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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188402
3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(12): 969-989, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231216

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease that can occur acutely, as in acute myocarditis, or persistently, as in chronic myocarditis or chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Different agents can induce myocarditis, with viruses being the most common triggers. Generally, acute myocarditis affects relatively young people and men more than women. Myocarditis has a broad spectrum of clinical presentations and evolution trajectories, although most cases resolve spontaneously. Patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure symptoms, advanced atrioventricular block, sustained ventricular arrhythmias or cardiogenic shock (the latter known as fulminant myocarditis) are at increased risk for death and heart transplantation. The presentation of chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy may be more subtle, with progressive symptoms of heart failure or appearance of rhythm disturbance, not rarely preceded by an infective episode. Autoimmune disorder or systemic inflammatory conditions can be another significant predisposing substrate of myocarditis, especially in women. Emerging causes of myocarditis are drug-related like the new anticancer therapies, the immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) and Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC) expert consensus document on myocarditis, we propose diagnostic strategies for identifying possible causes of the disease and factors associated with increased risk. Finally, we propose potential treatments and when referring patients to tertiary centers, especially for high-risk patients. Even if endomyocardial biopsy is the invasive diagnostic tool for making definitive diagnosis and differentiation of histological subtypes (i.e., lymphocytic vs eosinophilic vs giant cell myocarditis), it is not always readily available in all centers. Thus, we propose when this exam is mandatory or when it can be postponed or substituted by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This document reflects the Italian perspective on managing patients with myocarditis and their follow-up, considering also current US and European scientific position statements.

5.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032855

RESUMO

Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-AC) is an under-recognized and underdiagnosed disease. Although traditionally considered a rare condition, the epidemiology of the disease is rapidly changing due to the possibility of non-invasive diagnosis through cardiac scintigraphy with bone tracers and novel disease-modifying treatments providing survival advantages. Nevertheless, many questions and grey areas have to be addressed, such as the natural history of ATTR-AC, the role and implications of genotype-phenotype interactions, the best clinical management, prognostic stratification and the most appropriate treatments, including those already recommended for patients with heart failure. Clinicians have to cope with old beliefs and evolving concepts in ATTR-AC. A wide horizon of possibilities for physicians of many specialties is unfolding and awaits discovery.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) in patients with cardiogenic shock and significant mitral regurgitation (MR). BACKGROUND: Patients in cardiogenic shock with severe MR have a poor prognosis in the setting of conventional medical therapy. Because of its favorable safety profile, TMVr is being increasingly used as an acute therapy in this population, though its efficacy remains unknown. METHODS: A multicenter, collaborative, patient-level analysis was conducted. Patients with cardiogenic shock and moderate to severe (3+) or severe (4+) MR who were not surgical candidates were treated with TMVr. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality Secondary outcomes included 90-day mortality, heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and the combined event rate of 90-day mortality and HF hospitalization following dichotomization by TMVr device success. RESULTS: Between January 2011 and February 2019, 141 patients across 14 institutions met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality occurred in 22 patients (15.6%), at 90 days in 38 patients (29.5%), and at one year in 55 patients (42.6%). Median length of hospital stay following TMVr was 10 days (interquartile range: 6 to 20 days). HF hospitalization occurred in 26 patients (18.4%) at a median of 73 days (interquartile range: 26 to 546 days). When stratified by TMVr procedural results, successful TMVr reduced rates of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 0.98; p = 0.04), 90-day mortality (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.78; p = 0.01), and the composite of 90-day mortality and HF hospitalization (HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.90; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: TMVr may improve short- and intermediate-term mortality in high-risk patients with cardiogenic shock and moderate to severe MR. Randomized studies are needed to definitively establish MR as a therapeutic target in patients with cardiogenic shock.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(41): 3981-3983, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111147
8.
Europace ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944767

