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1.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 279-289, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528705

RESUMO

Germline variants might predict cancer progression. Bevacizumab improves overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced cancers. No biomarkers are available to identify patients that benefit from bevacizumab. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) was conducted in 1,520 patients from Phase III trials (CALGB 80303, 40503, 80405 and ICON7), where bevacizumab was randomized to treatment without bevacizumab. We aimed to identify genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with survival independently of bevacizumab treatment or through interaction with bevacizumab. A cause-specific Cox model was used to test the SNP-OS association in both arms combined (prognostic), and the effect of SNPs-bevacizumab interaction on OS (predictive) in each study. The SNP effects across studies were combined using inverse variance. Findings were tested for replication in advanced colorectal and ovarian cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TGCA). In the GWAS meta-analysis, patients with rs680949 in PRUNE2 experienced shorter OS compared to patients without it (P = 1.02 × 10-7 , hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-1.86), as well as in TCGA (P = .0219, HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.35). In the GWAS meta-analysis, patients with rs16852804 in BARD1 experienced shorter OS compared to patients without it (P = 1.40 × 10-5 , HR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.25-1.82) as well as in TCGA (P = 1.39 × 10-4 , HR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.73-5.51). Patients with rs3795897 in AGAP1 experienced shorter OS in the bevacizumab arm compared to the nonbevacizumab arm (P = 1.43 × 10-5 ). The largest GWAS meta-analysis of bevacizumab treated patients identified PRUNE2 and BARD1 (tumor suppressor genes) as prognostic genes of colorectal and ovarian cancer, respectively, and AGAP1 as a potentially predictive gene that interacts with bevacizumab with respect to patient survival.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 90, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725343

RESUMO

Within an institutional pharmacogenomics implementation program, we surveyed 463 outpatients completing preemptive pharmacogenomic testing whose genetic results were available to providers for guiding medication treatment. We compared views and experiences from self-reported White and Black patients, including education level as a covariate across analyses. Black patients were less confident about whether their providers made personalized treatment decisions, and overwhelmingly wanted a greater role for their genetic information in clinical care. Both groups similarly reported that providers asked their opinions regarding medication changes, but White patients were more likely (59% vs. 49%, P = 0.005) to discuss the impact of personal/genetic makeup on medication response with providers, and Black patients reported initiating such discussions much less frequently (4% vs. 15%, P = 0.037). Opportunities exist for enhanced communication with underrepresented patients around personalized care. Tailored communication strategies and development of support tools employed in diverse healthcare settings may facilitate pharmacogenomically guided medication treatment that equitably benefits minority patient populations.

5.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648187

RESUMO

Nivolumab and pembrolizumab, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies, have revolutionized oncology, but are expensive. Using an interventional pharmacoeconomic approach, these drugs can be administered less often to reduce costs and increase patient convenience while maintaining efficacy. Both drugs are good candidates for less frequent dosing because of long half-lives and no evidence of a relationship of dose to efficacy. Established population pharmacokinetic models for both nivolumab and pembrolizumab were utilized to simulate profiles for multiple dosing regimens on 1000 randomly generated virtual patients. Simulations were initially performed on standard dose regimens to validate these in silico predictions. Next, simulations of 0.3 mg/kg q3wk nivolumab revealed that >95% of patients maintained ≥1.5 µg/mL at steady-state, which was inferred as the MEC for both drugs. Various alternative dosing regimens were simulated for both drugs to determine which regimen(s) can maintain this MEC in >95% of patients. Extended dosing regimens of nivolumab 240 mg q4w and 480 mg q8w along with pembrolizumab 200 mg q6w were simulated, showing >95% of patients maintained concentrations ≥MEC. These simulations demonstrate the potential to reduce drug exposure by at least 50%, thus substantially reducing patient visits (as well as costs), while maintaining equivalent efficacy. These models provide the scientific justification for an ongoing prospective randomized clinical trial comparing standard interval fixed dosing with extended interval fixed dosing, and ultimately an efficacy-driven comparative trial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and proteinuria are common bevacizumab-induced toxicities. No validated biomarkers are available for identifying patients at risk of these toxicities. METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis was performed in 1039 bevacizumab-treated patients of European ancestry in four clinical trials (CALGB 40502, 40503, 80303, 90401). Grade ≥2 hypertension and proteinuria were recorded (CTCAE v.3.0). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-toxicity associations were determined using a cause-specific Cox model adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: The most significant SNP associated with hypertension with concordant effect in three out of the four studies (p-value <0.05 for each study) was rs6770663 (A > G) in KCNAB1, with the G allele increasing the risk of hypertension (p-value = 4.16 × 10-6). The effect of the G allele was replicated in ECOG-ACRIN E5103 in 582 patients (p-value = 0.005). The meta-analysis of all five studies for rs6770663 led to p-value = 7.73 × 10-8, close to genome-wide significance. The most significant SNP associated with proteinuria was rs339947 (C > A, between DNAH5 and TRIO), with the A allele increasing the risk of proteinuria (p-value = 1.58 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: The results from the largest study of bevacizumab toxicity provide new markers of drug safety for further evaluations. SNP in KCNAB1 validated in an independent dataset provides evidence toward its clinical applicability to predict bevacizumab-induced hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00785291 (CALGB 40502); NCT00601900 (CALGB 40503); NCT00088894 (CALGB 80303) and NCT00110214 (CALGB 90401).

