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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 310: 147-154, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent randomized control trials have described a protective cardiovascular effect of novel glucose lowering drugs in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Whether these second-line agents have similar effects in the general population is unknown. We aimed to compare the risk of major cardiovascular and adverse events in new users of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide 1 agonist (GLP-1a), and sulfonylurea in T2DM patients not controlled on metformin therapy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the MarketScan database (2011-2015). We selected T2DM individuals who were newly dispensed sulfonylureas, SGLT-2i, DPP-4i, or GLP-1a, as second-line therapy, added to metformin. Cohort entry was defined by date of first prescription of the second-line agent. Time to first non-fatal cardiovascular or adverse event was compared using Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Among 118,341 T2DM patients using metformin (mean age: 56), most were at low cardiovascular risk (4% with previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event). During a median follow-up of 10 months compared with sulfonylureas users, cardiovascular risk was lower in users of SGLT-2i (aHR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.40-0.97), DPP-4i (aHR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69-0.90) and GLP-1a (aHR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89). Serious adverse events were rare but compared with sulfonylurea, the risk was lower in new users of novel glucose lowering agents. CONCLUSION: In our analyses, which included patients with and without prior cardiovascular disease, initiating novel glucose lowering drugs as second-line therapy for T2DM was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular and adverse events than sulfonylurea initiation.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reasons behind low adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) are still not entirely known. We aimed to evaluate the effect of biological (i.e., sex-related) and psycho-socio-cultural (i.e., gender-related) factors on Med-diet adherence. METHODS: Baseline Med-diet adherence was measured using a self-administered questionnaire among adults with ischemic heart disease (IHD) from the EVA (Endocrine Vascular Disease Approach) study. A multivariable analysis was performed to estimate the effect of sex- and gender-related factors (i.e., identity, roles, relations, and institutionalized gender) on low adherence. RESULTS: Among 366 participants (66 ± 11 years, 31% women), 81 (22%) adults with low adherence demonstrated higher rates of diabetes, no smoking habit, lower male BSRI (Bem Sex Role Inventory) (median (IQR) 4.8 (4.1 to 5.5) vs. 5.1 (4.5 to 5.6) and p = 0.048), and higher Perceived Stress Scale 10 items (PSS-10) (median (IQR) 19 (11 to 23) vs. 15 (11 to 20) and p = 0.07) scores than those with medium-high adherence. In the multivariable analysis, only active smoking (odds ratio, OR = 2.10, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.14 to 3.85 and p = 0.017), PPS-10 (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, and p = 0.038) and male BSRI scores (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.95, and p = 0.021) were independently associated with low adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Male personality traits and perceived stress (i.e., gender identity) were associated with low Med-diet adherence regardless of the sex, age, and comorbidities. Therefore, gender-sensitive interventions should be explored to improve adherence in IHD.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e012940, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902326

RESUMO

Background Randomized controlled trials showed that newer glucose-lowering agents are cardioprotective, but most participants were men. It is unknown whether benefits are similar in women. Methods and Results Among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus not controlled with metformin with no prior use of insulin, we assessed for sex differences in the cardiovascular effectiveness and safety of sodium-glucose-like transport-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, initiated as second-line agents relative to sulfonylureas (reference-group). We studied type 2 diabetes mellitus American adults with newly dispensed sulfonylureas, SGLT-2i, GLP-1RA, or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Marketscan-Database: 2011-2017). We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying exposure to compare time to first nonfatal cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction/unstable angina, stroke, and heart failure), and safety outcomes between drugs users, and tested for sex-drug interactions. Among 167 254 type 2 diabetes mellitus metformin users (46% women, median age 59 years, at low cardiovascular risk), during a median 4.5-year follow-up, cardiovascular events incidence was lower in women than men (14.7 versus 16.7 per 1000-person-year). Compared with sulfonylureas, hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events were lower with GLP-1RA (adjusted HR-women: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.48-0.68; aHR-men: 0.82, 0.71-0.95), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (aHR-women: 0.83, 0.77-0.89; aHR-men: 0.85, 0.79-0.91) and SGLT-2i (aHR-women: 0.58, 0.46-0.74; aHR-men: 0.69, 0.57-0.83). A sex-by-drug interaction was statistically significant only for GLP-1RA (P=0.002), suggesting greater cardiovascular effectiveness in women. Compared with sulfonylureas, risks of adverse events were similarly lower in both sexes for GLP-1RA (aHR-women: 0.81, 0.73-0.89; aHR-men: 0.80, 0.71-0.89), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (aHR-women: 0.82, 0.78-0.87; aHR-men: 0.83, 0.78-0.87) and SGLT-2i (aHR-women: 0.68, 0.59-0.78; aHR-men: 0.67, 0.59-0.78) (all sex-drug interactions for adverse events P>0.05). Conclusions Newer glucose-lowering drugs were associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events than sulfonylureas, with greater effectiveness of GLP-1RA in women than men. Overall, they appeared safe, with a better safety profile for SGLT-2i than for GLP-1RA regardless of sex.

