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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445313

RESUMO

High levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in tumors correlate with poor outcomes with several types of cancers due to HA-driven support of adhesion, migration and proliferation of cells. In this study we explored how to enhance the degradation of HA into low-molecular fragments, which cannot prevent the immune system to fight tumor proliferation and metastases. The physiological solution of HA was exposed to oxidative degradation by ascorbate and cupric ions in the presence of either one of three ortho isomeric Mn(III) substituted N-alkyl- and alkoxyalkylpyridylporphyrins or para isomeric Mn(III) N-methylpyridyl analog, commonly known as mimics of superoxide dismutase. The changes in hyaluronan degradation kinetics by four Mn(III) porphyrins were monitored by measuring the alteration in the dynamic viscosity of the HA solution. The ortho compounds MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010, AEOL10113), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001) and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ are able to redox cycle with ascorbate whereby producing H2O2 which is subsequently coupled with Cu(I) to produce the •OH radical essential for HA degradation. Conversely, with the para analog, MnTM-4-PyP5+, no catalysis of HA degradation was demonstrated, due to its inertness towards redox cycling with ascorbate. The impact of different Mn(III)-porphyrins on the HA decay was further clarified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. The ability to catalyze the degradation of HA in a biological milieu, in the presence of cupric ions and ascorbate under the conditions of high tumor oxidative stress provides further insight into the anticancer potential of redox-active ortho isomeric Mn(III) porphyrins.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Cobre/química , Magnésio/química , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207929

RESUMO

A series of thiosemicarbazone-coumarin hybrids (HL1-HL3 and H2L4) has been synthesised in 12 steps and used for the preparation of mono- and dinuclear copper(II) complexes, namely Cu(HL1)Cl2 (1), Cu(HL2)Cl2 (2), Cu(HL3)Cl2 (3) and Cu2(H2L4)Cl4 (4), isolated in hydrated or solvated forms. Both the organic hybrids and their copper(II) and dicopper(II) complexes were comprehensively characterised by analytical and spectroscopic techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR, IR and UV-vis spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and spectroelectrochemistry (SEC). Re-crystallisation of 1 from methanol afforded single crystals of copper(II) complex with monoanionic ligand Cu(L1)Cl, which could be studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD). The prepared copper(II) complexes and their metal-free ligands revealed antiproliferative activity against highly resistant cancer cell lines, including triple negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, sensitive COLO-205 and multidrug resistant COLO-320 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, as well as in healthy human lung fibroblasts MRC-5 and compared to those for triapine and doxorubicin. In addition, their ability to reduce the tyrosyl radical in mouse R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase has been ascertained by EPR spectroscopy and the results were compared with those for triapine.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Piridinas/síntese química , Tiossemicarbazonas/síntese química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Piridinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiossemicarbazonas/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299414

RESUMO

Two 15-membered octaazamacrocyclic nickel(II) complexes are investigated by theoretical methods to shed light on their affinity forwards binding and reducing CO2. In the first complex 1[NiIIL]0, the octaazamacrocyclic ligand is grossly unsaturated (π-conjugated), while in the second 1[NiIILH]2+ one, the macrocycle is saturated with hydrogens. One and two-electron reductions are described using Mulliken population analysis, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, localized orbitals, and domain averaged fermi holes, including the characterization of the Ni-CCO2 bond and the oxidation state of the central Ni atom. It was found that in the [NiLH] complex, the central atom is reduced to Ni0 and/or NiI and is thus able to bind CO2 via a single σ bond. In addition, the two-electron reduced 3[NiL]2- species also shows an affinity forwards CO2.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 60(15): 11297-11319, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279079