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Integration of pharmacogenomics into clinical care is being studied in multiple disciplines. We hypothesized that understanding attitudes and perceptions of anesthesiologists, critical care and pain medicine providers would uncover unique considerations for future implementation within perioperative care. METHODS: A survey (multiple choice and Likert-scale) was administered to providers within our Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care prior to initiation of a department-wide prospective pharmacogenomics implementation program. The survey addressed knowledge, perceptions, experiences, resources and barriers. RESULTS: Of 153 providers contacted, 149 (97%) completed the survey. Almost all providers (92%) said that genetic results influence drug therapy, and few (22%) were skeptical about the usefulness of pharmacogenomics. Despite this enthusiasm, 87% said their awareness about pharmacogenomic information is lacking. Feeling well-informed about pharmacogenomics was directly related to years in practice/experience: only 38% of trainees reported being well-informed, compared to 46% of those with 1-10 years of experience, and nearly two-thirds with 11+ years (P < 0.05). Regarding barriers, providers reported uncertainty about availability of testing, turnaround time and whether testing is worth financial costs. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesiology, critical care and pain medicine providers are optimistic about the potential clinical utility of pharmacogenomics, but are uncertain about practical aspects of testing and desire clear guidelines on the use of results. These findings may inform future institutional efforts toward greater integration of genomic results to improve medication-related outcomes.

9.
JAMIA Open ; 4(3): ooab067, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458686

RESUMO

Background: Applied pharmacogenomics presents opportunities for improving patient care through precision medicine, particularly when paired with appropriate clinical decision support (CDS). However, a lack of patient resources for understanding pharmacogenomic test results may hinder shared decision-making and patient confidence in treatment. We sought to create a patient pharmacogenomics education and results delivery platform complementary to a CDS system to facilitate further research on the relevance of patient education to pharmacogenomics. Methods: We conceptualized a model that extended the data access layer of an existing institutional CDS tool to allow for the pairing of decision supports offered to providers with patient-oriented summaries at the same level of phenotypic specificity. We built a two-part system consisting of a secure portal for patient use and an administrative dashboard for patient summary creation. The system was built in an ASP.NET and AngularJS architecture, and all data was housed in a HIPAA-compliant data center, with PHI secure in transit and at rest. Results: The YourPGx Patient Portal was deployed on the institutional network in June 2019. Fifty-eight unique patient portal summaries have been written so far, which can provide over 4500 results modules to the pilot population of 544 patients. Patient behavior on the portal is being logged for further research. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first automated system designed and deployed to provide detailed, personalized patient pharmacogenomics education complementary to a clinical decision support system. Future work will expand upon this system to allow for telemedicine and patient notification of new or updated results.

