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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about acceptability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among parents of adolescents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in Australia. This study aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of parents from Arabic backgrounds towards HPV vaccination offered to their children in the national school-based vaccination program. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted in Western Sydney, with parents of adolescents from Arabic backgrounds. Recruitment was via informal personal contacts and passive snowballing. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted in Arabic. These were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was used to identify emerging themes. RESULTS: Commonly identified themes across fifteen interviews included: (1) lack of awareness and knowledge of HPV and its vaccination, (2) awareness and understanding of the government vaccination information sheet, (3) parents' preferences for information provision, (4) the role of parents' religious beliefs in forming attitudes about HPV vaccination, and (5) lost opportunities to educate parents about HPV vaccination during general practitioner (GP) visits. CONCLUSION: The findings point to the need to address cultural, language, and communication barriers to improve awareness and acceptability of HPV vaccination in the Arabic community. Educational strategies should be tailored to this community based on their specific information needs and preferences.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the burden and underlying risk factors of malnutrition among children and adolescents with cerebral palsy in Arabic-speaking countries. METHODS: OVID Medline, OVID Embase, CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS databases were searched up to 3 July 2021. Publications were reviewed to identify relevant papers following pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion. Data extraction was independently completed by two reviewers. Descriptive and pooled analysis has been reported. RESULTS: From a total of 79 records screened, nine full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Study characteristics, anthropometric measurements used, and nutritional outcome reported varied between the studies. The included studies contained data of total 400 participants aged 1-18 years. Overall, (mean: 71.46%, 95% confidence interval: 55.52-85.04) of children with cerebral palsy had at least one form of malnutrition. Severe gross motor function limitation, feeding difficulties, cognitive impairment and inadequate energy intake were the commonly reported underlying risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of malnutrition is high among children with cerebral palsy in Arabic-speaking countries. More research is needed for better understanding of this public health issue in these countries.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Criança , Saúde Global , Humanos , Idioma
3.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105157, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454024

RESUMO

Globally, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a serious threat to public health. The use of drugs having structures different from those applied in the clinical treatments of bacterial infections is a well-known potential solution to the antibiotic resistance crisis. Benzo-[g]-quinazolines were identified by our research group as a new class of antimicrobial agents. Herein, to follow-up the research on such compounds, three benzo-[g]-quinazolines (1-3) were studied, as in vitro antibacterial candidates against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, as well. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay for benzoquinazolines was carried out via the calorimetric broth microdilution method using the XTT assay in comparison with vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and ketoconazole as reference drugs. The target compounds 1-3 revealed high variation in their activity against the examined resistant microbial strains. Benzoquinazoline 3 exhibited a more potent effect against the resistant strains compared with the reference drugs. A docking study was performed to identify the interactions between the benzoquinazolines 1-3 and ligand proteins (OXA-48 carbapenemase, ß-lactamase, and sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51)) at the active sites. Benzoquinazolines 1-3 showed very weak cytotoxicity against human lung fibroblast normal cells (WI-38). The targets showed promising antimicrobial effects against the three resistant strains. These findings may inform future inhibitor discoveries targeting penicillin-binding proteins.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443589