RESUMO

Three new thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) HL1-HL3 as triapine analogues bearing a redox-active phenolic moiety at the terminal nitrogen atom were prepared. Reactions of HL1-HL3 with CuCl2·2H2O in anoxic methanol afforded three copper(II) complexes, namely, Cu(HL1)Cl2 (1), [Cu(L2)Cl] (2'), and Cu(HL3)Cl2 (3), in good yields. Solution speciation studies revealed that the metal-free ligands are stable as HL1-HL3 at pH 7.4, while being air-sensitive in the basic pH range. In dimethyl sulfoxide they exist as a mixture of E and Z isomers. A mechanism of the E/Z isomerization with an inversion at the nitrogen atom of the Schiff base imine bond is proposed. The monocationic complexes [Cu(L1-3)]+ are the most abundant species in aqueous solutions at pH 7.4. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical studies of 1, 2', and 3 confirmed their redox activity in both the cathodic and the anodic region of potentials. The one-electron reduction was identified as metal-centered by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroelectrochemistry. An electrochemical oxidation pointed out the ligand-centered oxidation, while chemical oxidations of HL1 and HL2 as well as 1 and 2' afforded several two-electron and four-electron oxidation products, which were isolated and comprehensively characterized. Complexes 1 and 2' showed an antiproliferative activity in Colo205 and Colo320 cancer cell lines with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values in the low micromolar concentration range, while 3 with the most closely related ligand to triapine displayed the best selectivity for cancer cells versus normal fibroblast cells (MRC-5). HL1 and 1 in the presence of 1,4-dithiothreitol are as potent inhibitors of mR2 ribonucleotide reductase as triapine.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Piridinas/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Eletroquímica , Humanos , Oxirredução , Soluções , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(24): 13405-13413, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755286

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, characterized by an aberrant metabolic phenotype with high metastatic capacity, resulting in poor patient prognoses and low survival rates. We designed a series of novel AuIII cyclometalated prodrugs of energy-disrupting Type II antidiabetic drugs namely, metformin and phenformin. Prodrug activation and release of the metformin ligand was achieved by tuning the cyclometalated AuIII fragment. The lead complex 3met was 6000-fold more cytotoxic compared to uncoordinated metformin and significantly reduced tumor burden in mice with aggressive breast cancers with lymphocytic infiltration into tumor tissues. These effects was ascribed to 3met interfering with energy production in TNBCs and inhibiting associated pro-survival responses to induce deadly metabolic catastrophe.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Metformina/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Humanos , Metformina/química , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Fenformin/química , Fenformin/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Transplante Heterólogo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440755

RESUMO

The in situ spectroelectrochemical cyclic voltammetric studies of the antimony-monocapped nickel(II) and iron(II) tris-pyridineoximates with a labile triethylantimony cross-linking group and Zr(IV)/Hf(IV) phthalocyaninate complexes were performed in order to understand the nature of the redox events in the molecules of heterodinuclear zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) phthalocyaninate-capped derivatives. Electronic structures of their 1e-oxidized and 1e-electron-reduced forms were experimentally studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and UV-vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemical experiments and supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The investigated hybrid molecular systems that combine a transition metal (pseudo)clathrochelate and a Zr/Hf-phthalocyaninate moiety exhibit quite rich redox activity both in the cathodic and in the anodic region. These binuclear compounds and their precursors were tested as potential catalysts in oxidation reactions of cyclohexane and the results are discussed.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cicloexanos/química , Háfnio/química , Zircônio/química , Catálise , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Indóis/química , Ferro/química , Modelos Moleculares , Níquel/química , Oxirredução , Oximas/química , Piridinas/química
7.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961653

RESUMO

Thiosemicarbazones continue to attract the interest of researchers as potential anticancer drugs. For example, 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, or triapine, is the most well-known representative of this class of compounds that has entered multiple phase I and II clinical trials. Two new triapine derivatives HL1 and HL2 were prepared by condensation reactions of 2-pyridinamidrazone and S-methylisothiosemicarbazidium chloride with 3-N-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl) amino-pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, followed by a Boc-deprotection procedure. Subsequent reaction of HL1 and HL2 with CuCl2·2H2O in 1:1 molar ratio in methanol produced the complexes [CuII(HL1)Cl2]·H2O (1·H2O) and [CuII(HL2)Cl2] (2). The reaction of HL2 with Fe(NO3)3∙9H2O in 2:1 molar ratio in the presence of triethylamine afforded the complex [FeIII(L2)2]NO3∙0.75H2O (3∙0.75H2O), in which the isothiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate monoanionic ligand. The crystal structures of HL1, HL2 and metal complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The UV-Vis and EPR spectroelectrochemical measurements revealed that complexes 1 and 2 underwent irreversible reduction of Cu(II) with subsequent ligand release, while 3 showed an almost reversible electrochemical reduction in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Aqueous solution behaviour of HL1 and 1, as well as of HL2 and its complex 2, was monitored as well. Complexes 1-3 were tested against ovarian carcinoma cells, as well as noncancerous embryonic kidney cells, in comparison to respective free ligands, triapine and cisplatin. While the free ligands HL1 and HL2 were devoid of antiproliferative activity, their respective metal complexes showed remarkable antiproliferative activity in a micromolar concentration range. The activity was not related to the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) R2 protein, but rather to cancer cell homeostasis disturbance-leading to the disruption of cancer cell signalling.

