency (WUE) of plants were measured. All the tested lines were genotyped by means of DArT sequencing (DArTseq) technology. For association mapping a 11,780 polymorphic DArTseq and 4,725 DArTseq SNP markers were used. Our results revealed dissimilar patterns of the relationships between OJIP-parameters under control and drought conditions. A high level of correlation between parameters characterizing Photosystem's II (PSII) energy trapping efficiency (Fv/Fm) and photochemical events downstream of PSII reaction center (e.g., Performance Index-PICSo) was observed only in the case of drought-treated plants. Generally, OJIP parameters were correlated with leaf water content (less in control). This correlation was weaker with WUE, and absent with P N. Under drought stress, 6,252 genotype × phenotype associations, which passed false discovery rate (FDR) verification, were found between all the studied phenotypic characteristics (23, including 19 OJIP parameters) and 2,721 markers. On the other hand, only 282 associations passed FDR test in the control. They comprised 22 phenotypic parameters and 205 markers. Probing for gene annotations of sequences was performed for markers associated with Fv/Fm for both drought and control, markers were associated with studied traits in both control and drought, as well as for markers associated with both OJIP and other physiological parameters in drought. Our work allowed us to conclude that drought treatment differentiates the studied lines through the revealing of relationships between water content and the damages to PSII reaction centers or different components of PSII energy transfer chain. Moreover, the former was not connected with net photosynthesis rate.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1200, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177939

RESUMO

In a ×Festulolium population (FuRs0357) of parental origin Lolium perenne × Festuca pratensis, selection of freezing tolerance by freezing tests on whole plants (FT) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorimetry on frozen detached leaves (CF) was assessed in high and low directions during two cycles of selection. The original population went through two cycles of random mating. All selections and non-selected intercrossed generations of the original population were established in field trials at a coastal site and a continental site in Norway. At the coastal site, analyses of Chl-a fluorimetry parameters and leaf growth on individual plants in autumn and winter hardiness observed in field plots in spring showed that the first-generation selections for high freezing tolerance were associated with winter hardiness and early growth cessation. The second-generation FT-selections for high freezing tolerance were also associated with winter hardiness, whereas the CF-high selections diverged toward high photosynthetic activity. Both low selections were correlated with high photosynthetic activity. There were smaller variations between generations in unselected generations of the original population. Low accumulated leaf growth and early growth cessation were observed in the second-generation FT-selection for high freezing tolerance, whereas high normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were seen in Chl-a selections. Both selection methods distinguished diverging selections with significantly different high and low freezing tolerance, but selection efficiency was comparable only for the first selection cycle. Moreover, due to mixed ploidy level in the original population, selection by FT and CF generated diploid and tetraploid plants, respectively, which intensified the response of selection, particularly in the diploid selections. Total dry matter yield (DMY) (mean of three annual cuts for 3 years) of the FT-high selections was lower than for the CF-selections. At coastal sites, selection intensity using freezing tests on whole plants should be adapted to actual climate conditions, to obtain genotypes that balance photosynthetic activity during autumn and good winter hardiness, making them persistent and high yielding.

15.
Photosynth Res ; 137(3): 475-492, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881986

RESUMO

Acclimation of photosynthetic apparatus to variable environmental conditions is an important component of tolerance to dehydration stresses, including salinity. The present study deals with the research on alterations in chloroplast proteome of the forage grasses. Based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, two genotypes of a model grass species-Festuca arundinacea with distinct levels of salinity tolerance: low salt tolerant (LST) and high salt tolerant (HST), were selected. Next, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied under both control and salt stress conditions to identify proteins accumulated differentially between these two genotypes. The physiological analysis revealed that under NaCl treatment the studied plants differed in photosystem II activity, water content, and ion accumulation. The differentially accumulated proteins included ATPase B, ATP synthase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large and small subunits, cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur subunit, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins (OEE), OEE1 and OEE2, plastidic fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (pFBA), and lipocalin. A higher level of lipocalin, potentially involved in prevention of lipid peroxidation under stress, was also observed in the HST genotype. Our physiological and proteomic results performed for the first time on the species of forage grasses clearly showed that chloroplast metabolism adjustment could be a crucial factor in developing salinity tolerance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Festuca/fisiologia , Proteoma , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Festuca/genética , Festuca/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo
16.
Plant Sci ; 272: 22-31, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807594