10.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 21(6): 691-711, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376788

RESUMO

Variable responses to medications complicates perioperative care. As a potential solution, we evaluated and synthesized pharmacogenomic evidence that may inform anesthesia and pain prescribing to identify clinically actionable drug/gene pairs. Clinical decision-support (CDS) summaries were developed and were evaluated using Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II. We found that 93/180 (51%) of commonly-used perioperative medications had some published pharmacogenomic information, with 18 having actionable evidence: celecoxib/diclofenac/flurbiprofen/ibuprofen/piroxicam/CYP2C9, codeine/oxycodone/tramadol CYP2D6, desflurane/enflurane/halothane/isoflurane/sevoflurane/succinylcholine/RYR1/CACNA1S, diazepam/CYP2C19, phenytoin/CYP2C9, succinylcholine/mivacurium/BCHE, and morphine/OPRM1. Novel CDS summaries were developed for these 18 medications. AGREE II mean ± standard deviation scores were high for Scope and Purpose (95.0 ± 2.8), Rigor of Development (93.2 ± 2.8), Clarity of Presentation (87.3 ± 3.0), and Applicability (86.5 ± 3.7) (maximum score = 100). Overall mean guideline quality score was 6.7 ± 0.2 (maximum score = 7). All summaries were recommended for clinical implementation. A critical mass of pharmacogenomic evidence exists for select medications commonly used in the perioperative setting, warranting prospective examination for clinical utility.

11.
Oncologist ; 26(11): e2042-e2052, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several opioids have pharmacogenomic associations impacting analgesic efficacy. However, germline pharmacogenomic testing is not routinely incorporated into supportive oncology. We hypothesized that CYP2D6 profiling would correlate with opioid prescribing and hospitalizations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 61,572 adult oncology patients from 2012 to 2018 for opioid exposures. CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype (ultra-rapid [UM], normal metabolizer [NM], intermediate [IM], or poor [PM]), the latter two of which may cause inefficacy of codeine, tramadol, and standard-dose hydrocodone, was determined for patients genotyped for reasons unrelated to pain. The primary endpoint was number of opioid medications received during longitudinal care (IM/PMs vs. NMs). Secondary endpoint was likelihood of pain-related hospital encounters. RESULTS: Most patients with cancer (n = 34,675, 56%) received multiple opioids (average 2.8 ± 1.6/patient). Hydrocodone was most commonly prescribed (62%), followed by tramadol, oxycodone, and codeine. In the CYP2D6 genotyped cohort (n = 105), IM/PMs received a similar number of opioids (3.4 ± 1.4) as NMs (3.3 ± 1.9). However, IM/PMs were significantly more likely to experience pain-related hospital encounters compared with NMs, independent of other variables (odds ratio [OR] = 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-23.6; p = .03). IM/PMs were also more likely to be treated with later-line opioids that do not require CYP2D6 metabolism, such as morphine and hydromorphone (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-9.8; p = .03). CONCLUSION: CYP2D6 genotype may identify patients with cancer at increased risk for inadequate analgesia when treated with typical first-line opioids like codeine, tramadol, or standard-dose hydrocodone. Palliative care considerations are an integral part of optimal oncology care, and these findings justify prospective evaluation of preemptive genotyping as a strategy to improve oncology pain management. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Genomic variation in metabolic enzymes can predispose individuals to inefficacy when receiving opioid pain medications. Patients with intermediate and/or poor CYP2D6 metabolizer status do not adequately convert codeine, tramadol, and hydrocodone into active compounds, with resulting increased risk of inadequate analgesia. This study showed that patients with cancer frequently receive CYP2D6-dependent opioids. However, patients with CYP2D6 intermediate and poor metabolizer status had increased numbers of pain-related hospitalizations and more frequently required the potent non-CYP2D6 opioids morphine and hydromorphone. This may reflect inadequate initial analgesia with the common "first-line" CYP2D6-metabolized opioids. Preemptive genotyping to guide opioid prescribing during cancer care may improve pain-related patient outcomes.