8.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825480

RESUMO

A series of four water-soluble salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazones with a positively charged trimethylammonium moiety ([H2LR]Cl, R = H, Me, Et, Ph) and four copper(II) complexes [Cu(HLR)Cl]Cl (1-4) were synthesised with the aim to study (i) their antiproliferative activity in cancer cells and, (ii) for the first time for thiosemicarbazones, the interaction with membrane transport proteins, specifically organic cation transporters OCT1-3. The compounds were comprehensively characterised by analytical, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction methods. The highest cytotoxic effect was observed in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-5YSY after 24 h exposure and follows the rank order: 3 > 2 > 4 > cisplatin > 1 >>[H2LR]Cl. The copper(II) complexes showed marked interaction with OCT1-3, comparable to that of well-known OCT inhibitors (decynium 22, prazosin and corticosterone) in the cell-based radiotracer uptake assays. The work paves the way for the development of more potent and selective anticancer drugs and/or OCT inhibitors.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 59(15): 10650-10664, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649194

RESUMO

Nickel(II), copper(II), and palladium(II) complexes MLH, where M = Ni (1), Cu (2), Pd (3), and MLOMe, where M = Ni (4), Cu (5), Pd (6), have been prepared by reactions of NiCl2·6H2O, Cu(OAc)2·H2O, and PdCl2(MeCN)2 with 14-membered bis-semicarbazide hexaazamacrocycles H2LH and H2LOMe in dimethylformamide (DMF). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, IR, UV-vis, and 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, 1H-1H TOCSY, 1H-1H NOESY, 1H-13C HSQC, 1H-13C HMBC) NMR spectra (1, 3, 4, and 6), and X-ray diffraction (2, 4-6). The complexes with MIIN4 coordination environment have S = 0, 1/2, 0 ground states for Ni, Cu, and Pd, respectively. The electrochemical behavior of 1-6 was investigated in detail. The electronic structures of 1e-oxidized species were studied by EPR, UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry, and DFT calculations, indicating the redox-noninnocent behavior of the ligands. Compounds 1-6 were tested in the oxidation of styrene and C-C coupling (Henry and Knoevenagel condensations). Compounds 2 and 5 selectively catalyze the microwave-assisted oxidation of neat styrene to benzaldehyde (up to 88% yield), whereas the 1 and 4 catalytic systems afforded up to 99% ß-nitroethanol yield with an appreciable diastereoselectivity toward the formation of the anti isomer.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 11133-11145, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373487

RESUMO

Nickel(II) complexes with 15-membered (1-5) and 14-membered (6) octaazamacrocyclic ligands derived from 1,2- and 1,3-diketones and S-methylisothiocarbohydrazide were prepared by template synthesis. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction. The complexes contain a low-spin nickel(II) ion in a square-planar coordination environment. The electrochemical behavior of 1-6 was investigated in detail, and the electronic structure of 1e-oxidized and 1e-reduced species was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, UV-vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemistry, and density functional theory calculations indicating redox noninnocent behavior of the ligands. Compounds 1-6 were tested in the microwave-assisted solvent-free oxidation of cyclohexane by tert-butyl hydroperoxide to produce the industrially significant mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (i.e., A/K oil). The results showed that the catalytic activity was affected by several factors, namely, reaction time and temperature or amount and type of catalyst. The best values for A/K oil yield (23%, turnover number of 1.1 × 102) were obtained with compound 6 after 2 h of microwave irradiation at 100 °C.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 48(28): 10464-10478, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125040

RESUMO

Four Schiff bases derived from 7-hydrazin-yl-5,8-dihydroindolo[2,3-d][2]benzazepin-(6H)-one and its bromo-substituted analogue (HL1-HL4) and four copper(ii) complexes 1-4 have been synthesised and fully characterised by standard spectroscopic methods (1H and 13C NMR, UV-vis), ESI mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroelectrochemistry. In addition, two previously reported complexes with paullone ligands 5 and 6 were prepared and studied for comparison reasons. The CuII ion in 1-4 is five-coordinate and adopts a square-pyramidal or slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The ligands HL1-4 act as tridentate, the other two coordination places are occupied by two chlorido co-ligands. The organic ligands in 2 and 3 are bound tighter to copper(ii) when compared to related paullone ligands in 5 and 6. The new compounds show very strong cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma doxorubicin-sensitive Colo 205 and multidrug resistant Colo 320 cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar concentration range.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Indóis/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzazepinas/síntese química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Dalton Trans ; 48(18): 5909-5922, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638234