RESUMO

Frost tolerance is the main component of winter-hardiness. To express this trait, plants sense low temperature, and respond by activating the process of cold acclimation. The molecular mechanisms of this acclimation have not been fully understood in the agronomically important group of forage grasses, including Lolium-Festuca species. Herein, the introgression forms of L. multiflorum/F. arundinacea distinct with respect to their frost tolerance, were used as models for the comprehensive, proteomic and physiological, research to recognize the crucial components of cold acclimation in forage grasses. The obtained results stressed the importance of photosynthetic performance under acclimation to low temperature. The stable level of photochemical processes after three weeks of cold acclimation in the introgression form with a higher level of frost tolerance, combined simultaneously with only slightly (but not significantly) decreased level of CO2 assimilation after that period, despite significantly lower stomatal conductance, indicated the capacity for that form to acclimate its photosynthesis to low temperature. This phenomenon was driven by the Calvin cycle efficiency, associated with revealed here accumulation profiles and activities of chloroplastic aldolase. The capacity to acclimate the photosynthetic machinery to cold could be one of the most crucial components of forage grass metabolism to improve frost tolerance.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Ração Animal , Lolium/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Congelamento , Lolium/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 131(1): 167-181, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071393

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Association mapping of drought-related traits in barley was used to increase the density of existing QTL maps without recreating mapping populations. We used 109 spring barley genotypes exhibiting high or low drought tolerance to elucidate the associations between diversity array technology sequencing (DArTseq) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and various physiological parameters related to plant responses to drought conditions. The study was performed in controlled conditions (growth chambers), drought tolerance was phenotyped in the four-leaf seedlings. We identified 58 associations including 34 new markers (i.e., 16 DArTseq and 18 SNP markers). The results for three markers were consistent with the data obtained in an earlier traditional biparental QTL mapping study. The regions neighboring markers on linkage group 2H contained the highest number of significant marker-trait associations. Five markers related to the photosynthetic activity of photosystem II were detected on chromosome 4H. The lowest number of associations were observed for the sequences neighboring DArT markers on linkage group 6H. A chromosome 3H region related to water use efficiency and net photosynthesis rate in both biparental QTL, and association study, may be particularly valuable, as these parameters correspond to the ability of plants to remain highly productive under water deficit stress. Our findings confirm that association mapping can increase the density of existing QTL maps without recreating mapping populations.


Assuntos
Secas , Hordeum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Hordeum/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Polônia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1963, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687360

RESUMO

Photosynthetic acclimation to cold conditions is an important factor influencing freezing tolerance of plants. Photosynthetic enzyme activities increase as part of a photochemical mechanism underlying photosynthetic acclimation to low temperatures. Additionally, a non-photochemical mechanism may be activated to minimize photooxidative damage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that differences in stomatal conductance in Hordeum vulgare plants with contrasting freezing tolerances induce various strategies for photosynthetic acclimation to cold stress. Different stomatal behaviors during the prehardening step resulted in diverse plant reactions to low-temperature stress. Plants with a relatively low freezing tolerance exhibited decreased stomatal conductance, resulting in decreased photochemical activity, faster induction of the non-photochemical mechanism, and downregulated expression of two Rubisco activase (RcaA) splicing variants. In contrast, plants with a relatively high freezing tolerance that underwent a prehardening step maintained the stomatal conductance at control level and exhibited delayed photochemical activity and RcaA expression decrease, and increased Rubisco activity, which increased net photosynthetic rate. Thus, in barley, the induction of photoinhibition avoidance (i.e., non-photochemical photoacclimation mechanism) is insufficient for an effective cold acclimation. An increase in cold-induced net photosynthetic rate due to open stomata is also necessary.