RESUMO

The thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), a complication of COVID-19 vaccines, involves thrombosis (often cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) and thrombocytopenia with occasional pulmonary embolism and arterial ischemia. TTS appears to mostly affect females aged between 20 and 50 years old, with no predisposing risk factors conclusively identified so far. Cases are characterized by thrombocytopenia, higher levels of D-dimers than commonly observed in venous thromboembolic events, inexplicably low fibrinogen levels and worsening thrombosis. Hyper fibrinolysis associated with bleeding can also occur. Antibodies that bind platelet factor 4, similar to those associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, have also been identified but in the absence of patient exposure to heparin treatment. A number of countries have now suspended the use of adenovirus-vectored vaccines for younger individuals. The prevailing opinion of most experts is that the risk of developing COVID-19 disease, including thrombosis, far exceeds the extremely low risk of TTS associated with highly efficacious vaccines. Mass vaccination should continue but with caution. Vaccines that are more likely to cause TTS (e.g., Vaxzevria manufactured by AstraZeneca) should be avoided in younger patients for whom an alternative vaccine is available.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/terapia , Anticorpos/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fator Plaquetário 4/sangue , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombose/etiologia
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on Saudi domestic air travellers' understanding regarding COVID-19 and their attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess Saudi domestic air travellers' understanding regarding COVID-19 and attitude towards mandating the COVID-19 vaccination for travellers. METHODS: A survey using a self-administered, structured, and closed-ended questionnaire was conducted among domestic air travellers in Saudi Arabia. Participants' socio-demographic information, travel history, health status, and attitudes and willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccination were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Of the 2236 respondents who participated in the survey, 542 (24.25%) had a history of COVID-19, 803 (35.9%) were exposed to a COVID-19 case, 1425 (63.7%) were concerned about catching COVID-19 during air travel, 796 (35.6%) thought the COVID-19 vaccination should be obligatory for travellers, 1105 (49.4%) thought it should be optional, and 335 (15.0%) thought the vaccination was unnecessary. Being of the male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.14-1.69), being concerned about contracting COVID-19 (aOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-2.10) and frequent travelling (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) were predictors of vaccination uptake. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that although domestic Saudi travellers were concerned about COVID-19 infection, vaccine hesitancy was prevalent among them.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810092

RESUMO

COVID-19 poses grave challenges for mass gatherings. One of the world's largest annual gatherings, Arbaeen, occurs in Iraq. We studied respiratory symptoms and risk and protective factors using representative sampling of Arbaeen pilgrims in 2019 to inform prevention of COVID-19 transmission. Structured sampling was used to recruit walking pilgrims. A questionnaire asked about respiratory symptoms, risk, and preventive factors, including hygiene-related resources of toilet facilities. The commonest symptom reported by the 1842 participants (63.3% male, 36.7% female) was cough (25.6%). Eating in mawkibs (rest areas) with indoor kitchens and drinking only packaged water were associated with lower risk of cough (AOR = 0.72, CI = 0.56-0.94; AOR = 0.60; CI = 0.45-0.78, p < 0.05). Facemask use was associated with increased risk of cough (AOR = 2.71, CI = 2.08-3.53, p < 0.05). Handwashing was not protective against cough, or against (one or more of) cough, fever, or breathlessness in multivariate analysis. Toilet facilities often lacked running water (32.1%) and soap (26.1%), and had shared hand towels (17%). To reduce risk of respiratory infections including COVID-19 during Arbaeen or other mass gatherings, needs include running water, soap, and hygienic hand drying options or hand sanitiser. Education on proper handwashing and facemask approaches and monitoring around food preparation and eating spaces are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Iraque , Masculino , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(10): 2170-2180, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869593

RESUMO

The exact risk association of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for surgeons is not quantified which may be affected by their risk of exposure and individual factors. The objective of this review is to quantify the risk of COVID-19 among surgeons, and explore whether facemask can minimise the risk of COVID-19 among surgeons. A systematised review was carried out by searching MEDLINE to locate items on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or COVID-19 in relation to health care workers (HCWs) especially those work in surgical specialities including surgical nurses and intensivists. Additionally, systematic reviews that assessed the effectiveness of facemask against viral respiratory infections, including COVID-19, among HCWs were identified. Data from identified articles were abstracted, synthesised and summarised. Fourteen primary studies that provided data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection or experience among surgeons and 11 systematic reviews that provided evidence of the effectiveness of facemask (and other personal protective equipment) were summarised. Although the risk of COVID-19 could not be quantified precisely among surgeons, about 14% of HCWs including surgeons had COVID-19, there could be variations depending on settings. Facemask was found to be somewhat protective against COVID-19, but the HCWs' compliance was highly variable ranging from zero to 100%. Echoing surgical societies' guidelines we continue to recommend facemask use among surgeons to prevent COVID-19.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921618

RESUMO

Historically, travel is known to be associated with an amplified risk of acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases, including pandemics [...].