4.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 13(1): 26, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756360

RESUMO

The authors of this study protocol would like to amend it and clarify that medication adherence was assessed using the 4-item validated Morisky, Green, Levine scale [Morisky DE, Green LW, Levine DM. Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Med Care. 1986 Jan;24(1):67-74] rather than the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.

5.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 13(1): 14-25, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511337

RESUMO

Improvements in ischemic heart disease (IHD) management have been unbalanced between sexes, with coronary microvascular dysfunction considered the likely underlying reason. The Endocrine Vascular disease Approach (EVA) is an observational study (Clinicaltrial.gov NCT02737982) aiming to assess sex and gender interactions between coronary circulation, sexual hormones, and platelet function. Consecutive patients with IHD undergoing coronary angiography will be recruited: (1) to assess sex and gender differences in angiographic reperfusion indexes; (2) to evaluate the effects of estrogen/androgen on sex-related differences in myocardial ischemia; (3) to investigate the platelet biology differences between men and women with IHD; (4) to verify sex- and gender-driven interplay between response to percutaneous coronary intervention, platelets, sex hormones, and myocardial damage at baseline and its impact on 12-month outcomes. The integration of sex and gender in this translational project on IHD will contribute to the identification of new targets for further innovative clinical interventions.

6.
Heart Fail Clin ; 16(1): 121-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735310

RESUMO

Understanding the role of sex- and gender-related factors, when dealing with a global growing epidemic such as heart failure, is a much needed and unmet goal for health care providers and scientists in order to design targeted strategies, aimed at improving both clinical and patient reported outcomes measures in women and men with heart failure. The present review provides an overview of the current available evidence on sex- and gender-related differences in heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e006539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe characteristics and outcomes in women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS: Baseline characteristics (including biomarkers and quality of life) and outcomes (primary outcome: composite of first heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death) were compared in 4458 women and 4010 men enrolled in CHARM-Preserved (Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity) (EF≥45%), I-Preserve (Irbesartan in heart failure with Preserved ejection fraction), and TOPCAT-Americas (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial). RESULTS: Women were older and more often obese and hypertensive but less likely to have coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation. Women had more symptoms and signs of congestion and worse quality of life. Despite this, the risk of the primary outcome was lower in women (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.73-0.88]), as was the risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.62-0.80]), but there was no difference in the rate for first hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]). The lower risk of cardiovascular death in women, compared with men, was in part explained by a substantially lower risk of sudden death (hazard ratio, 0.53 [0.43-0.65]; P<0.001). E/A ratio was lower in women (1.1 versus 1.2). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences between women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite worse symptoms, more congestion, and lower quality of life, women had similar rates of hospitalization and better survival than men. Their risk of sudden death was half that of men. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00853658, NCT01035255.

8.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2019: 9546931, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772621

RESUMO

Management of patients presenting to the Emergency Department with chest pain is continuously evolving. In the setting of acute coronary syndrome, the availability of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays (hs-cTn) has allowed for the development of algorithms aimed at rapidly assessing the risk of an ongoing myocardial infarction. However, concerns were raised about the massive application of such a simplified approach to heterogeneous real-world populations. As a result, there is a potential risk of underdiagnosis in several clusters of patients, including women, for whom a lower threshold for hs-cTn was suggested to be more appropriate. Implementation in clinical practice of sex-tailored cut-off values for hs-cTn represents a hot topic due to the need to reduce inequality and improve diagnostic performance in females. The aim of this review is to summarize current evidence on sex-specific cut-off values of hs-cTn and their application and usefulness in clinical practice. We also offer an extensive overview of thresholds reported in literature and of the mechanisms underlying such differences among sexes, suggesting possible explanations about debated issues.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e025884, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the setting of reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to reperfusion injury. Among ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showed toxic effects on human cardiomyocytes and may induce microcirculatory impairment. Glutathione (GSH) is a water-soluble tripeptide with a potent oxidant scavenging activity. We hypothesised that the infusion of GSH before acute reoxygenation might counteract the deleterious effects of increased H2O2 generation on myocardium. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with STEMI, scheduled to undergo primary angioplasty, were randomly assigned, before intervention, to receive an infusion of GSH (2500 mg/25 mL over 10 min), followed by drug administration at the same doses at 24, 48 and 72 hours elapsing time or placebo. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the procedure, as well as after 5 days. H2O2 production, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) formation, H2O2 breakdown activity (HBA) and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability were determined. Serum cardiactroponin T (cTpT) was measured at admission and up to 5 days. RESULTS: Following acute reperfusion, a significant reduction of H2O2 production (p=0.0015) and 8-iso-PGF2α levels (p=0.0003), as well as a significant increase in HBA (p<0.0001)and NO bioavailability (p=0.035), was found in the GSH group as compared with placebo. In treated patients, attenuated production of H2O2 persisted up to 5 days from the index procedure (p=0.009) and these changes was linked to those of the cTpT levels (r=0.41, p=0.023). CONCLUSION: The prophylactic and prolonged infusion of GSH seems to determine a rapid onset and persistent blunting of H2O2 generation improving myocardial cell survival. Nevertheless, a larger trial, adequately powered for evaluation of clinical endpoints, is ongoing to confirm the current finding. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EUDRACT 2014-00448625; Pre-results.