13.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(6): 1505-1516, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenomics has the potential to improve patient outcomes through predicting drug response. We designed and evaluated the analytical performance of a custom OpenArray® pharmacogenomics panel targeting 478 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). METHODS: Forty Coriell Institute cell line (CCL) DNA samples and DNA isolated from 28 whole-blood samples were used for accuracy evaluation. Genotyping calls were compared to at least 1 reference method: next-generation sequencing, Sequenom MassARRAY®, or Sanger sequencing. For precision evaluation, 23 CCL samples were analyzed 3 times and reproducibility of the assays was assessed. For sensitivity evaluation, 6 CCL samples and 5 whole-blood DNA samples were analyzed at DNA concentrations of 10 ng/µL and 50 ng/µL, and their reproducibility and genotyping call rates were compared. RESULTS: For 443 variants, all samples assayed had concordant calls with at least 1 reference genotype and also demonstrated reproducibility. However, 6 of these 443 variants showed an unsatisfactory performance, such as low PCR amplification or insufficient separation of genotypes in scatter plots. Call rates were comparable between 50 ng/µL DNA (99.6%) and 10 ng/µL (99.2%). Use of 10 ng/µL DNA resulted in an incorrect call for a single sample for a single variant. Thus, as recommended by the manufacturer, 50 ng/µL is the preferred concentration for patient genotyping. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated a custom-designed pharmacogenomics panel and found that it reliably interrogated 437 variants. Clinically actionable results from selected variants on this panel are currently used in clinical studies employing pharmacogenomics for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(20): 5510-5518, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168049

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CD137 agonism and CSF1R blockade augment stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and anti-programmed death-1 in preclinical models. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of SBRT with nivolumab+urelumab (CD137 agonist) or nivolumab+cabiralizumab (CSF1R inhibitor). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase I clinical trial enrolled patients with advanced solid tumors that had progressed on standard therapies. SBRT was delivered to 1-4 metastases with nivolumab+urelumab or nivolumab+cabiralizumab given concurrently and following SBRT. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was the primary endpoint with anatomic location-specific SBRT doses deemed safe if ≤33% DLT frequency was observed. Secondary endpoints included RECISTv1.1 response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and molecular correlative studies. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled, and median follow-up for living patients is 13.8 months. Of these, 23 (38%) received SBRT+nivolumab+urelumab and 37 (62%) received SBRT+nivolumab+cabiralizumab. Seven patients (12%) experienced a DLT (n = 3 grade 3, n = 4 grade 4) in the following anatomic cohorts: abdominal/pelvic (3/17, 18%), liver (1/13, 8%), central lung (2/14, 14%), and peripheral lung (1/12, 8%). Of 41 patients radiographically evaluable for best overall response including 55 radiated and 23 unirradiated RECIST target lesions, 2 had complete responses (5%), 7 had partial responses (17%), 12 had stable disease (29%), and 20 had progression (49%). Median estimated PFS and OS are 3.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-4.8] and 17.0 months (95% CI, 6.8-undetermined), respectively. No patients with elevated pre-SBRT serum IL8 experienced a response. CONCLUSIONS: SBRT to ≤4 sites with nivolumab+urelumab or nivolumab+cabiralizumab for treating advanced solid tumors is feasible with acceptable toxicity and modest antitumor activity.See related commentary by Rodriguez-Ruiz et al., p. 5443.

15.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 31(9): 215-220, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149004

RESUMO

There is a lack of pharmacogenetic predictors of outcome in gastric cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess previously identified candidate genes associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin, or epirubicin toxicity or response in a cohort of resected gastric cancer patients treated on CALGB (Alliance) 80101. Gastric or gastroesophageal cancer patients randomized to adjuvant 5-FU/leucovorin or epirubicin/cisplatin/5-FU before and after 5-FU chemoradiation were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 (rs1695), ERCC1 (rs11615 and rs3212986), XRCC1 (rs25487), UGT2B7 (rs7439366) and the 28 base-pair tandem repeats in TYMS (rs34743033). Logistic regression and log rank tests were used to assess the association between each SNP and incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia and leukopenia, overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. Toxicity endpoint analyses were adjusted for the treatment arm, while OS and PFS were also adjusted for performance status, sex, age, lymph node involvement, and primary tumor site and size. Of 281 subjects with successful genotyping results and available clinical (toxicity and efficacy) data, 166 self-reported non-Hispanic White patients were included in the final analysis. There was a lack of evidence of an association among any SNPs tested with grade 3/4 neutropenia and leukopenia or OS and PFS. Age, lymph node involvement, and primary tumor size were significantly associated with OS and PFS. This study failed to confirm results of previous gastric cancer pharmacogenetic studies.

