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1.
J Child Health Care ; : 13674935211013192, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913784

RESUMO

This pilot study aimed to explore the suitability of a preventative intervention for internalising problems in young children with chronic physical health conditions. The pilot study focused on a subsample of 27 children with chronic physical health conditions within a population-level randomised controlled trial of the Cool Little Kids parenting programme. The Cool Little Kids parenting programme aims to prevent the development of internalising problems in inhibited (shy/anxious) preschool children by educating parents to reduce young children's avoidant coping styles and manage their anxiety/distress. The wider trial recruited 545 temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Measures included child health/development concerns and internalising symptoms at baseline, feedback on Cool Little Kids post-intervention and child internalising problems at one- and two-year longitudinal follow-up. At baseline, inhibited children with and without chronic physical health conditions had levels of internalising symptoms above the normative mean. At post-intervention, parents of children with chronic physical health conditions gave feedback that Cool Little Kids was helpful for managing their child's emotional distress. At follow-up, significantly fewer intervention than control children with chronic physical health conditions had specific phobia after 1 year (25% vs 70%) and specific fear symptoms after 2 years (mean 9.57 vs 16.89). As the pilot findings are promising, a further trial of Cool Little Kids in a physical health treatment service with a larger sample of children with chronic physical illness diagnoses would be worthwhile.

2.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 104: 106360, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With expected increases in the number of older adults worldwide, the delivery of stepped psychological care for depression and anxiety in older populations may improve both treatment and allocative efficiency for individual patients and the health system. DESIGN: A multisite pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a stepped care model of care for treating depression and anxiety among older adults compared to treatment as usual (TAU) will be conducted. Eligible participants (n = 666) with clinically interfering anxiety and/or depression symptoms will be recruited from and treated within six Australian mental health services. The intervention group will complete a low intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program: Internet-delivered or using a work-at-home book with brief therapist calls (STEP 1). Following STEP 1 a higher intensity face-to-face CBT (STEP 2) will then be offered if needed. Intention-to-treat analyses will be used to examine changes in primary outcomes (e.g. clinician-rated symptom severity changes) and secondary outcomes (e.g. self-reported symptoms severity, health related quality of life and service utilisation costs). An economic evaluation will be conducted using a cost-utility analysis to derive the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the stepped care intervention. DISCUSSION: This study will demonstrate the relative clinical and economic benefits of stepped care model of psychological care for older adults experiencing anxiety and/or depression compared to TAU. The evaluation of the intervention within existing mental health services means that results will have significant implications for the translation of evidence-based interventions in older adult services across urban and rural settings. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered on anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12619000219189) and isrctn.com (ISRCTN37503850).

3.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 85: 101979, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610956

RESUMO

The current research examined the bidirectional effects between internalizing problems and peer victimization within a meta-analytic framework. The study also investigated several potential moderators of these effects which have not been examined previously in relation to meta-analytic studies. Only longitudinal studies examining the association between internalizing symptoms and peer victimization from five online databases were included and after screening 7,122 articles, 85 studies were included with a total of 117,520 participants. Results supported a bidirectional relationship between internalizing symptoms and peer victimization with small effects for both: victimization to internalizing, r = .18 and internalizing to victimization, r = .19. There were few differences between effects based on moderators. The effects were consistent across youth's age and sex. Although significant effects in both directions were shown for most forms of victimization, internalizing more strongly predicted cyber victimization than traditional forms of victimization. The results hold implications for theories of the interplay between peer relationships and internalizing psychopathology and may help to improve treatment or early intervention programs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine outcomes in the first year of school of a population-delivered parenting program to prevent internalising problems in temperamentally inhibited preschool children and predictors of engagement in parenting groups. METHOD: Design: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 307 preschool services across eight socio-economically diverse government areas in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 545 parents of inhibited 4-year-old children; 469 (86%) retained at two-year follow-up. INTERVENTION: Cool Little Kids program. Primary outcomes were child internalising symptoms and anxiety disorders. Secondary outcomes were parenting, parent well-being and engagement. Trial registration ISRCTN30996662 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN30996662. RESULTS: In the first year of school (M (SD) age 6.7 (0.4) years), child anxiety symptoms were reduced in the intervention versus control arm (PAS-R M (SD): total 36.2 (17.2) versus 39.4 (18.5); adjusted difference -3.26, 95% CI -6.46 to -0.05, p = .047; specific fears 9.1 (6.2) versus 10.7 (6.8), adjusted difference -1.53; 95% CI -2.69 to -0.38, p = .009). However, there was little difference in broader child internalising (CMFWQ M (SD): 2.2 (0.5) versus 2.3 (0.6); adjusted difference -0.03, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.06, p = .489) or anxiety disorders (37.6% vs. 42.6%; adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.18, p = .242). Lower income, younger mothers, less educated and more culturally diverse fathers engaged less with the intervention. Continued skills practice was less frequent for parents of girls and in advantaged neighbourhoods. CONCLUSIONS: There were population effects of Cool Little Kids in the first year of school for anxiety symptoms but not disorders. Considering motivation techniques to engage subgroups of families would be helpful in translation research.