RESUMO

Three dimanganese(iii) complexes have been synthesised and fully characterised by standard spectroscopic methods and spectroelectrochemistry. Each MnIII ion is chelated by a salen type ligand (H2L), but there is variation in the bridging group: LMn(OOCCH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCOO)MnL, LMn(OOCC6H4COO)MnL, and LMn(OOCC6H4C6H4COO)MnL. X-ray diffraction revealed an axial compression of each six-coordinate high-spin d4 MnIII ion, which is a Jahn-Teller-active ion. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility and variable temperature-variable field (VTVH) magnetisation measurements, as well as high-frequency and -field EPR (HFEPR) spectroscopy were used to accurately describe the magnetic properties of the complexes, not only the single-ion spin Hamiltonian parameters: g-values and zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters D and E, but also the exchange interaction constant J between the two ions, which has been seldom determined for a di-MnIII complex, particularly when there is more than a single bridging atom. Quantum chemical calculations reproduced well the electronic and geometric structure of these unusual complexes, and, in particular, their electronic absorption spectra along with the spin Hamiltonian and exchange parameters.

13.
J Med Chem ; 62(2): 512-530, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507173

RESUMO

Six morpholine-(iso)thiosemicarbazone hybrids HL1-HL6 and their Cu(II) complexes with good-to-moderate solubility and stability in water were synthesized and characterized. Cu(II) complexes [Cu(L1-6)Cl] (1-6) formed weak dimeric associates in the solid state, which did not remain intact in solution as evidenced by ESI-MS. The lead proligands and Cu(II) complexes displayed higher antiproliferative activity in cancer cells than triapine. In addition, complexes 2-5 were found to specifically inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with MIC50 values at 2-5 µg/mL. Insights into the processes controlling intracellular accumulation and mechanism of action were investigated for 2 and 5, including the role of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibition, endoplasmic reticulum stress induction, and regulation of other cancer signaling pathways. Their ability to moderately inhibit R2 RNR protein in the presence of dithiothreitol is likely related to Fe chelating properties of the proligands liberated upon reduction.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Morfolinas/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Nucleares Órfãos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Nucleares Órfãos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1279-1287, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944059

RESUMO

Turning on and off associations between molecules by a reversible change in their redox states is a convenient way of controlling self-assembly and hence for advancing supramolecular chemistry. Here we present systematic studies on a selection of extended tetrathiafulvalenes with thienoacene spacers. By cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry and in situ EPR/UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry, in combination with computations, we have elucidated how the number and orientations of thiophene rings in the spacer between the two dithiafulvene rings influence both the donor strength and association properties. The radical cations and their associates were found to cover a remarkable large region of the UV-Vis-NIR spectrum, but the appearance of the absorption spectrum of the radical cations as well as of the unassociated dications also depended strongly on the exact molecular structure.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 57(17): 10702-10717, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106571

RESUMO

With the aim of enhancing the biological activity of ruthenium-nitrosyl complexes, new compounds with four equatorially bound indazole ligands, namely, trans-[RuCl(Hind)4(NO)]Cl2·H2O ([3]Cl2·H2O) and trans-[RuOH(Hind)4(NO)]Cl2·H2O ([4]Cl2·H2O), have been prepared from trans-[Ru(NO2)2(Hind)4] ([2]). When the pH-dependent solution behavior of [3]Cl2·H2O and [4]Cl2·H2O was studied, two new complexes with two deprotonated indazole ligands were isolated, namely [RuCl(ind)2(Hind)2(NO)] ([5]) and [RuOH(ind)2(Hind)2(NO)] ([6]). All prepared compounds were comprehensively characterized by spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR) techniques. Compound [2], as well as [3]Cl2·2(CH3)2CO, [4]Cl2·2(CH3)2CO, and [5]·0.8CH2Cl2, the latter three obtained by recrystallization of the first isolated compounds (hydrates or anhydrous species) from acetone and dichloromethane, respectively, were studied by X-ray diffraction methods. The photoinduced release of NO in [3]Cl2 and [4]Cl2 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and resulting paramagnetic NO species were detected by EPR spectroscopy. The quantum yields of NO release were calculated and found to be low (3-6%), which could be explained by NO dissociation and recombination dynamics, assessed by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The geometry and electronic parameters of Ru species formed upon NO release were identified by DFT calculations. The complexes [3]Cl2 and [4]Cl2 showed considerable antiproliferative activity in human cancer cell lines with IC50 values in low micromolar or submicromolar concentration range and are suitable for further development as potential anticancer drugs. p53-dependence of Ru-NO complexes [3]Cl2 and [4]Cl2 was studied and p53-independent mode of action was confirmed. The effects of NO release on the cytotoxicity of the complexes with or without light irradiation were investigated using NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO.


