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1.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473267

RESUMO

Cardiac amyloidosis is emerging as an underdiagnosed cause of heart failure and mortality. Growing literature suggests that a noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is now feasible. However, the diagnostic criteria and utilization of imaging in cardiac amyloidosis are not standardized. In this paper, Part 2 of a series, a panel of international experts from multiple societies define the diagnostic criteria for cardiac amyloidosis and appropriate utilization of echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of patients with known or suspected cardiac amyloidosis.

3.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(9): e006075, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480867

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathy is a manifestation of transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR), which is an underrecognized systemic disease whereby the transthyretin protein misfolds to form fibrils that deposit in various tissues and organs. ATTR amyloidosis is debilitating and associated with poor life expectancy, especially in those with cardiac dysfunction, but a variety of treatment options have recently become available. Considered a rare disease, ATTR amyloidosis may be more prevalent than thought, particularly in older persons. Diagnosis is often delayed because of a lack of disease awareness and the heterogeneity of symptoms at presentation. Given the recent availability of effective treatments, early recognition and diagnosis are especially critical because treatment is likely more effective earlier in the disease course. The Amyloidosis Research Consortium recently convened a group of experts in ATTR amyloidosis who, through an iterative process, agreed on best practices for suspicion, diagnosis, and characterization of disease. This review describes these consensus recommendations for ATTR associated with cardiomyopathy as a resource to aid cardiologists and others in the recognition and diagnosis of ATTR associated with cardiomyopathy. Included in this review is an overview of red flag signs and symptoms and a recommended diagnostic approach, including testing for monoclonal protein, scintigraphy, or biopsy and, if ATTR associated with cardiomyopathy is identified, TTR genotyping.

5.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468377

RESUMO

Cardiac amyloidosis is emerging as an underdiagnosed cause of heart failure and mortality. Growing literature suggests that a noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is now feasible. However, the diagnostic criteria and utilization of imaging in cardiac amyloidosis are not standardized. In this paper, Part 2 of a series, a panel of international experts from multiple societies define the diagnostic criteria for cardiac amyloidosis and appropriate utilization of echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of patients with known or suspected cardiac amyloidosis.

6.
Drugs ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432436

RESUMO

New therapeutic strategies aimed to tackle the rising socio-economic burden of heart failure (HF) have become an impelling priority. The new pharmacological class of angiotensin (Ang) receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) prompted a real conceptual change in the treatment of HF moving from only the inhibition of the renin-Ang-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system to a strategy based on the concomitant pharmacological enhancement of endogenous natriuretic peptides. Sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class ARNI, has reduced the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalisation, sudden cardiac death, disease progression and improved quality of life, compared with enalapril, in patients on evidence-based contemporary medical therapy. Our review underlines the increasing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan, which may be considered a new disease-modifying therapy and, after about 30 years of research, a real step forward in HF pharmacological therapy.

7.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 20(10): 631-639, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436678

RESUMO

: Regular physical activity is a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to its positive effects in reducing several cardiovascular risk factors. Current guidelines on CVD suggest for healthy adults to perform at least 150 min/week of moderate intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity. The current review explores the effects of physical activity on some risk factors, specifically: diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Physical activity induces an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in glucose control independently of weight loss, which may further contribute to ameliorate both diabetes-associated defects. The benefits of adherence to physical activity have recently proven to extend beyond surrogate markers of metabolic syndrome and diabetes by reducing hard endpoints such as mortality. In recent years, obesity has greatly increased in all countries. Weight losses in these patients have been associated with improvements in many cardiometabolic risk factors. Strategies against obesity included caloric restriction, however greater results have been obtained with association of diet and physical activity. Similarly, the beneficial effect of training on blood pressure via its action on sympathetic activity and on other factors such as improvement of endothelial function and reduction of oxidative stress can have played a role in preventing hypertension development in active subjects. The main international guidelines on prevention of CVD suggest to encourage and to increase physical activity to improve lipid pattern, hypertension and others cardiovascular risk factor. An active action is required to the National Society of Cardiology together with the Italian Society of Sports Cardiology to improve the prescription of organized physical activity in patients with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors.

8.
Amyloid ; 26(3): 103-111, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339362

RESUMO

Timely diagnosis of hereditary variant transthyretin (ATTRv) amyloidosis is critical for appropriate treatment and optimal outcomes. Significant differences are seen between patients receiving treatment and those who are not, though disease progression may continue despite treatment in some patients. Healthcare professionals caring for patients with ATTRv amyloidosis therefore need reliable ongoing assessments to understand the continuing course of disease and make appropriate treatment choices on an individual basis. Various signs and symptoms experienced by patients may be evaluated as indicators of disease progression, though there is currently no validated score that can be used for such ongoing assessment. Recognizing this situation, a group of clinicians highly experienced in ATTR amyloidosis developed an approach to understand and define disease progression in diagnosed and treated patients with ATTRv amyloidosis. The suggested approach is based on the recognition of distinct phenotypes which may usefully inform the particular tools, tests and investigations that are most likely to be appropriate for individual patients. It is aimed at implementing appropriate and ongoing assessment of patients being treated for ATTRv amyloidosis, such that the effectiveness of management can be usefully assessed throughout the course of disease and management can be tailored according to the patient's requirements.

