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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263884


Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate. Costs of protein synthesis were determined in summer acclimatised G. oceanicus from Svalbard (79°N) at 5°C and from Scotland (58°N) at 13°C. Amphipods were injected with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), at 9mmoll-1 in crab saline to give a tissue concentration of 0.05mgCHXg-1FW and left for 60min before the injection of [3H] phenylalanine. After incubation for 120min (180min in total from initial injection), both whole-animal rates of oxygen uptake and absolute rates of protein synthesis were significantly reduced in CHX-treated amphipods vs controls injected with saline. Both populations exhibited similar costs of protein synthesis of ~7µmolO2mg-1protein which is close to the estimated theoretical minimum for peptide bond formation, and similar to the values obtained in cell-free systems. The study demonstrates that in G. oceanicus, costs of protein synthesis rates were not elevated in the cold but were fixed among polar and cold-temperate populations.

Aclimatação/genética , Anfípodes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Anfípodes/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
J Exp Biol ; 217(Pt 14): 2499-508, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24803457


The distribution patterns of many species in the intertidal zone are partly determined by their ability to survive and recover from tidal emersion. During emersion, most crustaceans experience gill collapse, impairing gas exchange. Such collapse generates a state of hypoxemia and a hypercapnia-induced respiratory acidosis, leading to hyperlactaemia and metabolic acidosis. However, how such physiological responses to emersion are modified by prior exposure to elevated CO2 and temperature combinations, indicative of future climate change scenarios, is not known. We therefore investigated key physiological responses of velvet swimming crabs, Necora puber, kept for 14 days at one of four pCO2/temperature treatments (400 µatm/10°C, 1000 µatm/10°C, 400 µatm/15°C or 1000 µatm/15°C) to experimental emersion and recovery. Pre-exposure to elevated pCO2 and temperature increased pre-emersion bicarbonate ion concentrations [HCO3(-)], increasing resistance to short periods of emersion (90 min). However, there was still a significant acidosis following 180 min emersion in all treatments. The recovery of extracellular acid-base via the removal of extracellular pCO2 and lactate after emersion was significantly retarded by exposure to both elevated temperature and pCO2. If elevated environmental pCO2 and temperature lead to slower recovery after emersion, then some predominantly subtidal species that also inhabit the low to mid shore, such as N. puber, may have a reduced physiological capacity to retain their presence in the low intertidal zone, ultimately affecting their bathymetric range of distribution, as well as the structure and diversity of intertidal assemblages.

Braquiúros/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Água do Mar/química , Acidose , Animais , Mudança Climática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipercapnia , Ondas de Maré
Mar Pollut Bull ; 73(2): 470-84, 2013 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23428288


To reduce the negative effect of climate change on Biodiversity, the use of geological CO2 sequestration has been proposed; however leakage from underwater storages may represent a risk to marine life. As extracellular homeostasis is important in determining species' ability to cope with elevated CO2, we investigated the acid-base and ion regulatory responses, as well as the density, of sea urchins living around CO2 vents at Vulcano, Italy. We conducted in situ transplantation and field-based laboratory exposures to different pCO2/pH regimes. Our results confirm that sea urchins have some ability to regulate their extracellular fluid under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, we show that even in closely-related taxa divergent physiological capabilities underlie differences in taxa distribution around the CO2 vent. It is concluded that species distribution under the sort of elevated CO2 conditions occurring with leakages from geological storages and future ocean acidification scenarios, may partly be determined by quite subtle physiological differentiation.

Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Mudança Climática , Fenômenos Geológicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Água do Mar/química
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 84(2): 154-65, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21460526


Metabolic variability across latitudinal populations of gammarid amphipods was examined in the summer by determining whole-animal rates of oxygen uptake (M(o)2) in four species with overlapping distribution patterns in the northeast Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Comparisons were made between an arctic/boreal species, Gammarus setosus, a subarctic/boreal species, Gammarus oceanicus, a boreal/temperate species, Gammarus duebeni duebeni, and a temperate species, Gammarus locusta. Measurements included acclimatized M(o)2 in all four species and M(o)2 after acclimation to 10°C in two populations of G. oceanicus and G. locusta. In G. oceanicus, acclimatized M(o)2 declined with latitude (13° to 5°C) so that metabolic rates were lower in subarctic (79°N) relative to temperate (58°N) populations and similar to the values in G. setosus at 79°N. Consequently, there was no evidence for metabolic rate compensation in the colder-water, high-latitude populations in the summer. Further examination of the specific effects of temperature revealed similarities in M(o)2 between populations of G. oceanicus acclimated at 10°C and similarities in thermal sensitivity (Q(10)) and activation energies (E(a)) on exposure to acute temperature change. In sharp contrast, there was no variation in summer acclimatized M(o)2 with latitude in either G. d. duebeni between 48° and 70°N or G. locusta between 38° and 53°N. Instead, the two species maintained relatively high metabolic rates across latitudes, which were associated in G. locusta with differences in M(o)2 and with Q(10) and E(a) values in amphipods acclimated at 10°C. The ability to compensate metabolic rate with latitude in the summer suggests greater metabolic flexibility, which predicts a greater capacity for survival during climate change of the temperate/boreal over the subarctic and arctic gammarid species.

Anfípodes/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Anfípodes/genética , Animais , Demografia , Ecossistema , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente