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1.
S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 592-596, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the current clinical profile and outcomes of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To provide a contemporary and descriptive overview of IE in a representative SA tertiary centre. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of patients admitted to Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, between 2009 and 2016 fulfilling universal criteria for definite or possible IE, in search of demographic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic, treatment and outcome information. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients fulfilled the modified Duke criteria for IE. The median age of the cohort was 39 years (interquartile range (IQR) 29 - 51), with a male preponderance (61.9%). The majority of the patients (72.4%) had left-sided native valve endocarditis, 14.3% had right-sided disease, and 13.3% had prosthetic valve endocarditis. A third of the cohort had rheumatic heart disease. Although 41.1% of patients with left-sided disease had negative blood cultures, the three most common organisms cultured in this subgroup were Staphylococcus aureus (18.9%), Streptococcus spp. (16.7%) and Enterococcus spp. (6.7%). Participants with right-sided endocarditis were younger (29 years, IQR 27 - 37) and were mainly intravenous drug users (73.3%), and the majority cultured positive for S. aureus (73.3%) with frequent septic pulmonary complications (40.0%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 16.2%, with no deaths in the group with right-sided endocarditis. Predictors of death in our patients were heart failure (odds ratio (OR) 8.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77 - 37.70; p=0.007) and age >45 years (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.11 - 20.14; p=0.036). Valve surgery was associated with a reduction in mortality (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.43; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IE remains an important clinical problem in a typical teaching tertiary care centre in SA. In this setting, it continues to affect mainly young people with post-inflammatory valve disease and congenital heart disease. The in-hospital mortality associated with IE remains high. Intravenous drug-associated endocarditis caused by S. aureus is an important IE subset, comprising ~10% of all cases, which was not reported 15 years ago, and culture-negative endocarditis remains highly prevalent. Heart failure in IE carries a significant risk of death and needs a more intensive level of care in hospital. Finally, cardiac surgery was associated with reduced mortality, with the largest impact in patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Usuários de Drogas , Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
2.
Exp Oncol ; 40(2): 90-94, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949539

RESUMO

Hemangiomas are the most common congenital vascular and benign tumor in infants and children. Most hemangiomas do not cause major symptoms to require intervention, however, the larger hemangiomas have tendency to bleed and may require surgical removal. Experimental studies have demonstrated the role of urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA), especially cell surface u-PA, as an initiator of extra-cellular matrix proteolysis and associated tumor cell invasion. AIM: To examine, whether the antitumor effects of a specific nutrient mixture are due to induction of apoptosis by inhibition of u-PA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nutrient mixture containing lysine, proline, ascorbic acid, and green tea extract which has showed anticancer activity against a number of cancer cell lines was used as an experimental composition. EOMA cells were grown in appropriate media with antibiotics in 24-well tissue culture plates. At near confluence, the cells were treated with nutrition mixture at 10, 100, 1000 µg/ml in triplicate. Analysis of u-PA activity was carried out by fibrin zymography. Morphological changes and caspase activation associated with apoptosis induction was checked by H&E staining and Live Green caspase assay, respectively. Apoptosis inducing anticancer drug camptothecin (10 µM) was used as positive control. RESULTS: The nutrition mixture exhibited dose response toxicity with maximum toxicity 55% (p < 0.001) at 1000 µg/ml. EOMA cells expressed u-PA, which was inhibited by nutrition mixture in a dose-dependent manner. The caspase analysis revealed a dose dependent increase in apoptosis of EOMA hemangioma cells, with an increasing apoptosis observed at 100 µg/ml, and maximum at 1000 µg/ml. Cells treated with nutrition mixture showed significantly more apoptotic changes than the control or camptothecin-treated cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NM may induce apoptosis of hemangioma cells in vitro thus warranting further investigation.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Caspases/metabolismo , Hemangioma/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica
3.
Microbiol Res ; 208: 76-84, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551214

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria have recently been investigated due to their role in plant growth promotion and defense. Whereas some bacterial VOCs like 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) and 2,3-butanediol produced by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens promote plant growth, others like hydrogen cyanide and 3-phenylpropionic acid are phytotoxic, inhibiting plant growth. Bacillus mojavensis, a close relative of B. subtilis, is an endophytic bacterium of maize that has been shown to have antagonistic activity against the mycotoxigenic phytopathogen Fusarium verticillioides and growth promotion activity on maize seedlings. To investigate the growth promotion activity of B. mojavensis, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown on 1/2x Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium in divided Petri dishes while bacteria were grown either on 1/2x MS or nutrient agar (NA) medium, so that only microbial volatiles reached the seedlings. Significant plant growth promotion in Arabidopsis seedlings was observed when 1/2x MS medium was used for bacterial growth. In contrast, phytotoxicity was observed with bacterial growth on NA medium. These results indicate that VOCs produced by B. mojavensis may act as plant growth modulators rather than just promoters. Using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) coupled with GC-MS, the plant growth promoting compounds acetoin and 2,3-butanediol were both identified as being produced by B. mojavensis on growth promoting 1/2x MS medium. In contrast, while no phytotoxic VOC was conclusively identified from B. mojavensis on NA medium, detection of relatively high levels of acetone/2-propanone indicates its possible contribution to Arabidopsis phytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Acetoína/farmacologia , Antibiose , Arabidopsis/efeitos adversos , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Butileno Glicóis/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Endófitos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(5): 3419-3426, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442847

RESUMO

L-cysteine capped CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via photochemical route in aqueous solution under UV photo-irradiation. The as grown CdSe quantum dots exhibit broad fluorescence at room temperature. The CdSe quantum dots were found to be formed only through the reactions of the precursors, i.e., Cd(NH3)2+4 and SeSO2-3 with the photochemically generated 1-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, (CH3)2COH radicals, which are formed through the process of H atom abstraction by the photoexcited acetone from 2-propanol. L-Cysteine was found to act as a suitable capping agent for the CdSe quantum dots and increases their biocompatability. Cytotoxicty effects of these quantum dots were evaluated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) epithelial cells, indicated a significant lower level for the L-cysteine capped CdSe quantum dots as compare to the bare ones.

5.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 164: 255-261, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29413604

RESUMO

In this paper, we chemically synthesized interconnected nanoflake-like CdS thin films for photoelectrochemical solar cell applications and subsequently irradiated them with electron beam irradiation at various doses of irradiation. The as-synthesized and irradiated samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and electrochemical measurements. XRD and XPS results confirmed the formation of CdS with a hexagonal crystal structure. FE-SEM and HR-TEM studies confirmed the photoelectrochemical performance, which was dependent on the surface morphology. The calculated values for efficiency demonstrated an outstanding photoelectrochemical performance with a fill factor of 0.38 and efficiency of 3.06% at 30 kGy. The high photoelectrochemical performance may be due to the interconnected nanoflake-like nanostructure and higher active surface area of the CdS samples. These results show that the electron beam irradiation is capable as an electrode for photoelectrochemical solar cells.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Elétrons , Nanoestruturas/química , Fotoquímica/métodos , Sulfetos/química , Eletrodos , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Ópticos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Energia Solar , Difração de Raios X
6.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 40(Pt A): 314-322, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946430

RESUMO

This paper reports the effect of electron beam irradiation on CuO thin films synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on copper foil for supercapacitor and biocompatibility application. Pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical study. Pristine and irradiated CuO films were pure monoclinic phase, with uniform nanostructures over the whole copper foil. After irradiation, CuO samples had formed innovative nanostructures. Biocompatibility of pristine and irradiated CuO samples suggest that CuO sample is non-toxic and ecofriendly. The specific capacitance of pristine and irradiated CuO strongly depends on surface morphology, and CuO electrodes after irradiation showed superior performance than pristine CuO. The highest specific capacitance of the 20kGy irradiated CuO nanoflowers exceeded 511Fg-1 at 10mVs-1 in 1M KOH electrolyte. Irradiated CuO samples also showed lower ESR, and were superior to other report electrical energy storage materials.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Elétrons , Teste de Materiais , Nanoestruturas/química , Cobre/farmacologia , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) ; 7(2): 146-149, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690882

RESUMO

In this study, the photoinactivation of Legionella by visible light is investigated. The success of this approach would offer new prospects for technical water disinfection and maybe even for therapeutic measures in cases of Legionella infections. Therefore, Legionella rubrilucens was dispensed on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium agar plates and illuminated with different doses of violet light generated by 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A strong photoinactivation effect was observed. A dose of 125 J/ cm2 reduced the bacterial concentration by more than 5 orders of magnitude compared to Legionella on unirradiated agar plates. The necessary dose for a one log-level reduction was about 24 J/cm2. These results were obtained for extracellular L. rubrilucens, but other Legionella species may exhibit a similar behavior.

8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 123(3): 637-650, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644529

RESUMO

AIMS: Borrelia sp., a causative pathogenic factor of Lyme disease (LD), has become a major public health threat. Current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. Naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared with the individual components may serve as a resource for the development of novel approaches to combat both active and latent forms of Borrelia sp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using checkerboard assay, we investigated the anti-borreliae reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against two species of Borrelia selected as prevalent causes of LD in the United States and Europe. We tested 28 combinations of phytochemicals such as polyphenols (baicalein, luteolin, rosmarinic acids), fatty acids (monolaurin, cis-2-decenoic acid) and micronutrients (ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol and iodine). The results showed that the combinations of baicalein with luteolin as well as monolaurin with cis-2-decenoic acid expressed synergistic anti-spirochetal effects. Moreover, baicalein and luteolin, when combined with rosmarinic acid or iodine, produced additive bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against typical corkscrew motile spirochaetes and persistent knob/round-shaped forms, respectively. An additive anti-biofilm effect was noticed between baicalein with luteolin and monolaurin with cis-2-decenoic acid. Finally, application of the combination of baicalein with luteolin increased cytoplasmic permeability of Borrelia sp. but did not cause DNA damage. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that a specific combination of flavones might play a supporting role in combating Borrelia sp. through either synergistic or additive anti-borreliae effects. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Presented here in vitro results might help advancing our knowledge and improving the approach to target Borrelia sp.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Borrelia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia
9.
Oncol Rep ; 37(3): 1842-1848, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28098879

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are the major causes of mortality and morbidity in Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. Various cytokines, mitogens, growth factors, inducers and inhibitors control MMP activities. We investigated the roles of these in the regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human immortalized fibroblasts from FA. Human FA immortalized fibroblast cell lines FA-A:PD220 and FA-D2:PD20 were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics in 24-well tissue culture plates. At near confluence, the cells were washed with phosphate­buffered saline (PBS) and incubated in serum-free media with the following: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 10-100 ng/ml; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) at 0.1-25 ng/ml; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10-100 µg/ml; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and doxycycline (Dox) at 10-100 µM without and with PMA; a nutrient mixture (NM) without and with PMA at 10-1,000 µg/ml; actinomycin-D and cyclohexamide at 2 and 4 µM; retinoic acid and dexamethasone at 50 µM. After 24 h, media were removed and analyzed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 by zymography. Both FA cell lines expressed only MMP-2 and responded similarly to cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors. PMA potently stimulated MMP-9 and had a moderate effect on MMP-2. TNF-α showed variable effects on MMP-2 and significantly enhanced MMP-9. IL-1ß enhanced MMP-2 slightly and MMP-9 significantly. LPS had a moderate stimulatory effect on MMP-2 and no effect on MMP-9. EGCG, Dox and NM, without and with PMA, downregulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Actinomycin-D, retinoic acid and dexamethasone also had inhibitory effects on MMP-2. Our results showed that cytokines, mitogens and inhibitors modulated FA fibroblast MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, suggesting the clinical use of MMP inhibitors, particularly such potent and non-toxic ones as the NM and its component EGCG in the management of FA cancers.