10.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467065

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that human movement facilitates the global spread of resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of travel on the dissemination of AMR. We searched the databases Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS from database inception until the end of June 2019. Of the 3052 titles identified, 2253 articles passed the initial screening, of which 238 met the inclusion criteria. The studies covered 30,060 drug-resistant isolates from 26 identified bacterial species. Most were enteric, accounting for 65% of the identified species and 92% of all documented isolates. High-income countries were more likely to be recipient nations for AMR originating from middle- and low-income countries. The most common origin of travellers with resistant bacteria was Asia, covering 36% of the total isolates. Beta-lactams and quinolones were the most documented drug-resistant organisms, accounting for 35% and 31% of the overall drug resistance, respectively. Medical tourism was twice as likely to be associated with multidrug-resistant organisms than general travel. International travel is a vehicle for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance globally. Health systems should identify recent travellers to ensure that adequate precautions are taken.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466858

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices of visitors to the Prophet's Mosque in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Using a self-administered electronic questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among domestic residents, who visited the mosque between 31 July and 3 August 2020. Participants' demographic data, hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices were collected. Four hundred participants aged 18-65 (median 36) years completed the survey, of which 215 (53.8%) were female. The visitors' mean knowledge score about hand hygiene was 6.4 (± standard deviation (SD) 1.35) of total 12. Most participants (392, 98%) were aware of the role of hand hygiene in preventing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); nevertheless, 384 (96%) said hand hygiene lowers body immunity and 316 (79%) thought <60% alcohol is sufficient for hand disinfection. Males had a higher knowledge score than females (6.46 (±1.41) vs. 6.14 (±1.27), p = 0.02) and, visitors who had no formal education scored higher than those with post-graduate education (6.88 (±1.45) vs 5.73 (±1.12), p = 0.01). Washing hands with soap and water was the predominant method practiced after a meal (365, 91.7%), after toilet visit (354, 88.5%), after touching a surface (262, 65.7%), after waste disposal (332, 83.2%), and when hands were visibly dirty (357, 89.5%). Al Madinah visitors had moderate knowledge about hand hygiene, but demonstrated some knowledge gaps and negligence in practice that are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(6): 894-902, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460220

RESUMO

AIM: To characterise the physical, psychological, and quality of life burden associated with serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in children. METHODS: Children aged up to 14 years at the time of serogroup B IMD, who were admitted to intensive care units of two tertiary paediatric hospitals in New South Wales, Australia between January 2009 and December 2013 were recruited. Children underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessments up to 6 years post-disease. RESULTS: Eleven children were assessed, with a median age of 16 months (range 4-46 months) at time of disease. The median follow-up time was 50 months (range 10-67 months). Seven (63.6%) cases had one or more long-term sequelae involving permanent and evolving physical disability. Three cases had ongoing medical conditions including two with seizures and one with ataxia and hypermetropia. Five required ongoing medical and allied health care. Other complications identified included anxiety, speech delay, low average full-scale IQ score (median 85, interquartile range 89-103) and borderline memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Serogroup B IMD is associated with significant long-term morbidity and burden on the child and family with substantial economic implications. The impact of this on the total cost of IMD needs to be further quantified, and better considered in vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo B , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , New South Wales , Qualidade de Vida , Sorogrupo
14.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(4)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081118