9.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349064

RESUMO

In an era of rapid technological development and evolving diagnostic possibilities, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is living an authentic "renaissance" in myocardial diseases. To date, the ECG remains an irreplaceable first step when evaluating patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and an abnormal ECG may be the only manifestation of disease at an early stage. In some instances, specific electrical anomalies may differentiate HCM from phenocopies such as cardiac amyloidosis and glycogen storage diseases. The exponential growth in knowledge of the complexity of HCM has led to new challenges in terms of early identification of the disease, differential diagnosis, risk stratification, and development of targeted therapies. In this scenario, the apparently "old fashioned" ECG and the array of ECG-based techniques, ranging from Holter monitoring and loop recorders to exercise testing, are as contemporary as ever. In the present review, we discuss the current role of the ECG in the diagnosis and management of HCM, focusing on various clinical settings where its appropriate use and interpretation can make a difference.

11.
Virchows Arch ; 475(3): 279-301, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297595

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, which may occur in isolation or as part of systemic infectious/immune/autoimmune conditions, characterized by vast aetiologic, clinical and histopathologic heterogeneity. The broad spectrum of myocarditis can be categorized according to the prevalent histopathologic pattern including lymphocytic, lympho-histiocytic, eosinophilic and neutrophilic forms, giant cell myocarditis and myocarditis with granulomata. Diverse histopathologic substrates generally reflect different aetiologies and pathogenetic mechanisms and may be critical to clinical decision-making. Active vasculitis, when present, completes the inflammatory spectrum. Unfortunately, the correlation of histopathologic patterns, clinical presentation and disease course in myocarditis is still largely unresolved, due to limited availability of bioptic samples at specific stages of disease and impracticality of serial sampling. We here review the elements supporting an aetiology-driven diagnostic work-up in myocarditis, emphasizing the importance of integrating pathologic studies with clinical features and information derived from multimodality imaging. Furthermore, we explore myocardial inflammation in genetic cardiomyopathies, its role in driving clinical variability and the potential of transcriptomic and proteomic analysis in our understanding of these complex interrelations.


Assuntos
Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/metabolismo , Miocardite/patologia , Biópsia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Humanos , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteômica
12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(8): 709-716, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302046

RESUMO

Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a life-threatening, progressive, infiltrative disease caused by the deposition of transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the heart, and can often be overlooked as a common cause of heart failure. Delayed diagnosis due to lack of disease awareness and misdiagnosis results in a poorer prognosis. Early accurate diagnosis is therefore key to improving patient outcomes, particularly in the context of both the recent approval of tafamidis in some countries (including the United States) for the treatment of ATTR-CM, and of other promising therapies under development. With the availability of scintigraphy as an inexpensive, noninvasive diagnostic tool, the rationale to screen for ATTR-CM in high-risk populations of patients is increasingly warranted. Here the authors propose a framework of clinical scenarios in which screening for ATTR-CM is recommended, as well as diagnostic "red flags" that can assist in its diagnosis among the wider population of patients with heart failure.

13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(6): 335-337, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184318
14.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111153