Assuntos
Citocinas/farmacologia , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Anemia de Fanconi/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Anemia de Fanconi/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia de Fanconi/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
10.
Exp Oncol ; 38(1): 54-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain tumors are highly aggressive tumors characterized by secretions of high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, leading to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and extracellular matrix components. We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a nutrient mixture (NM) containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, and green tea extract in vitro: on activity of urokinase plasminogen activator, matrix metalloproteinases and TIMPs in various human glioblastoma (LN-18, T-98G and A-172) cell lines and on glioblastoma A-172 cell proliferation and Matrigel invasion. AIM: Our main objective in this study was to investigate the effect of the NM in vivo on human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic male nude mice inoculated with 3·10(6) U-87 MG cells subcutaneously and were fed a regular diet or a regular diet supplemented with 0.5% NM. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed, the tumors were weighed and measured. The samples were studied histologically. RESULTS: NM inhibited tumor weight and tumor burden by 53% (p = 0.015) and 48% (p = 0.010), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the therapeutic potential of NM as an adjuvant in the treatment of glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Encéfalo/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glioblastoma/terapia , Lisina/uso terapêutico , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Chá , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Lisina/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Prolina/análise , Chá/química
11.
Support Care Cancer ; 24(7): 3111-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26917229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good palliative care requires excellent interprofessional collaboration; however, working in interprofessional teams may be challenging and difficult. AIM: The aim of the study is to understand the lived experience of spiritual counselors working with a new structured method in offering spiritual care to palliative patients in relation to a multidisciplinary health care team. DESIGN: Interpretive phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews, was done using template analysis to structure the data. We included nine spiritual counselors who are trained in using the new structured method to provide spiritual care for advanced cancer patients. RESULTS: Although the spiritual counselors were experiencing struggles with structure and iPad, they were immediately willing to work with the new structured method as they expected the visibility and professionalization of their profession to improve. In this process, they experienced a need to adapt to a certain role while working with the new method and described how the identities of the profession were challenged. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to concretize, professionalize, and substantiate the work of spiritual counselors in a health care setting, to enhance visibility for patients and improve interprofessional collaboration with other health care workers. However, introducing new methods to spiritual counselors is not easy, as this may challenge or jeopardize their current professional identities. Therefore, we recommend to engage spiritual counselors early in processes of change to ensure that the core of who they are as professionals remains reflected in their work.


Assuntos
Conselheiros/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Hamostaseologie ; 35 Suppl 1: S36-42, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26540129

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Congenital factor VII (FVII) and factor X (FX) deficiencies belong to the group of rare bleeding disorders which may occur in separate or combined forms since both the F7 and F10 genes are located in close proximity on the distal long arm of chromosome 13 (13q34). We here present data of 192 consecutive index cases with FVII and/or FX deficiency. 10 novel and 53 recurrent sequence alterations were identified in the F7 gene and 5 novel as well as 11 recurrent in the F10 gene including one homozygous 4.35 kb deletion within F7 (c.64+430_131-6delinsTCGTAA) and three large heterozygous deletions involving both the F7 and F10 genes. One of the latter proved to be cytogenetically visible as a chromosome 13q34 deletion and associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and psychomotor retardation. CONCLUSIONS: Large deletions play a minor but essential role in the mutational spectrum of the F7 and F10 genes. Copy number analyses (e. g. MLPA) should be considered if sequencing cannot clarify the underlying reason of an observed coagulopathy. Of note, in cases of combined FVII/FX deficiency, a deletion of the two contiguous genes might be part of a larger chromosomal rearrangement.