Assuntos
Indazóis/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Compostos Organometálicos , Rutênio , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Eletroquímica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Rutênio/farmacologia , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
16.
Dalton Trans ; 46(35): 11925-11941, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850133

RESUMO

The relationship between cis-trans isomerism and anticancer activity has been mainly addressed for square-planar metal complexes, in particular, for platinum(ii), e.g., cis- and trans-[PtCl2(NH3)2], and a number of related compounds, of which, however, only cis-counterparts are in clinical use today. For octahedral metal complexes, this effect of geometrical isomerism on anticancer activity has not been investigated systematically, mainly because the relevant isomers are still unavailable. An example of such an octahedral complex is trans-[RuCl4(Hind)2]-, which is in clinical trials now as its indazolium (KP1019) or sodium salt (NKP1339), but the corresponding cis-isomers remain inaccessible. We report the synthesis of Na[cis-OsIIICl4(κN2-1H-ind)2]·(Na[1]) suggesting a route to the cis-isomer of NKP1339. The procedure involves heating (H2ind)[OsIVCl5(κN1-2H-ind)] in a high boiling point organic solvent resulting in an Anderson rearrangement with the formation of cis-[OsIVCl4(κN2-1H-ind)2] ([1]) in high yield. The transformation is accompanied by an indazole coordination mode switch from κN1 to κN2 and stabilization of the 1H-indazole tautomer. Fully reversible spectroelectrochemical reduction of [1] in acetonitrile at 0.46 V vs. NHE is accompanied by a change in electronic absorption bands indicating the formation of cis-[OsIIICl4(κN2-1H-ind)2]- ([1]-). Chemical reduction of [1] in methanol with NaBH4 followed by addition of nBu4NCl afforded the osmium(iii) complex nBu4N[cis-OsIIICl4(κN2-1H-ind)2] (nBu4N[1]). A metathesis reaction of nBu4N[1] with an ion exchange resin led to the isolation of the water-soluble salt Na[1]. The X-ray diffraction crystal structure of [1]·Me2CO was determined and compared with that of trans-[OsIVCl4(κN2-1H-ind)2]·2Me2SO (2·2Me2SO), also prepared in this work. EPR spectroscopy was performed on the OsIII complexes and the results were analyzed by ligand-field and quantum chemical theories. We furthermore assayed effects of [1] and Na[1] on cell viability and proliferation in comparison with trans-[OsIVCl4(κN1-2H-ind)2] [3] and cisplatin and found a strong reduction of cell viability at concentrations between 30 and 300 µM in different cancer cell lines (HT29, H446, 4T1 and HEK293). HT-29 cells are less sensitive to cisplatin than 4T1 cells, but more sensitive to [1] and Na[1], as shown by decreased proliferation and viability as well as an increased late apoptotic/necrotic cell population.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Indazóis/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Osmio/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Isomerismo , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Compostos de Rutênio
17.
Dalton Trans ; 46(35): 11817-11829, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848942

RESUMO

A new high-spin d4 roughly trigonal-bipyramidal (TBP) manganese(iii) complex with a salen type ligand (H2L), namely MnL(NCS)·0.4H2O, has been synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and spectroelectrochemistry. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed an axial compression of the approximate TBP. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility and variable-temperature variable-field (VTVH) magnetisation measurements, as well as high-frequency and -field EPR (HFEPR) spectroscopy, were used to accurately describe the magnetic properties of this complex and, in particular, determine the spin Hamiltonian parameters: g-values and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters D and E. The HFEPR spectra allowed the extraction of fourth order ZFS parameters. Quantum chemical calculations reproduced well the electronic and geometric structures of this unusual complex and, in particular, its electronic absorption spectrum along with the spin Hamiltonian parameters.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 46(12): 3833-3847, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28271099