16.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: 92-106, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010057

RESUMO

To realize the full potential of promising new anticancer drugs, it is of paramount importance to administer them at the right dose. The aim of this educational article is to provide several opportunities to optimize anticancer drug dosing, focusing on oral targeted therapies. First, therapeutic drug monitoring can optimize exposure in individual patients, if the optimal concentration is known. This approach is of particular interest in regard to oral kinase inhibitors with high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. If exposure is related to response, then therapeutic drug monitoring is potentially feasible, although the clinical utility of this approach has not yet been established. Other approaches to reduce variability include administration of more frequent, smaller doses and administration under optimal prandial conditions. However, for many drugs, the labeled dose has not been demonstrated to be the optimal dose; for such agents, the vast majority of patients may be receiving excessive doses, which results in excessive toxicity. Furthermore, administration of lower off-label doses may reduce both medical and financial toxicity. These strategies should be applied from registration studies to clinical practice, with the goal of better optimizing anticancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Administração Oral , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos
17.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(11): 4313-4322, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818816

RESUMO

AIMS: Rociletinib showed activity in T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients. It undergoes amide hydrolysis to form M502, followed by N-acetylation to M544 or amide hydrolysis to M460. We identified the enzymes responsible for rociletinib metabolism, and investigated the relationship between M544 formation and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms. METHODS: Rociletinib and metabolites were incubated with carboxylesterase (CES)1b, CES1c, CES2, NAT1, NAT2, arylacetamide deacetylase, inhibitors, pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) and cytosols (HLC). Cytosols (n = 107) were genotyped for NAT2 polymorphisms (rs1041983 and rs1801280) and incubated with M502. Human hepatocytes from intermediate (NAT2*6/*12A) and slow (NAT2*5B/*5B) acetylators were incubated with 10 µM rociletinib and metabolites for 24 hours. Metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: M502 was formed from rociletinib and M544 by CES2 and HLM; M544 and N-acetyl-M460 were formed by NAT2 and HLC; M460 was not formed by CES or arylacetamide deacetylase. M502 formation by HLM was inhibited by bis-(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate and eserine (10 µM). M544 formation in HLC was inhibited by 100 µM quercetin and was associated with NAT2 genotype (P < .0001). M460 formation in HLM was inhibited by eserine, and M460 was N-acetylated in HLC. Hepatocytes formed M502, M544 and M460. The intermediate acetylator showed higher production (range: 3.4-5.1-fold) of N-acetylated metabolites than the slow acetylator. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that NAT2 and CES2 are involved in rociletinib metabolism, and polymorphic NAT2 could alter drug exposure in patients. Slow NAT2 acetylators would have higher exposure to M502 and M460 and consequently, be at increased risk of experiencing hyperglycaemia and QTc prolongation.

20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(6): 1385-1393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatology medications are often associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or inadequate response (IR). Pharmacogenomics may be a solution, but there is limited knowledge of its potential utility within rheumatology. METHODS: We analysed medication changes and pharmacogenomically actionable prescriptions for all adult rheumatology outpatient encounters at our medical centre between 10/2012-12/2018. Three sources defined pharmacogenomic actionability: FDA labels, Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines, and our institutionally-deliverable pharmacogenomic clinical decision support (CDS) summaries. A subset of patients (validation cohort) had previously undergone broad, preemptive pharmacogenomic testing within other clinics but results were unavailable within rheumatology. We assessed the occurrence of specific pharmacogenomic ADRs/IRs in this group. RESULTS: From 174,834 prescribing events, 6300/7761 patients (81%) had clinically actionable pharmacogenomic drug prescriptions (i.e. institutional CDS summaries would have been deployable if testing had been done). Using more conservative standards (pharmacogenomically actionable by ≥2 guidance bodies), 4158/7761 (54%) patient prescriptions could have been impacted. The greatest proportions of potentially impacted rheumatologic prescriptions were for tramadol (47%), allopurinol (21%), azathioprine (17%) and celecoxib (8%). Among our validation cohort (94 previously-genotyped patients), 29 (31%) patients had a pharmacogenomic genotype that would have cautioned possible ADRs/IRs for ≥1 medication. Four patients actually suffered ADRs/IRs that would have been predicted by preemptive genotyping. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacogenomic genotyping could inform prescribing for the majority of rheumatology patients and may prevent a subset of ADRs/IRs. These findings justify prospective evaluation of pharmacogenomic testing including assessment of cost-effectiveness in selected rheumatology populations to further understand impact on therapy-related toxicities and treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Reumatologia , Adulto , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Farmacogenética , Testes Farmacogenômicos
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