Assuntos
Deficiência do Fator VII/epidemiologia , Deficiência do Fator VII/genética , Fator VII/genética , Deficiência do Fator X/epidemiologia , Deficiência do Fator X/genética , Fator X/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Deficiência do Fator VII/congênito , Deficiência do Fator X/congênito , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 119(6): 1561-72, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26457476

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the effects of phytochemicals against Borrelia sp. causing Lyme disease. Current therapeutic approach to this disease is limited to antibiotics. This study examined the anti-borreliae efficacy of several plant-derived compounds and micronutrients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the efficacy of 15 phytochemicals and micronutrients against three morphological forms of Borrelia burgdoferi and Borrelia garinii: spirochetes, latent rounded forms and biofilm. The results showed that the most potent substances against the spirochete and rounded forms of B. burgdorferi and B. garinii were cis-2-decenoic acid, baicalein, monolaurin and kelp (iodine); whereas, only baicalein and monolaurin revealed significant activity against the biofilm. Moreover, cis-2-decenoic acid, baicalein and monolaurin did not cause statistically significant cytotoxicity to human HepG2 cells up to 125 µg ml(-1) and kelp up to 20 µg ml(-1) . CONCLUSIONS: The most effective antimicrobial compounds against all morphological forms of the two tested Borrelia sp. were baicalein and monolaurin. This might indicate that the presence of fatty acid and phenyl groups is important for comprehensive antibacterial activity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study reveals the potential of phytochemicals as an important tool in the fight against the species of Borrelia causing Lyme disease.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Borrelia burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Células Hep G2 , Humanos
14.
Appl Opt ; 54(23): 7013-9, 2015 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26368369

RESUMO

Many pyrromethene (PM) dyes have been shown to outperform established rhodamine dyes in terms of laser efficiency in the green-yellow spectral region, but their rapid photochemical degradation in commonly used ethanol or methanol solvents continues to limit its use in high average power liquid dye lasers. A comparative study on narrowband laser efficiency and photostability of commercially available PM567 and PM597 dyes, using nonpolar n-heptane and 1,4-dioxane and polar ethanol solvents, was carried out by a constructed pulsed dye laser, pumped by the second harmonic (532 nm) radiation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Interestingly, both nonpolar solvents showed a significantly higher laser photostability (∼100 times) as well as peak efficiency (∼5%) of these PM dyes in comparison to ethanol. The different photostability of the PM dyes was rationalized by determining their triplet-state spectra and capability to generate reactive singlet oxygen (O21) by energy transfer to dissolved oxygen in these solvents using pulse radiolysis. Heptane is identified as a promising solvent for these PM dyes for use in high average power dye lasers, pumped by copper vapor lasers or diode-pumped solid-state green lasers.

15.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 458: 136-46, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26210917

RESUMO

The Fe(2+) doped ZnSe nanorods are synthesized using simple potentiostatic mode of electrodeposition on the ITO substrate. In order to study the doping effect of Fe(2+) in ZnSe, varied the doing percent such as 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%. These films are characterized for structural, compositional, morphological, optical and electrochemical properties using the X-ray diffraction study (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical spectroscopy. Along with these Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy have been studied for understanding the characteristics vibrations of ZnSe and luminescence of ZnSe nanorods. FE-SEM shows the nanorods like morphology. Photoelectrochemical cell performance studied using the J-V measurement and it shows the maximum efficiency at 1% Fe(2+) doped ZnSe nanorods. The observed maximum efficiency of Fe(2+) doped ZnSe nanorods is 0.32%.