RESUMO

This study examined Hajj pilgrims' knowledge and reported practice of hand hygiene. In Hajj 2019, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Mina, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, of domestic Saudi pilgrims aged ≥18 years by using a self-administered Arabic questionnaire that captured data on pilgrims' socio-demographics, hand hygiene knowledge, and reported practices of hand cleaning following certain actions. A total of 348 respondents aged 18 to 63 (median 32) years completed the survey, of whom 200 (57.5%) were female. The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) hand hygiene knowledge score was 6.7 (±SD 1.9). Two hundred and seventy one (77.9%) and 286 (82.2%) of respondents correctly identified that hand hygiene can prevent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections respectively, but 146 (42%) were not aware that it prevents hand-foot-mouth disease. Eighty-eight (25.3%) respondents erroneously reported that hand hygiene prevents HIV. Washing hands with water and soap was the most preferred method practiced before a meal (67.5% (235/348)), after a meal (80.2% (279/348)), after toilet action (81.6% (284/348)), when hands were visibly soiled (86.2% (300/348)), and after waste disposal (61.5% (214/348)). Hajj pilgrims demonstrated a good knowledge and practice of hand hygiene, but there are gaps that are vital to control outbreaks such as COVID-19.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this large-scale cluster-randomized controlled trial (cRCT) we sought to assess the effectiveness of facemasks against viral respiratory infections. METHODS AND RESULTS: Over three consecutive Hajj seasons (2013, 2014, 2015) pilgrims' tents in Makkah were allocated to 'facemask' or 'no facemask' group. Fifty facemasks were offered to participants in intervention tents, to be worn over four days, and none were offered to participants in control tents. All participants recorded facemask use and respiratory symptoms in health diaries. Nasal swabs were collected from the symptomatic for virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical symptoms and laboratory results were analyzed by 'intention- to-treat' and 'per-protocol'. A total of 7687 adult participants from 318 tents were randomized: 3864 from 149 tents to the intervention group, and 3823 from 169 tents to the control group. Participants were aged 18 to 95 (median 34, mean 37) years, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Overall, respiratory viruses were detected in 277 of 650 (43%) nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected from symptomatic pilgrims. Common viruses were rhinovirus (35.1%), influenza (4.5%) and parainfluenza (1.7%). In the intervention arm, respectively 954 (24.7%) and 1842 (47.7%) participants used facemasks daily and intermittently, while in the control arm, respectively 546 (14.3%) and 1334 (34.9%) used facemasks daily and intermittently. By intention-to-treat analysis, facemask use did not seem to be effective against laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 2.1, p = 0.18) nor against clinical respiratory infection (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4, p = 0.40). Similarly, in a per-protocol analysis, facemask use did not seem to be effective against laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7, p = 0.26) nor against clinical respiratory infection (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: This trial was unable to provide conclusive evidence on facemask efficacy against viral respiratory infections most likely due to poor adherence to protocol.


Assuntos
Máscaras , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759184

RESUMO

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, including the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic and Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, have demonstrated the critical importance of resilient health systems in safeguarding global health security. Importantly, the human, economic and political tolls of these crises are being amplified by health systems' inabilities to respond quickly and effectively. Improving resilience within health systems can build on pre-existing strengths to enhance the readiness of health system actors to respond to crises, while also maintaining core functions. Using data gathered from a scoping literature review, interviews with key informants and from stakeholders who attended a workshop held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we developed a Health System Resilience Checklist ('the checklist'). The aim of the checklist is to measure the specific capacities, capabilities and processes that health systems need in order to ensure resilience in the face of both infectious disease outbreaks and natural hazards. The checklist is intended to be adapted and used in a broad set of countries as a component of ongoing processes to ensure that health actors, institutions and populations can mount an effective response to infectious disease outbreaks and natural hazards while also maintaining core healthcare services. The checklist is an important first step in improving health system resilience to these threats, but additional research and resources will be necessary to further refine and prioritise the checklist items and to pilot the checklist with the frontline health facilities that would be using it. This will help ensure its feasibility and durability for the long-term within the health systems strengthening and health security fields.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Atenção à Saúde , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Global , Prioridades em Saúde , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(3)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A survey was conducted among Rohingya refugees to assess their overall health literacy and health status. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to conduct face to face interviews among Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh in November-December 2017. Families were selected using convenience sampling from four large refugee camps. RESULTS: Primary respondents aged 10-90 (median 32) years, 56% male, representing 1634 families were interviewed and provided data of themselves and 6268 additional family members, 4163 (66.4%) of whom were children aged <18 years. Of all, only 736 (45%) primary respondents knew how to appropriately treat diarrhoea, 882 (54%) relied on unqualified village "doctors" for treatment, 547 (33.5%) reported a family member suffering injuries in the previous six months, with 8% (42/547) of injuries fatal. One hundred and ninety two (11.8%) primary respondents also reported deaths within their family in the preceding 12 months, with the majority (70% [134/192]) occurring in males, and 44% (85/192) of all deaths were claimed to be homicidal. CONCLUSION: This survey highlights overall poor health literacy, limited access to qualified health care, and a high rate of injuries and assaults among Rohingyas. However, these data come from an anecdotal survey that excluded some sensitive but important questions.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664832

