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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801704

RESUMO

A new coronavirus-strain from a zoonotic reservoir (probably bat)-termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-has recently claimed more than two million deaths worldwide. Consequently, a burst of scientific reports on epidemiology, symptoms, and diagnosis came out. However, a comprehensive understanding of eco-environmental aspects that may contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread is still missing, and we therefore aim to focus here on these aspects. In addition to human-human direct SARS-CoV-2 transmission, eco-environmental sources, such as air aerosols, different public use objects, hospital wastes, livestock/pet animals, municipal wastes, ventilation facilities, soil and groundwater potentially contribute to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Further, high temperature and humidity were found to limit the spread of COVID-19. Although the COVID-19 pandemic led to decrease air and noise pollution during the period of lockdown, increased use of masks and gloves is threatening the environment by water and soil pollutions. COVID-19 badly impacted all the socio-economic groups in different capacities, where women, slum dwellers, and the people lacking social protections are the most vulnerable. Finally, sustainable strategies, waste management, biodiversity reclaim, eco-friendly lifestyle, improved health infrastructure and public awareness, were proposed to minimize the COVID-19 impact on our society and environment. These strategies will seemingly be equally effective against any future outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(5): 967-981, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052094

RESUMO

L-asparaginase (E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important enzyme that has been purified and characterized for over decades to study and evaluate its anti-carcinogenic activity against different lymphoproliferative disorders such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma. The ability of the enzyme to convert L-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia is the reason behind its anti-cancerous activity. Apart from its medicinal uses, it is widely used in food industry to tackle acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen and, production in carbohydrate-rich foods cooked at high temperatures. There are variety of organisms including microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants that produce L-asparaginase. The enzyme obtained from different microbial and plant sources have different physiochemical properties and kinetic parameters. L-asparaginases have an optimum pH range between 6 and 10 and an optimum temperature between 37 and 85 °C. This article has reviewed the lowest molecular mass for L-asparaginase in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Q66CJ2 which is 36.27 kDa, while the highest for Pseudomonas otitidis which has a molecular mass of 205 ± 3 kDa. This review is an attempt to summarize most of the available sources, their phylogenetic relationships, purification methods, data regarding different physiochemical and kinetic properties of L-asparaginase.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/química , Bactérias/enzimologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Amônia/metabolismo , Asparaginase/genética , Asparaginase/isolamento & purificação , Asparagina/química , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Humanos , Filogenia , Plantas
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(8): 7287-7298, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332271

RESUMO

Plastic is a general term used for a wide range of high molecular weight organic polymers obtained mostly from the various hydrocarbon and petroleum derivatives. There is an ever-increasing trend towards the production and consumption of plastics due to their extensive industrial and domestic applications. However, a wide spectrum of these polymers is non-biodegradable with few exceptions. The extensive use of plastics, lack of waste management, and casual community behavior towards their proper disposal pose a significant threat to the environment. This has raised growing concerns among various stakeholders to devise policies and innovative strategies for plastic waste management, use of biodegradable polymers especially in packaging, and educating people for their proper disposal. Current polymer degradation strategies rely on chemical, thermal, photo, and biological procedures. In the presence of proper waste management strategies coupled with industrially controlled biodegradation facilities, the use of biodegradable plastics for some applications such as packaging or health industry is a promising and attractive option for economic, environmental, and health benefits. This review highlights the classification of plastics with special emphasis on biodegradable plastics and their rational use, the identified mechanisms of plastic biodegradation, the microorganisms involved in biodegradation, and the current insights into the research on biodegradable plastics. The review has also identified the research gaps in plastic biodegradation followed by future research directions.


Assuntos
Plásticos/química , Polímeros/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Biodegradação Ambiental
4.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 132: 23-34, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774751

RESUMO

Lipase (E.C.3.1.1.3) belongs to the hydrolases and is also known as fat splitting, glycerol ester hydrolase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. Lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides converting them to glycerol and fatty acids in an oil-water interface. These are widely used in food, dairy, flavor, pharmaceuticals, biofuels, leather, cosmetics, detergent, and chemical industries. Lipases are of plant, animal, and microbial origin, but microbial lipases are produced at industrial level and represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of residues around GxSxG motif provided an insight to the diversity among bacterial lipases. A variety of para-Nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters having C2 to C16 (p-NP acetate to p-NP palmitate) in their fatty acid side chain can be hydrolyzed by bacterial lipases. Large heterogeneity has been observed in molecular and catalytic characteristics of lipases including molecular mass; 19-96 kDa, Km; 0.0064-16.58 mM, Kcat; 0.1665-1.0 × 104 s-1 and Kcat/Km; 26.02-7377 s-1/mM. Optimal conditions of their working temperature and pH have been stated 15-70 °C and 5.0-10.8, respectively and are strongly associated with the type and growth conditions of bacteria. Surface hydrophobicity, enzyme activity, stability in organic solvents and at high temperature, proteolytic resistance and substrate tolerance are the properties of bacterial lipases that have been improved by engineering. Bacterial lipases have been extensively studied during last decade. However, their wider applications demand a detailed review on purification, catalytic characterization and applications of lipases.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Lipase/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipase/biossíntese , Lipase/genética , Filogenia , Engenharia de Proteínas
5.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 27(4): 331-340, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283327

RESUMO

Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available. Alternative therapeutic strategies to overcome this disease and its spread are direly needed. A traditional sterile insect technique (SIT) harms the health of male insects, leading to their reduced ability to compete for wild-type female insects for breeding. Oxitec (Abingdon, UK) has developed genetically modified (GM) strains of A. aegypti via the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL) strategy. RIDL male mosquitoes offer a resolution to many of the limitations of traditional SIT, which has resulted in reduced application of SIT in mosquitoes. The technique using RIDL mosquitoes is considered to be ecologically friendly and specific. Homing endonuclease genes, also called selfish genes, can also be used in genetic modification methods in such a way that the vector population and its competency can be reduced. GM mosquitoes carrying a gene that transcribes RNA interference can also be crucial to control expression of RNA viruses. The RNA virus interference pathway is one of the most critical components of the innate immune system of insects that can frustrate a variety of RNA viruses such as Flaviviruses. Here, we summarize and focus on alternative techniques used to control dengue spread.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Dengue/genética , Animais , Dengue/virologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Vírus de RNA/genética
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 101: 254-272, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300586

RESUMO

Pectins are natural complex heteropolysaccharides, composed of (1, 4)-linked α-d-galacturonic acid residues and variety of neutral sugars such as rhamnose, galactose and arabinose. It is second most abundant component of the cell wall of all land plants. It has wide applications in various fields due to its use as gelling, emulsifying or stabilizing agent and as well as its non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. Considering these versatile properties this review sheds a light on the synthesis, modification, characterization and applications of pectin based polymers. Most of them are used in industries, pharmaceutics, nutraceutics, drug delivery, tissue engineering, food packaging and cosmetics. Properties of pectin can be improved and modified by forming derivatives, blends and composites.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Pesquisa Biomédica , Pectinas , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pectinas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química
7.
Bioinformation ; 9(20): 1031-5, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24497731

RESUMO

Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation.

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