5.
J Anxiety Disord ; 76: 102292, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health literacy and greater alignment with norms of hegemonic masculinity are established barriers to mental health help-seeking in men. However, little is known about how these variables influence adolescent male help-seeking and in particular, help-seeking for anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between i) anxiety mental health literacy, ii) alignment with traditional masculinity norms and iii) help-seeking attitudes, intentions and behaviour in a sample of adolescent males. METHODS: 1732 adolescent males (aged 12-18 years) participated online whilst at school. RESULTS: Participant attitudes towards formal help-seeking, intentions to seek help from a family member and from an online source were found to predict professional help-seeking behaviour by the adolescent and/or by their parents on the adolescents' behalf. In adolescents with a low or average personal alignment with norms of hegemonic masculinity, greater anxiety mental health literacy was positively associated with more favourable attitudes towards formal and informal help-seeking. However, this relationship was not found in adolescent males with a greater alignment with norms of hegemonic masculinity. LIMITATIONS: The study had a correlational research design and used self-report measures. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health initiatives which consider the impact of masculinity and gender stereotypes have the potential to significantly improve help-seeking in this population.

6.
J Anxiety Disord ; 76: 102309, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002756

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty is a psychological vulnerability implicated in the development and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 (IUS-12) is a widely used measure, however no studies have thoroughly tested the psychometric properties in a clinically diagnosed GAD sample. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure, measurement properties and clinical utility of the IUS-12 in clinical and non-clinical samples. Participants were screened using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV to ascertain clinical (n = 136: principal diagnosis of GAD) or non-clinical status (n = 76). Confirmatory factor analysis determined that the bifactor type (two-factor testlet) model demonstrated significantly better fit in comparison to the unidimensional model for the clinical sample. The IUS-12 exhibited limited multidimensionality indicating that only the total score provides meaningful interpretation. The IUS-12 demonstrated good construct validity (with DASS-21, MCQ-30, and PSWQ), good internal consistency, as well as good test-retest reliability over 12-weeks. The IUS-12 demonstrated responsivity to treatment following cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness based psychological interventions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated an optimal cut-off score of 28 for distinguishing individuals with GAD from non-clinical cases. Overall, the IUS-12 is a valid, reliable and clinically useful instrument for individuals with GAD.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 814-824, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable evidence on parenting risk and protective factors for child anxiety and depressive disorders, the development of interventions based on this evidence is still lagging behind. To address this gap, the web-based Parenting Resilient Kids (PaRK) program was developed to target these risk and protective factors. This study evaluated the effects of the program at 12-month follow-up. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a community sample of 355 parents and 342 children (Mchild age = 9.79). Parents randomized into the web-based PaRK intervention condition received a personalized feedback report about their parenting and were recommended a tailored course of up to 12 interactive modules. Parents in the control condition received a standard set of web-based educational factsheets. RESULTS: Parents in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-reported parenting compared to control group parents from baseline to 12-month follow-up, d = 0.24, 95% CI [0.03, 0.45]. Both groups showed reductions in child anxiety and depressive symptoms, parental psychological control and unhealthy family functioning; and improvements in parental acceptance, child- and parent- health-related quality of life. LIMITATIONS: The PaRK intervention was tailored based on the parents' own report of their parenting behaviors. There was an over-representation of highly-educated mothers and only one parent-child dyad was included per family. CONCLUSIONS: PaRK improved parenting for up to 12 months, but had no superior effect on children's mental health outcomes compared with an educational-factsheet intervention. Further follow-up is needed to assess longer-term effects.

8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118093

RESUMO

Much of the literature investigating the association between coping and psychopathology is cross-sectional, or associations have been investigated in a unidirectional manner; hence, bidirectionality between coping and psychopathology remains largely untested. To address this gap, this study investigated bidirectional relations between coping and psychopathology during pre-adolescence. Participants (N = 532, 51% male) and their primary caregiver both completed questionnaires assessing pre-adolescents' coping (i.e., avoidant, problem solving, social support seeking) and symptoms of psychopathology (i.e., generalized anxiety, social anxiety, depression, eating pathology) in Wave 1 (Mage = 11.18 years, SD = 0.56, range = 10-12) and Wave 2 (Mage = 12.18 years, SD = 0.53, range = 11-13, 52% male), one year later. Cross-lagged panel models showed child-reported avoidant coping predicted increases in symptoms of generalized and social anxiety, and eating pathology. In separate child and parent models, symptoms of depression predicted increases in avoidant coping. Greater parent-reported child depressive symptoms also predicted decreases in problem solving coping. Taken together, results suggest unique longitudinal associations between coping and psychopathology in pre-adolescence, with avoidant coping preceding increases in symptoms of anxiety and eating pathology, and depressive symptoms predicting later increases in maladaptive coping.

9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108542

RESUMO

The restrictions put in place to contain the COVID-19 virus have led to widespread social isolation, impacting mental health worldwide. These restrictions may be particularly difficult for adolescents, who rely heavily on their peer connections for emotional support. However, there has been no longitudinal research examining the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents. This study addresses this gap by investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' mental health, and moderators of change, as well as assessing the factors perceived as causing the most distress. Two hundred and forty eight adolescents (Mage = 14.4; 51% girls; 81.8% Caucasian) were surveyed over two time points; in the 12 months leading up to the COVID-19 outbreak (T1), and again two months following the implementation of government restrictions and online learning (T2). Online surveys assessed depressive symptoms, anxiety, and life satisfaction at T1 and T2, and participants' schooling, peer and family relationships, social connection, media exposure, COVID-19 related stress, and adherence to government stay-at-home directives at T2 only. In line with predictions, adolescents experienced significant increases in depressive symptoms and anxiety, and a significant decrease in life satisfaction from T1 to T2, which was particularly pronounced among girls. Moderation analyses revealed that COVID-19 related worries, online learning difficulties, and increased conflict with parents predicted increases in mental health problems from T1 to T2, whereas adherence to stay-at-home orders and feeling socially connected during the COVID-19 lockdown protected against poor mental health. This study provides initial longitudinal evidence for the decline of adolescent's mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that adolescents are more concerned about the government restrictions designed to contain the spread of the virus, than the virus itself, and that those concerns are associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms, and decreased life satisfaction.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09-2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up). CONCLUSIONS: Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.

11.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867420952539, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder are interconnected disorders that commonly co-occur. We report the first trial to assess whether integrated treatment for social anxiety and alcohol use disorder comorbidity improves outcomes relative to standard alcohol-focussed treatment. METHOD: Participants were recruited to a randomised controlled trial, and randomly allocated to one of two treatments, Integrated (n = 61) or Control (alcohol-focussed; n = 56). Assessment and treatment session were conducted at two sites in Sydney, Australia. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder and (2) Diagnosis or sub-clinical symptoms of alcohol use disorder. Diagnoses were determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). All participants (n = 117) received 10 sessions of cognitive behavioural treatment and motivational enhancement. The Integrated treatment simultaneously targeted social anxiety disorder, alcohol use disorder and the connections between these disorders. The Control treatment focussed on alcohol use disorder only. Outcomes were assessed at 6-month follow-up, with interim assessments at post-treatment and 3 months. Primary outcomes were social anxiety disorder severity (composite Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale), alcohol use disorder severity (standard drinks per day and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire) and quality of life (Short-Form Health survey) was assessed to capture the combined impairment of social anxiety and alcohol use disorder comorbidity. RESULTS: At 6-month follow-up, both conditions showed significant reductions in social anxiety and alcohol use disorder symptoms, and improved quality of life. There was no evidence of between-condition differences for alcohol outcomes, with mean consumption reduced by 5.0 (0.8) and 5.8 (1.0) drinks per day following Alcohol and Integrated treatments, respectively. Integrated treatment achieved greater improvements in social anxiety symptoms (mean difference = -14.9, 95% confidence interval = [-28.1, -1.6], d = 0.60) and quality of life (mean difference = 7.6, 95% confidence interval = [1.2, 14.0], d = 0.80) relative to alcohol-focused treatment. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that integrated social anxiety and alcohol use disorder treatment enhances quality of life and social anxiety disorder symptom improvement, but not alcohol outcomes, compared to treatment focussed on alcohol use disorder alone.

12.
Behav Res Ther ; 133: 103696, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763498

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence points to a strong overlap between selective mutism (SM) and social anxiety disorder in children, specifically with regard to characteristics such as social reticence and anxiety. Yet few studies have directly compared these populations, especially with young children. This study compared 25 children (aged 3-7 years) with a primary diagnosis of SM, 17 children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder and 15 non-clinical controls using interviews and questionnaires on expressions of social anxiety and behavioural inhibition. Results showed that children with SM or social anxiety disorder were more anxious than non-clinical controls and did not significantly differ from each other on either non-verbal social anxiety or non-social forms of anxiety. Both children with SM and social anxiety disorder had fewer friends and experienced greater difficulties forming friendships than non-clinical controls. However, children with SM scored higher than children with social anxiety disorder and non-clinical controls on a few measures of inhibition (both verbal and nonverbal). The results support assertions of strong similarities between SM and social anxiety disorder, but suggest that children with SM may show even greater severity in certain symptoms at a young age. These findings point to the need for treatment to include both cognitive behavioural skills to manage social anxiety and structured practice of social skills in order to improve treatment efficacy for children with SM.

13.
Behav Res Ther ; 133: 103710, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836111

RESUMO

Consistent associations have been shown between self-reported peer victimisation and internalising symptoms. In distinct literature, anxious and depressed youth have been shown to interpret ambiguous social stimuli in a manner consistent with social threat and rejection. The aim of the current study was to determine whether this sensitivity to social threat among anxious/depressed youth explains significant variance in the relationship between self-reports of peer victimisation and internalising symptoms. Two hundred and sixty-seven students in grades seven and eight (M age = 12.62, SD = 0.65) completed measures of their own symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as their experiences of being physically or relationally victimised by their peers. They also read descriptions of 10 hypothetical ambiguous social interactions and provided responses indicating whether they interpreted each scenario as indicating social threat (rejection/negative evaluation) and the extent to which they perceived it as victimisation. As expected, anxiety and depression were positively correlated with self-reported peer victimisation and with interpretations consistent with social threat and victimisation (social threat sensitivity). In turn, social threat sensitivity was positively correlated with both self-reported relational and physical victimisation, but moreso with the former. However, the relationship between anxiety and depression and victimisation remained significant, even after controlling for social threat sensitivity. Results suggest that a sensitivity toward social threat can influence self-reports of peer victimisation among anxious and depressed youth, but that the relationship between internalising and victimisation goes beyond this sensitivity.

14.
J Anxiety Disord ; 74: 102273, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682276

RESUMO

The integrated aetiological and maintenance (IAM) model of social anxiety disorder (SAD) conceptualises four social-evaluative cognitive processes (anticipatory processing, attention to the self, attention to threat in the environment, and post-event processing) as facets of a social-evaluative threat detection construct. The current study tested this by examining potential factor structures underlying the four social-evaluative cognitive processes. Baseline data from two randomised controlled trials, consisting of 306 participants with SAD who completed measures of the four social-evaluative cognitive processes in relation to a speech task, were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit indices and bifactor model indices showed that the optimal factor structure was a bifactor model with a Social-evaluative Threat Detection General Factor and two group factors corresponding to anticipatory processing and post-event processing. Analyses also indicated that the Social-evaluative Threat Detection General Factor had moderate to large associations with other constructs in the IAM model, whereas the two group factors only had small associations with these constructs. These findings suggest that the four social-evaluative cognitive processes can be unified as facets of a social-evaluative threat detection process, consistent with the IAM model, although group factors for anticipatory processing and post-event processing need to be taken into account.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632763