12.
Hepatol Commun ; 3(4): 504-512, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976741

RESUMO

We analyzed whether serum albumin is independently associated with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in liver cirrhosis (LC) and if a biologic plausibility exists. This study was divided into three parts. In part 1 (retrospective analysis), 753 consecutive patients with LC with ultrasound-detected PVT were retrospectively analyzed. In part 2, 112 patients with LC and 56 matched controls were entered in the cross-sectional study. In part 3, 5 patients with cirrhosis were entered in the in vivo study and 4 healthy subjects (HSs) were entered in the in vitro study to explore if albumin may affect platelet activation by modulating oxidative stress. In the 753 patients with LC, the prevalence of PVT was 16.7%; logistic analysis showed that only age (odds ratio [OR], 1.024; P = 0.012) and serum albumin (OR, -0.422; P = 0.0001) significantly predicted patients with PVT. Analyzing the 112 patients with LC and controls, soluble clusters of differentiation (CD)40-ligand (P = 0.0238), soluble Nox2-derived peptide (sNox2-dp; P < 0.0001), and urinary excretion of isoprostanes (P = 0.0078) were higher in patients with LC. In LC, albumin was correlated with sCD40L (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs ], -0.33; P < 0.001), sNox2-dp (rs , -0.57; P < 0.0001), and urinary excretion of isoprostanes (rs, -0.48; P < 0.0001) levels. The in vivo study showed a progressive decrease in platelet aggregation, sNox2-dp, and urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α-III formation 2 hours and 3 days after albumin infusion. Finally, platelet aggregation, sNox2-dp, and isoprostane formation significantly decreased in platelets from HSs incubated with scalar concentrations of albumin. Conclusion: Low serum albumin in LC is associated with PVT, suggesting that albumin could be a modulator of the hemostatic system through interference with mechanisms regulating platelet activation.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858826