RESUMO

AIMS: Our aim was to describe the electrocardiographic features of critical COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a multicentric, cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of 431 consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between 10 March and 14 April 2020 who died or were treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. This project is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04367129). Standard ECG was recorded at hospital admission. ECG was abnormal in 93% of the patients. Atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected in 22% of the patients. ECG signs suggesting acute right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) were detected in 30% of the patients. In particular, 43 (10%) patients had the S1Q3T3 pattern, 38 (9%) had incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), and 49 (11%) had complete RBBB. ECG signs of acute RVPO were not statistically different between patients with (n = 104) or without (n=327) invasive mechanical ventilation during ECG recording (36% vs. 28%, P = 0.10). Non-specific repolarization abnormalities and low QRS voltage in peripheral leads were present in 176 (41%) and 23 (5%), respectively. In four patients showing ST-segment elevation, acute myocardial infarction was confirmed with coronary angiography. No ST-T abnormalities suggestive of acute myocarditis were detected. In the subgroup of 110 patients where high-sensitivity troponin I was available, ECG features were not statistically different when stratified for above or below the 5 times upper reference limit value. CONCLUSIONS: The ECG is abnormal in almost all critically ill COVID-19 patients and shows a large spectrum of abnormalities, with signs of acute RVPO in 30% of the patients. Rapid and simple identification of these cases with ECG at hospital admission can facilitate classification of the patients and provide pathophysiological insights.

9.
Amyloid ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracardiac thrombosis is reported to occur frequently in cardiac amyloidosis (CA). However, data regarding arterial thrombo-embolic events (AEs) in CA are limited. We aimed at assessing prevalence, clinical characteristics and predictors of AEs in a large multicentric CA cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-hundred-six consecutive CA patients (134 AL, 73 ATTRm and 199 ATTRwt) from 5 Italian referral centres were retrospectively evaluated and followed-up for a median time of 19 months. Thirty-one patients (7.6%) suffered from an AE, of whom 10 (32.2%) were in sinus rhythm and had no history of AF. There were no significant differences in terms of age, gender and type of CA between patients with or without AEs. Fourteen (7.6%) of 185 patients on anticoagulation had an AE despite therapy. Anticoagulation therapy did not appear to fully protect from the risk of events (HR 1.23, 95%CI 0.52-2.92, p = .64). The only predictor of AEs, in particular among CA patients in sinus rhythm, was a CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 3 (HR 2.84, 95%CI 1.02-7.92, p = .05 in overall population; HR 10.13, 95%CI 1.12-91.19, p = .04 in patients in sinus rhythm). CONCLUSIONS: In our large, multicentric, real-world cohort, prevalence and incidence rate of AEs was high. A consistent proportion of events occurred despite anticoagulation therapy or in patients in sinus rhythm. A higher CHA2DS2-VASc score might identify patients at risk of AEs also among those in sinus rhythm.

10.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 198, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthyretin amyloidosis (also known as ATTR amyloidosis) is a systemic, life-threatening disease characterized by transthyretin (TTR) fibril deposition in organs and tissue. A definitive diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis is often a challenge, in large part because of its heterogeneous presentation. Although ATTR amyloidosis was previously considered untreatable, disease-modifying therapies for the treatment of this disease have recently become available. This article aims to raise awareness of the initial symptoms of ATTR amyloidosis among general practitioners to facilitate identification of a patient with suspicious signs and symptoms. METHODS: These consensus recommendations for the suspicion and diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis were developed through a series of development and review cycles by an international working group comprising key amyloidosis specialists. This working group met to discuss the barriers to early and accurate diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis and develop a consensus recommendation through a thorough search of the literature performed using PubMed Central. RESULTS: The cardiac and peripheral nervous systems are most frequently involved in ATTR amyloidosis; however, many patients often also experience gastrointestinal and other systemic manifestations. Given the multisystemic nature of symptoms, ATTR amyloidosis is often misdiagnosed as a more common disorder, leading to significant delays in the initiation of treatment. Although histologic evaluation has been the gold standard to confirm ATTR amyloidosis, a range of tools are available that can facilitate early and accurate diagnosis. Of importance, genetic testing should be considered early in the evaluation of a patient with unexplained peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: A diagnostic algorithm based on initial red flag symptoms and manifestations of cardiac or neurologic involvement will facilitate identification by the general practitioner of a patient with clinically suspicious symptoms, enabling subsequent referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary specialized medical center.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777358

RESUMO

Tissue characterization represents a prerogative of cardiac magnetic resonance. Beside late gadolinium enhancement, native T1 mapping (nT1m) reveals tissue composition. It could represent a useful tool for example when contrast medium can't be administrated. The present review summarises current evidence about nT1m in main heart diseases.

12.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(9): 1554.e1-1554.e3, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710830

RESUMO

The coexistence of GLA (Pro259Ser, c.775C>T) and MYBPC3 (c.1351+2T>C) mutations was found in a female patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Histology documented abundant vacuolisation with osmiophilic lamellar bodies and positive Gb3 immunohistochemistry. In the presence of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype, the systematic search for unusual findings is mandatory to rule out a phenocopy.