RESUMO

Methods to deliver empirically validated treatments for anxious youth that require fewer therapist resources (low intensity) are beginning to emerge. However, the relative efficacy of low-intensity treatment for youth anxiety against standard face-to-face delivery has not been comprehensively evaluated. Young people aged 6-16 years with a primary anxiety disorder (N = 281) were randomly allocated to treatment delivered either face-to-face or in a low-intensity format. Face-to-face treatment comprised ten, 60-min sessions delivered by a qualified therapist. Low intensity comprised information delivered in either printed (to parents of children under 13) or electronic (to adolescents aged 13 +) format and was supported by up to four telephone sessions with a minimally qualified therapist. Youth receiving face-to-face treatment were significantly more likely to remit from all anxiety disorders (66%) than youth receiving low intensity (49%). This difference was reflected in parents' (but not child) reports of child's anxiety symptoms and life interference. No significant moderators were identified. Low intensity delivery utilised significantly less total therapist time (175 min) than face-to-face delivery (897 min) and this was reflected in a large mean difference in therapy costs ($A735). Standard, face-to-face treatment for anxious youth is associated with significantly better outcomes than delivery of similar content using low-intensity methods. However, the size of this difference was relatively small. In contrast, low-intensity delivery requires markedly less time from therapists and subsequently lower treatment cost. Data provide valuable information for youth anxiety services.Clinical trial registration information: A randomised controlled trial of standard care versus stepped care for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders; https://anzctr.org.au/ ; ACTRN12612000351819.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders in children and young people are common and bring significant personal and societal costs. Over the last two decades, there has been a substantial increase in research evaluating psychological and pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people and exciting and novel research has continued as the field strives to improve efficacy and effectiveness, and accessibility of interventions. This increase in research brings potential to draw together data across studies to compare treatment approaches and advance understanding of what works, how, and for whom. There are challenges to these efforts due largely to variation in studies' outcome measures and variation in the way study characteristics are reported, making it difficult to compare and/or combine studies, and this is likely to lead to faulty conclusions. Studies particularly vary in their reliance on child, parent, and/or assessor-based ratings across a range of outcomes, including remission of anxiety diagnosis, symptom reduction, and other domains of functioning (e.g., family relationships, peer relationships). METHODS: To address these challenges, we convened a series of international activities that brought together the views of key stakeholders (i.e., researchers, mental health professionals, young people, parents/caregivers) to develop recommendations for outcome measurement to be used in treatment trials for anxiety disorders in children and young people. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This article reports the results of these activities and offers recommendations for selection and reporting of outcome measures to (a) guide future research and (b) improve communication of what has been measured and reported. We offer these recommendations to promote international consistency in trial reporting and to enable the field to take full advantage of the great opportunities that come from data sharing going forward.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440754

RESUMO

This study developed an online diagnostic tool for anxiety disorders in youth, and evaluated its reliability and validity amongst 297 children aged 6-16 years (Mage = 9.34, 46% male). Parents completed the online tool, the Youth Online Diagnostic Assessment (YODA), which is scored either using a fully-automated algorithm, or combined with clinician review. In addition, parents and children completed a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and wellbeing. The fully-automated YODA demonstrated relatively weak agreement with the diagnostic interview for identifying the presence of any anxiety disorder and specific anxiety disorders, apart from separation anxiety (which had moderate agreement). The clinician-reviewed YODA showed better agreement than fully-automated scoring, particularly for identifying the presence of any anxiety disorder. The YODA demonstrated good agreement with parent-reported measures of symptoms/interference. The YODA offers a fully or largely automated method to determine the presence of anxiety disorders in youth, with particular value in situations where low-resource assessments are needed. While it currently requires further research and improvement, the YODA provides a promising start to the development of such a tool.

18.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 264, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored whether temperamentally inhibited children who experience early trauma are vulnerable to developing internalizing problems in the face of later life-stressors. METHODS: A validated screen for temperamental inhibition was distributed to parents of young children attending preschools in six government regions of Melbourne, Australia. Screening identified 11% of children as inhibited (703 of 6347 screened) and eligible for a prevention study. Participants were 545 parents of inhibited preschoolers (78% uptake), of whom 84% were followed into mid childhood (age 7-10 years: wave 1, n = 446; wave 2, n = 427; wave 3, n = 426). Parents and children then completed questionnaires for child internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms, and parents received a diagnostic interview for child anxiety disorder. In mid-childhood parents also completed questionnaires annually to describe recent life-stressors experienced by their child, and any potentially traumatic events in the first four years of life. RESULTS: Only one in 14 temperamentally inhibited children had experienced a potentially traumatic event in early childhood. In mid childhood 56% experienced recent life-stressors. Inhibited children who had early life trauma experienced slightly more anxiety disorder and symptoms in mid childhood. Those children with more recent life-stressors in mid childhood also had slightly more symptoms of anxiety and depression. In contrast to stress sensitization, inhibited children with early trauma plus recent stressors did not show especially high mid-childhood internalizing difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Early life trauma and recent life-stressors each convey a small risk for children with an inhibited temperament to develop internalizing problems. Nevertheless, early life stress may not always result in negative sensitization for children in the general population.

20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219638

RESUMO

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programs adapted to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) effectively reduce anxiety when run in university clinics. Forty-nine children aged 8-14 years participated in a waitlist controlled study in a general child psychiatric hospital setting. Post-treatment 30% of the children were free of their primary anxiety diagnoses and 5% were free of all anxiety diagnoses. No statistically significant difference between the two trial conditions were found on primary outcomes. However, statistically significant differences were found on secondary outcomes indicating clinically meaningful treatment responses. Together with high program satisfaction this study shows the CBT program to be feasible and potentially efficacious in treating anxiety in children with ASD in a general child psychiatric hospital setting.

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