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1.
South Asian J Cancer ; 7(2): 137-141, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721481

RESUMO

Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is cancer that has spread from the breast to another part of the body or has come back in another distant location. Treatment options for MBC depend on several factors. One of these factors is the levels of hormone receptors (HRs) in the tumor. Cancers with high levels of HRs, called HR-positive, use the hormones estrogen and progesterone to grow and spread. Hormonal therapy is a type of treatment specifically for HR-positive breast cancer. This expert group used data from published literature, practical experience and opinion of a large group of academic oncologists to arrive at these practical consensus recommendations in regards with the use of hormonal therapy and the management of HR-positive MBC for the benefit of community oncologists.

2.
South Asian J Cancer ; 7(2): 146-150, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721483

RESUMO

Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is cancer that has spread from the breast to another part of the body or has come back in another distant location. Treatment options for MBC depend on several factors, including where the cancer has spread, the patient's overall health, and the levels of hormone receptors and HER2 in the tumour. Over-expression of HER2 is generally considered to be a negative prognostic feature because it accompanies an increase in breast cancer mortality. However, the development of agents that specifically target HER2 has improved the management of patients with these tumours.[7],[8],[9],[10] This expert group used data from published literature, practical experience and opinion of a large group of academic oncologists to arrive at these practical consensus recommendations in regards with the use of these agents and the management of HER2 positive MBC for the benefit of community oncologists.

3.
Indian J Cancer ; 54(1): 308-312, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199711

RESUMO

Cancer is hypercoagulable state. Patients with cancer are at high risk to develop venous thromboembolism (VTE). Relative risk of developing VTE is approximately seven times higher in patients with active cancer. The incidence of occult malignancy is 7%-12% in patients with idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, little research has been focused on cancer with thromboembolism. Lowmolecularweight heparin most frequently used pharmacologic agents as recommended by established guidelines. The aim was to evaluate the magnitude of problem in cancer patients and treatment option as per established guidelines. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed search of the literature were done to evaluate the association of DVT with various malignancy, magnitude of problem, approach, and various guidelines for the management of DVT. References of all publication were also searched to enrich this article for recent update. Thromboprophylaxis in cancer patient is gray zone area. This need lot of investigational work to find highrisk patients who would benefit from primary thromboprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia , Trombose Venosa/patologia , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
4.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(17): 58-64, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25682454

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Melanoma accounts for about 2% of all cancer-related mortality in western populations. Surgical excision of localized disease is curative in many patients with 80% overall 5-year survival rate. There are many indicators of prognosis of which tumor burden is predicted by primary site with nodal status being the next most important variable. Patients with advanced stage have very high risk of developing distant metastases and should receive systemic therapy. Despite treatment, majority of locally advanced patients develop metastatic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of cases of malignant melanoma registered over a period of eighteen years, from October 1990 to September 2007 was done. Patient profile, presentation, disease load, treatment protocols and response on or after treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis in men was 48 years and 50 years in women. At presentation, more than half of studied cases (56.5%) presented with nodal metastases at diagnosis while about three fourths (74%) had distant metastases (stage IV disease). More than half (56%) of the patients had superficial spreading type. The most common presenting complaints were swelling (70% of patients), ulcer (50% of patients) or pain (50%). Primary sites included extremities, central nervous system, abdomen, trunk, and bones. Liver, brain, abdomen and lungs were common metastatic sites. Surgical excision of primary lesion was done in about half of the cases. Four patients subsequently received palliative radiotherapy and two more received adjuvant radiotherapy. Another six patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Among treated patients, 26% showed partial response and another 8% have stable disease while 65% patients progressed on or after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Malignant melanoma carries an overall poor prognosis especially in advanced stages. Multimodality therapy with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy may provide local or nodal remission but cannot improve long term survival in advanced cases.

6.
Indian J Pediatr ; 80(4): 276-80, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22688652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the status of Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in the children aged 0-5 y who are household contacts of adults having sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and also to study the relationship of TST and Chest X-Ray (CXR) and their relevance in contact screening under RNTCP setup. METHODS: This prospective hospital based clinical study was conducted at a tertiary level referral medical college in Northern India. Study subjects were 200 children ≤5 y of age who were household contacts of adults with sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. All these adult index cases were registered and taking regular treatment at RNTCP centre attached to a medical college. Demographic data collection, detailed clinical history along with clinical examination, growth assessment, TST and chest radiography (CXR) was done for every child. RESULTS: TST was positive in 39 % children and out of these 68 % of child contacts had CXR findings suggestive of tuberculosis. This correlation was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001), especially in children less than 1 y of age. A high percentage of clinically asymptomatic children also had positive TST and CXR consistent with definition of TB disease. CONCLUSIONS: Contact screening must be prioritized in RNTCP. Unlike presently, TST and CXR should be actively employed in RNTCP for contact screening.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
7.
Trop Doct ; 42(2): 106-8, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22431829