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Australian general practitioners (GPs) regarding herpes zoster vaccination under the National Immunisation Program (NIP) from 2016 for adults aged 70-79 years. Design, setting, participants: National cross-sectional online survey of GPs, October-November 2017. Outcome measures: Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding zoster vaccination, including challenges experienced and recommendations for improvement. Results: Of the 1026 GPs who responded (response rate 7.9%), 98.5% were aware that zoster vaccine is NIP-funded for adults aged 70-79 years and 85.4% that it is recommended for age 60-69 years; however, 51.3% incorrectly thought it is routinely recommended for age 50-59 years. A minority (4.6%) incorrectly believed that being immunocompromised is not a contraindication to zoster vaccination and 16.0% that it cannot be co-administered with influenza or pneumococcal vaccine. Almost half (48.9%) rarely or never reported zoster vaccination data to the Australian Immunisation Register (AIR). Challenges perceived included lack of adequate information on vaccine contraindications; efficacy and safety concerns; and difficulty applying age criteria for NIP eligibility in general practice. Respondents indicated a desire for program expansion to include younger and older adult age groups. Conclusion: This Australian GP survey, conducted one year after the introduction of the national zoster vaccination program, identified some knowledge gaps. A repeat survey of GPs is warranted to determine whether these issues persist, particularly regarding contraindication to vaccination for immunocompromised individuals. We encourage all GPs to offer zoster vaccination in line with current Australian evidence-based guidelines, particularly for the NIP-funded 70-79 years cohort; ensuring compliance with relevant contraindications; and reporting to AIR.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/normas , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e10959, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pretravel health advice can play a crucial role in improving both travelers' awareness about disease risk and compliance with preventive measures. General practitioners (GPs) and the internet have been reported internationally to be the main sources of health advice for travelers to non-mass gathering (MG) destinations. However, few studies have attempted to investigate the sources of health advice among travelers to MGs including the Hajj pilgrimage, and none of these studies further investigated the impact of pretravel advice on pilgrims' health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the source of pretravel health advice (from GPs and specialized Hajj travel agents) on Hajj pilgrims' awareness of and compliance with health recommendations, and the incidence of Hajj-associated illnesses. METHODS: A prospective cohort study (before and during Hajj) was conducted among Australian pilgrims aged ≥18 years in 2015. RESULTS: A total of 421 pilgrims participated prior to Hajj, and 391 (93%) provided follow-up data during Hajj. All participants obtained pretravel health advice from one or more sources, with Hajj travel agents (46%) and general practitioners (GPs; 40%) the most commonly reported sources. In total, 288 (74%) participants reported Hajj-related symptoms, of which 86% (248/288) were respiratory symptoms. Participants who obtained pretravel health advice from travel agents were more likely to be aware of the official Saudi recommendations (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8; P=.01), receive recommended vaccines before travel (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-3.9; P=.01), use hand sanitizers including soap (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-6.1; P=.03), and wash their hands after touching an ill person during Hajj (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.1; P=.01), compared to those who sought advice from GPs. However, neither advice from travel agents nor GPs was associated with a lower incidence of Hajj-related illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Advice from travel agents appeared to be accessed by more travelers than that from GPs, and was associated with an increased likelihood of positive travel health behaviors.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Espiritualismo , Medicina de Viagem/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Islamismo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , New South Wales/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
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