RESUMO

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein synthesized mostly by the liver. As a result of gene mutations or as an ageing-related phenomenon, TTR molecules may misfold and deposit in the heart and in other organs as amyloid fibrils. Cardiac involvement in TTR-related amyloidosis (ATTR) manifests typically as left ventricular pseudohypertrophy and/or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. ATTR is an underdiagnosed disorder as well as a crucial determinant of morbidity and mortality, thus justifying the current quest for a safe and effective treatment. Therapies targeting cardiac damage and its direct consequences may yield limited benefit, mostly related to dyspnoea relief through diuretics. For many years, liver or combined heart and liver transplantation have been the only available treatments for patients with mutations causing ATTR, including those with cardiac involvement. The therapeutic options now include several pharmacological agents that inhibit hepatic synthesis of TTR, stabilize the tetramer, or disrupt fibrils. Following the positive results of a phase 3 trial on tafamidis, and preliminary findings on patisiran and inotersen in patients with ATTR-related neuropathy and cardiac involvement, we provide an update on this rapidly evolving field, together with practical recommendations on the management of cardiac involvement.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 77-82, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although imaging techniques have demonstrated the existence of microvascular abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a detailed histopathological assessment is lacking as well as a comparison between different phases of the disease. We aimed to compare microvasculopathy and myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) versus end-stage (ES) HCM. METHODS: 27 myectomy specimens of HOCM patients and 30 ES-HCM explanted hearts were analyzed. Myocardial fibrosis was quantitatively determined with dedicated software and qualitatively classified as scar-like or interstitial. Intramural coronary arteries were evaluated separately according to lumen diameter: 100-500 µ versus <100 µ. Microvasculopathy assessment included the description of medial and intimal abnormalities and stenosis grading. The two subgroups were compared considering only the anterobasal septum of ES explanted hearts. RESULTS: Median value of fibrosis in the anterobasal septum of explanted hearts was 34.6% as opposed to 10.3% of myectomy specimens (p < 0.001). Scar-like fibrosis was widely found in ES hearts while interstitial fibrosis was distinctive of HOCM (p < 0.001). All slides showed 100-500 µ microvasculopathy without any differences between subgroups in terms of lumen narrowing, extent of the disease and type of parietal involvement. Among ES hearts these lesions were associated with scar-like fibrosis (p = 0.034). <100-µ microvasculopathy was also frequent with no differences between subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Microvasculopathy is an intrinsic feature of HCM with similar characteristics across the natural phases of the disease. Conversely, myocardial fibrosis changes over time with ES hearts showing a three-fold greater amount, mainly scar-like. ES showed a closer association between microvasculopathy and replacement fibrosis.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938420

RESUMO

AIMS: Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is a heterogeneous disorder with cardiac, neurologic, and mixed phenotypes. We describe the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of this disease in continental Western Europe as it appears from the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Survey (THAOS). METHODS AND RESULTS: THAOS is an ongoing, worldwide, longitudinal, observational survey established to study differences in presentation, diagnosis, and natural history in ATTR amyloidosis subjects. At data cut-off, 1411 symptomatic subjects from nine continental Western European countries were enrolled in THAOS [1286 hereditary (ATTRm) amyloidosis; 125 wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) amyloidosis]. Genotypes and phenotypes varied notably by country. Four mutations (Val122Ile, Leu111Met, Thr60Ala, and Ile68Leu), and ATTRwt, were associated with a mainly cardiac phenotype showing symmetric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, normal diastolic LV dimensions and volume, and mildly depressed LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Morphologic and functional abnormalities on echocardiogram were significantly more severe in subjects with cardiac (n = 210), compared with a mixed (n = 298), phenotype: higher median (Q1-Q3) interventricular septal thickness [18 (16-21) vs. 16 (13-20) mm; P = 0.0006]; and more frequent incidence of LVEF <50% (38.1 vs. 17.5%; P = 0.0008). Subjects with cardiac mutations or ATTRwt (or cardiac or mixed phenotype) had a lower survival rate than subjects in other genotype (or the neurologic phenotype) categories (P < 0.0001, for both). CONCLUSION: ATTR amyloidosis genotypes and phenotypes are highly heterogeneous in continental Western Europe. A geographic map of the different disease profiles and awareness that a subset of subjects have a dominant cardiac phenotype, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, at presentation can facilitate the clinical recognition of this underdiagnosed disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00628745.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart team-guided incomplete coronary revascularization in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). BACKGROUND: Revascularization strategy of CAD diagnosed with routine coronary angiography before TAVI is uncertain. METHODS: Five hundred and forty consecutive TAVI patients were classified as having CAD or normal coronary arteries (no-CAD). Within the CAD group, patients were further classified as those with complete (CR) versus incomplete revascularization (IR). Revascularization strategy was guided by the Heart Team following an algorithm largely based on current guidelines. Main outcome of interest was the incidence of 5-year cardiovascular (CV) death. RESULTS: Prevalence of CAD was 53.9%. CAD patients showed significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 55.8 ± 13.4% CAD vs. 61.4% ± 12.1 no-CAD, p < .0001), lower gradients, and larger ventricular volumes in comparison with the no-CAD group. Within the CAD group, 138 patients (47.4%) received CR and 153 (52.6%) IR. In-hospital mortality was 3.9%, without significant difference between groups (4.0% no-CAD vs. 3.8% CAD, p = .88; 2.9% CR vs. 4.6% IR, p = .45). Median follow-up was 57.8 months. Five-year survival free from CV death was 79.6% in the CAD versus 77.9% in the no-CAD group (p = .98), and 84.3% in the CR versus 74.3% in the IR groups (p = .25). These results were confirmed excluding patients with previous revascularization. At multivariable analyses, presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was significantly associated with 5-year CV death. CONCLUSIONS: CAD is frequent in patients undergoing TAVI but portends an adverse prognosis only when presenting with ACS. Heart-team directed complete or reasonably incomplete revascularization was associated with comparable outcomes.

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