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was done on 100 consecutive paediatric patients presenting with acute encephalitis syndrome. The clinico-laboratory features of all patients were recorded in a prestructured performa. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were tested for: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus; Chandipura virus; coxsackie virus; dengue virus; enterovirus 76; and West Nile virus. Twenty-two (22.0%) patients were confirmed JE cases and 17% had parasitic or bacteriological aetiology. The remaining 61 cases (61.0%) in which no viral aetiological agent was found were grouped as non-JE cases. Peripheral vascular failure, splenomegaly and hypotonia were distinguishing clinical features found in the non-JE patients. A high mortality of 26.5% was seen in patients with confirmed or presumptive viral encephalitis (22/83). A fatal outcome was independently associated with peripheral vascular failure and pallor at the time of admission. Early recognition of these signs may help clinicians to manage these cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Encefalite Viral , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/imunologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Japonesa/diagnóstico , Encefalite Japonesa/mortalidade , Encefalite Japonesa/fisiopatologia , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico , Encefalite Viral/mortalidade , Encefalite Viral/fisiopatologia , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Testes de Função Renal , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Convulsões/etiologia
8.
Trop Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 122-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21922876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is rare in younger age group. Most cases occur in the second decade of life and are clinically aggressive. The prognosis of these patients is generally poor. This is a retrospective study in which data of Indian patients was compared to standard literature. METHODS: Data on 32 young patients with colorectal cancer between ages of 10-25 years treated between January 2000 and December 2006 was reviewed. Clinical presentation, natural history and response to therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Studied cases comprised 9.9% of the total number of colorectal cancer patients. The median age of presentation was 21.5 years. Four-fifths of the cases presented in late stage. Nodal involvement was seen in 38% cases and metastatic disease in 12% cases. The rectum was the most commonly involved site. A majority of the patients presented with pain (81%), altered bowel habits (72%) and bleeding per rectum (78%). Surgery was done in 16 cases; radiotherapy in 16 patients; while chemotherapy was used in 19 cases. Responses at completion of treatment were seen in 28% cases; while 1 year post treatment only 12% cases were alive and only 6% at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer in younger age is rare and a high level of suspicion is necessary to diagnose it at an early and curable stage. Rectal bleeding therefore should not be ignored but evaluated further with at least a digital rectal examination and a sigmoidoscopy. Failure to do so results in late presentation with consequent dismal survival rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Indian J Cancer ; 47(4): 424-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21131757

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises from the salivary, lacrimal, or other exocrine glands. It is characteristically locally infiltrative in nature and has a tendency toward local recurrence, high propensity for perineural invasion, and prolonged clinical course. AIM: To analyze the presentation and natural history of cases of adenoid cystic tumors of salivary glands in our institution; and to compare with the existing literature. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at the Department of Radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 18 patients of ACC of the salivary glands treated between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed with respect to clinical presentation, stage, and histology. RESULTS: There were 8 cases of major salivary gland tumors (47%), of which 2 were in the submandibular and 6 were involving the parotid. Ten patients (53%) had minor salivary gland involvement. Two patients had metastasis at the time of presentation. All patients underwent surgery. Radiotherapy was delivered to 16 patients and chemotherapy to 6 patients (concurrent, n = 3 and adjuvant, n = 3) and no adjuvant therapy was given to 2 patients. All patients were alive at a median follow-up of 3 years. No patient developed local or distant failure during the study duration. CONCLUSION: ACC has locally aggressive behavior. Radiotherapy adjuvant to surgery improves local control in locally advanced disease. Longer follow-up is mandatory in view of incidence of late metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 6(2): 227-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20622375

RESUMO

We present the case of a 45-year-old female patient who harbored two synchronous primary malignant neoplasms-an anaplastic oligodendroglioma of the right frontal lobe and a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Both neoplasms were in advanced stage and carried a dismal prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation in the english literature of such a presentation. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to this possibility and to outline the management approach in a different manner in patients presenting with multiple primary neoplasms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Língua/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Oligodendroglioma/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Língua/cirurgia
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 15(2): 295-8, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19193277

RESUMO

An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in northern India in 2006. Attempts to identify an etiologic agent in cerebrospinal fluid by using reverse transcription-PCR showed positivity to enterovirus (EV) in 66 (21.6%) of 306 patients. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of PCR products from 59 (89.3%) of 66 specimens showed similarity with EV-89 and EV-76 sequences.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Encefalite Viral , Enterovirus , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cricetinae , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Trop Gastroenterol ; 29(2): 112-3, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18972776

RESUMO

Krukenberg tumour (KT) is a metastatic ovarian tumour with primary usually seen in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report the case of a 50-year old menopausal patient with gastric tumour presenting with solitary metastasis to the ovary within 5 months of primary gastric surgery, for which total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. This case stresses the urgent need for early detection and surveillance of treatable tumours metastasising to the ovary.


