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Sci Total Environ ; 731: 138955, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417473


Short-term agronomic and environmental benefits are fundamental factors in encouraging farmers to use biochar on a broad scale. The short-term impacts of forest residue biochar (BC) on the productivity and carbon (C) storage of arable boreal clay soil were studied in a field experiment. In addition, rain simulations and aggregate stability tests were carried out to investigate the potential of BC to reduce nutrient export to surface waters. A BC addition of 30 t ha-1 increased soil test phosphorus and decreased bulk density in the surface soil but did not significantly change pH or water retention properties, and most importantly, did not increase the yield. There were no changes in the bacterial or fungal communities, or biomasses. Soil basal respiration was higher in BC-amended plots in the spring, but no differences in respiration rates were detected in the fall two years after the application. Rain simulation experiments did not support the use of BC in reducing erosion or the export of nutrients from the field. Of the C added, on average 80% was discovered in the 0-45 cm soil layer one year after the application. Amendment of boreal clay soil with a high rate of BC characterized by a moderately alkaline pH, low surface functionalities, and a recalcitrant nature, did not induce such positive impacts that would unambiguously motivate farmers to invest in BC. BC use seems unviable from the farmer's perspective but could play a role in climate change mitigation, as it will likely serve as long-term C storage.

Argila , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Florestas
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121893, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430669


A process model based on hot water extraction (HWE), slow pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion (AD) were used for pine and spruce bark utilisation. First tannins (32 mg/g and 11.8 mg/g, respectively) and polyphenols were recovered via HWE. Then, the residue was pyrolysed to produce biochar (marketable quality), gas (energy source) and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was further separated into aqueous acidic fraction and to tar fraction. Bark, extracted bark residue and acidic liquid fraction from pyrolysis were treated in AD to produce biomethane and digestate. The methane yields from pine and spruce bark and extracted bark residue were low (from 42 to 96 mLCH4/gVSadded) and showed only small differences. In conclusion, cascade processing can improve the performance of subsequent single processes and utilise biomass sources with higher efficiency. The best processing chain may vary in different cases and the overall energy balance of processing needs further research.

Temperatura Alta , Pirólise , Anaerobiose , Casca de Planta , Água
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(26): 25648-25658, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342082


Pore space characteristics of biochars may vary depending on the used raw material and processing technology. Pore structure has significant effects on the water retention properties of biochar amended soils. In this work, several biochars were characterized with three-dimensional imaging and image analysis. X-ray computed microtomography was used to image biochars at resolution of 1.14 µm and the obtained images were analysed for porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and structural anisotropy. In addition, random walk simulations were used to relate structural anisotropy to diffusive transport. Image analysis showed that considerable part of the biochar volume consist of pores in size range relevant to hydrological processes and storage of plant available water. Porosity and pore size distribution were found to depend on the biochar type and the structural anisotopy analysis showed that used raw material considerably affects the pore characteristics at micrometre scale. Therefore, attention should be paid to raw material selection and quality in applications requiring optimized pore structure.

Carvão Vegetal , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Difusão , Porosidade , Água/química
J Environ Qual ; 45(3): 977-83, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136165


Soil test P (STP) concentration indicates whether annual P applications can be expected to give yield increases and can also indicate an elevated risk of P mobilization and potential for P transfer to surface waters and groundwater from a particular field. Changes in STP with time thus project agronomic benefits and environmental risks of different P use strategies. To predict STP changes with time, we constructed a simple dynamic model for which the input variables are P balance and initial STP. The model parameters (soil type-specific constants) were fitted using data originating from 44 P fertilizer experiments with different P rates. Model performance was evaluated using independent data sets that either had reasonably accurate input values ( = 103) or were obtained from farmers through interviews ( = 638). The simulations were in agreement with measured STP changes for both evaluation data sets when fittings were performed separately for four main soil types (clays, silts, coarse mineral soils, and organic soils). Statistical analysis confirmed that the model captured the trends in STP (NHOAc test) with acceptable accuracy and precision, with of 0.83 and 0.66 for the data with more accurate input and for farmer interview data, respectively; the corresponding model efficiency statistics were 0.88 and 0.66. The model is not restricted to use with one soil test, as fittings for several different types of soil tests can be generated. In this study, we fitted the model for Olsen P data retrieved from the literature. Agronomic use of the model includes evaluation of P use strategies, e.g., when a certain STP level is targeted or when long-term economy of P use is calculated. In an environmental context, the model can be used to predict STP changes with time under variable P balance regimes, which is essential for realistic assessment of changes in the potential for dissolved P losses.

Fósforo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Fertilizantes , Solo
Ambio ; 44 Suppl 2: S286-96, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681985


Conversion of dissolved P by ferric sulfate into a particulate form sparingly available to algae was studied in 15 ditches in Finland using stand-alone dispensers for ferric sulfate administration. Ferric sulfate typically converted 60-70 % of dissolved P into iron-associated form, a process which required 250-650 kg per kg dissolved P. Mean cost was 160 EUR per kg P converted (range 20-400 EUR kg(-1)). The costs were lowest at sites characterized by high dissolved P concentrations and small catchment area. At best, the treatment was efficient and cost-effective, but to limit the costs and the risks, ferric sulfate dispensers should only be installed in small critical source areas.

Compostos Férricos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 366(2-3): 819-25, 2006 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16165192


Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg(-1). After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments.

Cádmio/química , Formiatos/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Cádmio/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Gelo , Oxirredução , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solubilidade , Transportes