RESUMO

Background: Sex and gender-related factors have been under-investigated as relevant determinants of health outcomes across non-communicable chronic diseases. Poor medication adherence results in adverse clinical outcomes and sex differences have been reported among patients at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. The effect of diabetes and gender-related factors on medication adherence among women and men at high risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) has not yet been fully investigated. Aim: To explore the role of sex, gender-related factors, and diabetes in pre-admission medication adherence among patients hospitalized for IHD. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Endocrine Vascular disease Approach (EVA) (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02737982), a prospective cohort of patients admitted for IHD. We selected patients with baseline information regarding the presence of diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, and gender-related variables (i.e., gender identity, gender role, gender relations, institutionalized gender). Our primary outcome was the proportion of pre-admission medication adherence defined through a self-reported questionnaire. We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and gender-related factors associated with pre-admission medication adherence. Results: Two-hundred eighty patients admitted for IHD (35% women, mean age 70), were included. Around one-fourth of the patients were low-adherent to therapy before hospitalization, regardless of sex. Low-adherent patients were more likely diabetic (40%) and employed (40%). Sex-stratified analysis showed that low-adherent men were more likely to be employed (58 vs. 33%) and not primary earners (73 vs. 54%), with more masculine traits of personality, as compared with medium-high adherent men. Interestingly, women reporting medication low-adherence were similar for clinical and gender-related factors to those with medium-high adherence, except for diabetes (42 vs. 20%, p = 0.004). In a multivariate adjusted model only employed status was associated with poor medication adherence (OR 0.55, 95%CI 0.31-0.97). However, in the sex-stratified analysis, diabetes was independently associated with medication adherence only in women (OR 0.36; 95%CI 0.13-0.96), whereas a higher masculine BSRI was the only factor associated with medication adherence in men (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.35-0.99). Conclusion: Pre-admission medication adherence is common in patients hospitalized for IHD, regardless of sex. However, patient-related factors such as diabetes, employment, and personality traits are associated with adherence in a sex-specific manner.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(1): 29-40, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) trials initiated in the last century highlighted many differences between men and women. Of particular concern was undertreatment of women compared with men, but much has changed during the past 20 years. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify these changes, which may give a new perspective on the management of, and outcomes in, women with HF. METHODS: The study analyzed 12,058 men and 3,357 women enrolled in 2 large HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) trials with near identical inclusion and exclusion criteria and the same principal outcomes. Outcomes were adjusted for other prognostic variables including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. RESULTS: Women were older and more often obese than men were, had slightly higher systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and were less likely to have most comorbidities, except hypertension. Women had more symptoms and signs (e.g., pedal edema 23.4% vs 19.9%; p < 0.0001) and worse quality of life-median Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary Score 71.3 (interquartile range: 53.4 to 86.5) versus 81.3 (interquartile range: 65.1 to 92.7; p < 0.0001)-despite similar left ventricular ejection fraction and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. However, women had lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 0.74; p < 0.001) and risk of HF hospitalization (hazard ratio: 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 0.89; p < 0.001). Diuretics and anticoagulants were underutilized in women. Device therapy was underused in both men and women, but more so in women (e.g., defibrillator 8.6% vs. 16.6%; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although women with HFrEF live longer than men, their additional years of life are of poorer quality, with greater self-reported psychological and physical disability. The explanation for this different sex-related experience of HFrEF is unknown as is whether physicians recognize it. Women continue to receive suboptimal treatment, compared with men, with no obvious explanation for this shortfall.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico , Adulto , Idoso , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fumaratos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 88(3): 988, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375811

RESUMO

Heart Failure (HF) is a major healthcare issue, given its high prevalence and incidence, the rate of comorbidities, the related high health-care costs and its poor outcome. In the last years mounting evidence revealed several differences between men and women affected by this clinical condition. Apart from the well-known difference in phenotype (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) occurs more commonly in men, and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is more frequent in women) other relevant sex-related issues dwell upon epidemiology, presentation, risk stratification and management. These differences shed new lights on the possibility to consider HF as a prototype of the impact of gender/sex issue in cardiovascular medicine. A call for action and future strategies might help in the achievement of a cleaver patient-care.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Distribuição por Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Biomédica , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Comorbidade , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 11: 1756284818793561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202445

RESUMO

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complication in the natural history of patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). The prevalence of PVT in LC is highly variable, ranging from 0.6% to 25% according to different reports. The impact of PVT on the natural history of LC is unclear, but it seems to negatively affect the prognosis of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) by increasing post-LT mortality and delaying waiting time. The antithrombotic treatment of PVT is still challenging as PVT may often remain asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed, and a spontaneous partial/total regression of PVT is observed in an important proportion of patients, even in the absence of anticoagulation. Recent evidence suggested that the anticoagulant treatment for PVT may favorably affect both ischemic and bleeding outcomes in LC patients. Anticoagulant therapies so far available include unfractioned heparin, low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and fondaparinux for acute treatment, and LMWHs and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for long-term treatment. No robust data currently support the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with LC and PVT, as the safety and efficacy of DOACs in this setting is still unclear. This review summarizes current evidence for the evaluation and management of patients with LC and PVT.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 182-191, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly diagnosed arrhythmia, which is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Several studies have suggested that female AF patients could have a greater risk for stroke and thromboembolic events (TE). METHODS: A systematic literature review update and meta-analysis was conducted using Pubmed. The search used the terms "atrial fibrillation", "gender", "sex", "female", "women", "stroke", "thromboembolism". Main aim of the study was to compare and male AF patients for occurrence of stroke and TE. Secondary outcomes were: major bleeding, cardiovascular (CV) death and all-cause death. RESULTS: Forty-four studies were included in the analysis including 993,603 patients (48.9% women). After pooling the data, there was a higher risk of stroke for women vs. male AF patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.14-1.36). Overall, TE risk was not different between female and male patients, despite sensitivity analysis left some uncertainties. No sex differences were found for major bleeding, CV death and all-cause death. A significant relationship between increasing age and the difference in stroke risk between female and male AF patients was found (Delta HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.03 for each year of age increase). CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with AF are at increased risk of stroke compared to men. A significant relationship between increasing age and stroke risk in women compared to men was found, most evident at age > 65 years. Female sex may act as a stroke risk modifier, particularly in elderly and very elderly AF subjects, conferring a significant increase in stroke risk.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
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