14.
Amyloid ; 27(4): 259-265, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696671

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ATTRv amyloidosis is worldwide spread with endemic foci in Portugal and Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Maiorca, and Cyprus. A national Registry was developed to characterise the epidemiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of ATTRv amyloidosis in Italy and to allow a better planning of diagnostic and therapeutic services. METHODS: Fifteen Italian referral centres for amyloidosis spread all over the country have contributed to the Registry. RESULTS: Four-hundred-forty-seven subjects were enrolled, 187 asymptomatic carriers and 260 affected patients. Thirty-one different mutations were recorded. The seven most represented genetic variants were significantly different in terms of age at onset, clinical features and geographical distribution. National prevalence is 4.33/million with higher values in Southern Italy. Overall symptoms of polyneuropathy were present at disease onset in about half of the patients, symptoms of cardiomyopathy in a quarter of patients, the rest referring carpal tunnel syndrome, dysautonomia or lumbar spinal stenosis. 52.6% of patients were in FAP stage 1, 20.4% in stage 2 and 13.5% in stage 3, while 13.5% patients had no neuropathy, presenting only cardiological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We presented an epidemiological study based on collaboration among referral centres for ATTRv amyloidosis spread in all the Italian territory, using web-based Registry. It provided a detailed map of the regional distribution of the disease. The increased awareness of the disease among general practitioners and medical specialists has contributed to reduce the diagnostic delay and the rate of misdiagnosis. The Registry will allow to collect also future information about clinical and instrumental follow-up.

15.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 145: 74-83, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535041

RESUMO

Despite recent progress in the understanding of cardiac ion channel function and its role in inherited forms of ventricular arrhythmias, the molecular basis of cardiac conduction disorders often remains unresolved. We aimed to elucidate the genetic background of familial atrioventricular block (AVB) using a whole exome sequencing (WES) approach. In monozygotic twins with a third-degree AVB and in another, unrelated family with first-degree AVB, we identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation in the POPDC2 gene causing a premature stop at position 188 (POPDC2W188⁎), deleting parts of its cAMP binding-domain. Popeye-domain containing (POPDC) proteins are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and the heart, with particularly high expression of POPDC2 in the sinoatrial node of the mouse. We now show by quantitative PCR experiments that in the human heart the POPDC-modulated two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-1 is preferentially expressed in the atrioventricular node. Co-expression studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that POPDC2W188⁎ causes a loss-of-function with impaired TREK-1 modulation. Consistent with the high expression level of POPDC2 in the murine sinoatrial node, POPDC2W188⁎ knock-in mice displayed stress-induced sinus bradycardia and pauses, a phenotype that was previously also reported for POPDC2 and TREK-1 knock-out mice. We propose that the POPDC2W188⁎ loss-of-function mutation contributes to AVB pathogenesis by an aberrant modulation of TREK-1, highlighting that POPDC2 represents a novel arrhythmia gene for cardiac conduction disorders.

16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 80: 66-72, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drugs for neurohormonal antagonism are usually denied to patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) because of safety concerns. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CA at a tertiary referral centre from 2009 to 2019 were enrolled. In the absence of contraindications, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) were started or up-titrated. RESULTS: 99 patients were evaluated (72% men, age 80 years [72,83], 33% light-chain and 67% transthyretin amyloidosis); 56% were started on or underwent up-titration of a beta-blocker, 25% of ACEi/ARB, and 39% of MRA; beta-blockers were then prescribed to 87% of patients, ACEi/ARB to 75%, and MRA to 63%, with median bisoprolol, ramipril, valsartan, and spironolactone daily equivalent doses of 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 80 mg, and 25 mg, respectively. Patients starting or starting/up-titrating a beta-blocker did not show a higher frequency of hypotension, fatigue, syncope, symptomatic bradycardia, need for pacemaker implantation, or HF hospitalization. Lower stroke volume and cardiac output (CO) predicted HF hospitalization regardless of amyloidosis type; lower left ventricular ejection fraction predicted hypotension, and lower CO and diastolic blood pressure predicted syncope. Patients who had an ACEi/ARB or MRA being started or up-titrated did not experience more adverse events than other patients. CONCLUSIONS: ACEi/ARB and MRA can be safely used in CA, provided that no contraindications are present, treatment is started at a low dose and slowly up-titrated, and patients are monitored quite closely. Beta-blocker therapy is less tolerated in patients with AL amyloidosis and/or worse haemodynamic function.

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