RESUMO

A series of water-soluble sodium salts of 3-formyl-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid thiosemicarbazones (or sodium 5-sulfonate-salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazones) containing different substituents at the terminal nitrogen atom (H, Me, Et, Ph) and their copper(ii) complexes have been prepared and characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR), ESI mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography and cyclic voltammetry. The proligands and their copper(ii) complexes exhibit moderate water solubility and good stability in aqueous environment, determined by investigating their proton dissociation and complex formation equilibria. The copper(ii) complexes showed moderate anticancer activity in established human cancer cell lines, while the proligands were devoid of cytotoxicity. The anticancer activity of the copper(ii) complexes correlates with their ability to induce ROS accumulation in cells, consistent with their redox potentials within the biological window, triggering the activation of antioxidation defense mechanisms in response to the ROS insult. These studies pave the way for the investigation of ROS-inducing copper(ii) complexes as prospective antiproliferative agents in cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cobre/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroquímica , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Água/química
19.
J Mol Model ; 22(10): 251, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686562

RESUMO

Protonation in the two-electron/two-proton reduction processes of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenolate (DCIP) is investigated combining density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. DCIP (anion), DCIP•- (radical anion), and DCIP2- (dianion) are considered, including the electronic structure analysis from the prospective of quantum theory of atoms and molecules (QTAIM). It is shown that oxygen on the indophenolate moiety and nitrogen are the first and/or the second proton acceptor sites and their energetic order depends on the total charge of the system. MD simulations of differently charged species interacting with the solvent molecules have been performed for methanol, water, and oxonium cation (H3O+). Methanol and water molecules are found to form only hydrogen bonds with the solute irrespective of its charge. The calculated pKa values show that the imino group of DCIPH- is a weaker acid than water. While in the case of DCIP (and DCIP•-) plus oxonium cation, proton transfer from the solvent to the solute was evidenced for both aforementioned acceptor sites. In addition, MD simulations of bulks containing 15 and 43 molecules of water around the DCIP molecule have been performed, revealing the formation of 2-4 hydrogen bonds. Graphical Abstract 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenolate interacts with solvent molecules (water, oxonium cation and methanol). Hydrogen transfer and electronic structure are studied by DFT and molecular dynamics methods.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 55(18): 9187-203, 2016 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563933

RESUMO

Six dinuclear vanadium(V) complexes have been synthesized: NH4[(VO2)2((H)LH)] (NH4[1]), NH4[(VO2)2((t-Bu)LH)] (NH4[2]), NH4[(VO2)2((Cl)LH)] (NH4[3]), [(VO2)(VO)((H)LH)(CH3O)] (4), [(VO2)(VO)((t-Bu)LH)(C2H5O)] (5), and [(VO2)(VO)((Cl)LH)(CH3O)(CH3OH/H2O)] (6) (where (H)LH4 = 1,5-bis(2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)carbohydrazone, (t-Bu)LH4 = 1,5-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)carbohydrazone, and (Cl)LH4 = 1,5-bis(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)carbohydrazone). The structures of NH4[1] and 4-6 have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In all complexes, the triply deprotonated ligand accommodates two V ions, using two different binding sites ONN and ONO separated by a diazine unit -N-N-. In two pockets of NH4[1], two identical VO2(+) entities are present, whereas, in those of 4-6, two different VO2(+) and VO(3+) are bound. The highest oxidation state of V ions was corroborated by X-ray data, indicating the presence of alkoxido ligand bound to VO(3+) in 4-6, charge density measurements on 4, magnetic susceptibility, NMR spectroscopy, spectroelectrochemistry, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All four complexes characterized by XRD form dimeric associates in the solid state, which, however, do not remain intact in solution. Compounds NH4[1], NH4[2], and 4-6 were applied as alternative selective homogeneous catalysts for the industrially significant oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The peroxidative (with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, TBHP) oxidation of cyclohexane was performed under solvent-free and additive-free conditions and under low-power microwave (MW) irradiation. Cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone were the only products obtained (high selectivity), after 1.5 h of MW irradiation. Theoretical calculations suggest a key mechanistic role played by the carbohydrazone ligand, which can undergo reduction, instead of the metal itself, to form an active reduced form of the catalyst.

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