19.
J Proteomics ; 169: 58-72, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28847648

RESUMO

The changes in protein abundance induced by cold hardening were analysed by 2 DE in ten doubled haploid (DH) lines of winter barley, highly differentiated with respect to freezing tolerance level. Among 45 differential proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, the majority was classified as related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, oxidation-reduction reactions and stress response. Among the detected proteins, higher abundance of RuBisCO large and small subunits, RuBisCO activase, two Oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins, Ferredoxin-NADP reductase, Cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase and 14-3-3 protein was associated with higher freezing tolerance level. Lower relative level of hypothetical ATP synthase beta subunit, uncharacterized mitochondrial protein AtMg00810 and ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase G also seems to be important. The results of proteomic studies were complemented by the evaluation of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation, showing distinctive differences between the studied genotypes in the number of active PSII reaction centres (RC/CSm). Additionally, the analysis of antioxidative enzyme activities suggests the importance of H2O2 as a signalling molecule possibly involved in the initiation of cold-induced plant acclimation. However, in DH lines with high freezing tolerance, H2O2 generation during cold hardening treatment was accompanied by more stable activity of catalase, H2O2-decomposing enzyme. SIGNIFICANCE: In the study, the changes in protein abundance induced by cold hardening treatment were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in ten doubled haploid (DH) lines of winter barley. Harnessing DH technology resulted in distinctive widening of genetic variation with respect to freezing tolerance level. Both the cold-hardening effect on the protein pattern in an individual winter barley DH line as well as the variation among the selected DH lines were investigated, which resulted in the identification of 45 differentiated proteins classified as involved in 14 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Among them, eight proteins: (1) the precursor of RuBisCO large subunit, (2) RuBisCO small subunit (partial), (3) RuBisCO activase small isoform, (4) the precursor of Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1-like (predicted protein), (5) Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, (6) the leaf isozyme of Ferredoxin-NADP reductase, (7) hypothetical protein M569_12509 Cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase-like and (8) hypothetical protein BRADI_1g11290 (14-3-3 protein A-like) were accumulated to a higher level in leaves of cold-hardened seedlings of freezing tolerant winter barley DH lines in comparison with susceptible ones. Three others: (9) hypothetical protein BRADI_5g05668 F1 ATP synthase beta subunit-like, (10) predicted protein uncharacterized mitochondrial protein AtMg00810-like and (11) BnaA02g08010D Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase G-like were detected at lower level in freezing tolerant seedlings in comparison with susceptible genotypes. The last two were for the first time linked to cold acclimation. The results of complementary analyses indicate that PSII activity and stability of antioxidative enzymes under low temperature are also very important for freezing tolerance acquisition.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Hordeum/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Congelamento , Hordeum/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
20.
J Appl Genet ; 58(4): 421-435, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779288

RESUMO

Festuca arundinacea and F. pratensis are the models in forage grasses to recognize the molecular basis of drought, salt and frost tolerance, respectively. Transcription profiles of plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) aquaporin genes were obtained for leaves of Festuca species treated with different abiotic stimuli. F. arundinacea plants were exposed to drought and salt stress, whereas F. pratensis plants were cold-hardened. Changes in genes expression measured with use of real time qRT-PCR method were compared between two genotypes characterized with a significantly different level of each stress tolerance. Under drought the transcript level of PIP1;2 and TIP1;1 aquaporin decreased in both analyzed F. arundinacea genotypes, whereas for PIP2;1 only in a high drought tolerant plant. A salt treatment caused a reduction of PIP1;2 transcript level in a high salt tolerant genotype and an increase of TIP1;1 transcript abundance in both F. arundinacea genotypes, but it did not influence the expression of PIP2;1 aquaporin. During cold-hardening a decrease of PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and TIP1;1 aquaporin transcripts was observed, both in high and low frost tolerant genotypes. The obtained results revealed that the selected genotypes responded in a different way to abiotic stresses application. A reduced level of PIP1;2 transcript in F. arundinacea low drought tolerant genotype corresponded with a faster water loss and a lowering of photosynthesis efficiency and gas exchange during drought conditions. In F. pratensis, cold acclimation was associated with a lower level of aquaporin transcripts in both high and low frost tolerant genotypes. This is the first report on aquaporin transcriptional profiling under abiotic stress condition in forage grasses.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Festuca/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Secas , Folhas de Planta/genética
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