16.
Int J Oncol ; 46(5): 2261-6, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25695860

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and acute myeloid leukemia are the major causes of mortality and morbidity in Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the antineoplastic activity of PB, an antineoplastic nutrient mixture (containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex and resveratrol) on human FA HNSCC in vitro and in vivo. Human FA HNSCC cell line OHSU-974 (Fanconi Anemia Research Fund) was cultured in RPMI medium supplemented with 20% FBS and anti-biotics. At near confluence, cells were treated in triplicate with different concentrations of PB: 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 µg/ml. Cells were also treated with PMA to induce MMP-9 activity. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay, secretion of MMPs by gelatinase zymography, invasion through Matrigel, migration by scratch test and morphology by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. In vivo, athymic male nude mice (n=12) were inoculated with 3x106 OHSU-974 cells subcutaneously and randomly divided into two groups: group A was fed a regular diet and group B a regular diet supplemented with 1% PB. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed and their tumors were excised, weighed and processed for histology. NM inhibited the growth of OHSU-974 tumor by 67.6% (p<0.0001) and tumor burden by 63.6% (p<0.0001). PB demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with 27% (p=0.0003) and 48% (p=0.0004) toxicity at 75 and 100 µg/ml, respectively. Zymography revealed MMP-2 and PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion. PB suppressed secretion of both MMPs in a dose-dependent manner, with total block of both at 50 µg/ml. PB inhibited cell migration (by scratch test) and OHSU-974 invasion through Matrigel in a dose-dependent fashion with total block at 50 µg/ml. H&E staining showed no morphological changes below 50 µg/ml. The results suggest that PB has potential therapeutic use in the treatment of human FA HNSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Anemia de Fanconi/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Chá , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Am J Transplant ; 15(2): 499-507, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25556854

RESUMO

Little is known about the longer-term kidney transplant outcomes in the rapidly growing Hispanic population. Using the United States Renal Data System, we identified 105 250 Caucasian patients who received a first kidney transplant between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2010. We tested for differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients in the outcomes of (1) mortality, (2) all-cause graft failure, and (3) graft failure excluding death with a functioning graft. We used Cox regression to estimate (with 95% confidence intervals) multivariable-adjusted cause-specific hazard ratios (aHRCS ) for mortality and all-cause graft failure and subdistribution hazard ratios (aHRSD ) accounting for death as a competing risk for graft failure excluding death with a functioning graft. Both mortality [aHRCS = 0.69 (0.65-0.73)] and all-cause graft failure [aHRCS = 0.79 (0.75-0.83)] were lower in Hispanics. The association between Hispanic ethnicity and graft failure excluding death was modified by age (p < 0.003). Compared with non-Hispanic whites, graft failure excluding death with a functioning graft did not differ in Hispanics aged 18-39 years [aHRSD = 0.96 (0.89-1.05)] or aged 40-59 years [aHRSD = 1.08 (1.00-1.16)], but was 13% lower in those aged ≥60 years [aHRSD = 0.87 (0.78-0.98)]. In conclusion, once accounting for differences in overall survival, better graft survival was found in older Hispanic patients, but among not those aged <60 years.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Rejeição de Enxerto/etnologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Transplante de Rim , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Ther Med ; 9(2): 294-302, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25574189

RESUMO

Although fully treatable in the early stages, once cervical cancer has metastasized, patient outcome is poor. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with a nutrient mixture (NM) containing lysine, ascorbic acid, proline, green tea extract and other micronutrients on HeLa cell xenografts in nude female mice. Tumor growth was measured and immunohistochemical staining was evaluated for the following cancer markers: Ki67 (proliferation); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 (invasion/metastasis); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (angiogenesis); terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) (apoptosis); cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (inflammation); and glutathione S-transferase π (GSTπ) (a general cancer marker). Following housing for a week, 5/6-week-old female athymic nude mice (n=12) were inoculated subcutaneously with 3×106 HeLa cells in 0.2 ml phosphate-buffered saline and 0.1 ml Matrigel™ and randomly divided into two groups; control group mice were fed regular mouse chow and NM group mice the regular diet supplemented with 0.5% NM (w/w). After four weeks, the mice were sacrificed and their tumors were excised and processed for histology. The NM strongly inhibited the growth of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. The mean tumor weight was reduced to 59% (P=0.001) in the mice fed the NM compared with the tumor weight in the controlled diet mice. Ki67, MMP-2 and -9, VEGF, TUNEL, Bcl-2, COX-2, iNOS and GSTπ all showed a lower intensity and frequency of staining in the NM group compared with that in the control group. In conclusion, NM supplementation strongly inhibited tumor growth and cancer markers in female nude mice injected with HeLa xenografts.

20.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 71(Suppl 2): S517-20, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26843772
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