Assuntos
Tumor de Krukenberg/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/secundário , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tumor de Krukenberg/diagnóstico , Tumor de Krukenberg/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 51(3): 386-8, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18723965

RESUMO

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant proliferations of small, undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells occurring mainly in children and share the same reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 and the same patterns of biochemical and oncogene expression as osseus and extraosseus Ewing's sarcoma. Some PNETs occur in the brain, while others (the peripheral PNETs) occur in sites outside the brain, such as in the extremities, pelvis and the chest wall. They mostly originate in the chest, pelvis and retroperitoneum; in rare cases, occurrence in the head and neck area has also been seen. We present a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the prostate gland in a 25-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a primary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the prostate gland of any patient from India and rarely reported in English literature.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/patologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha , Humanos , Índia , Masculino
14.
Australas Radiol ; 50(3): 201-5, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16732814

RESUMO

Nine patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of chordoma seen at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital between January 1999 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to age, sex, presentation, location of tumour, treatment, response, recurrence, metastasis and follow up. Chordoma constituted 0.07% of total cancer cases registered over 6 years. Out of nine patients, eight were males and one was female with median age at time of diagnosis 52 years (range 34-68 years). All had sacrococcygeal lesions except one who had a spheno-occipital lesion. Seven patients had undergone either subtotal or gross total resection whereas only biopsy had been carried out in two of them. All patients received radiation therapy, seven in a postoperative setting and two for palliation. Follow-up period ranged from 2 to 50 months. Four patients died--the first after fourth fraction of radiation, second after 10 days of treatment, third of progressive lesion in sphenoidal region despite resection and radiation and fourth of local recurrence in the sacrococcyx. One patient developed distant metastases in the lungs and subcutaneous tissue over the scalp along with local recurrence; he is still alive. Two patients are locally free of disease whereas the other two were lost to follow up. The present analysis was undertaken to review our institutional experience with an aim to provide a practical approach to these tumours. In this report, these cases are discussed and the published works have been reviewed for the optimal management of patients with chordoma.


Assuntos
Cordoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Cordoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Cuidados Paliativos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Região Sacrococcígea , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Environ Sci Eng ; 46(4): 257-60, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16649622

RESUMO

Cleaner technologies often originate from developed countries. Little developmental work is continued on the products sourced from developing countries. These products are by and large low value products generating large quantities of hazardous waste per unit of production. Methodology is proposed for phasing out such dirty technologies! products. The development of cleaner technologies is proposed for utilizing large quantity of hazardous waste generated from identified manufacturing process.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Resíduos Industriais , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Indústrias/tendências , Tecnologia/tendências
16.
Indian J Environ Health ; 44(2): 138-53, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14503386

RESUMO

Mixed samples prepared from known pure solutes are reported to have synergetic efforts with respect to single solute and multi-solute adsorption. Attempt is made to extend the theory of enhancement ratios to the mixed stream wastewater samples collected from dyes manufacturing industries. Synergetic effect of the multi-solutes as well as of mixture of adsorbents is observed for mixed streams of wastewater samples, containing a number of pollutants, on given inexpensive adsorbents. The Rathi Puranik model developed for single wastewater streams can be extended to the mixed stream wastewater samples using the rate of COD reduction prediction. The concept of average apparent enhancement factor is discussed.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Corantes/química , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Teóricos
17.
Indian Heart J ; 53(1): 71-3, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11456145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular pacing is increasingly being used as a part of biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure but data on safety, feasibility, reliability and lead maturation are sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventeen patients (13 males and 4 females) with persistent symptomatic degenerative complete heart block underwent temporary left ventricular pacing by a left subclavian puncture through the coronary sinus to its tributaries using a unipolar permanent pacing lead connected to an external pulse generator. The left ventricular pacing was done for two weeks. Permanent right ventricular apical pacing was also done at the same time through a right cephalic vein cut-down or subclavian puncture and the pacing rate was kept below that of the initial left ventricular pacing rate. Pacing parameters of the left and right ventricles were assessed at the time of implantation and at two weeks. Out of 17 patients, left ventricular pacing was successful in 11 (67.7%) patients. The time taken for the total procedure was 56+/-18.1 min. Lead displacement was noted in one patient without loss of pacing. At the time of implant and after two weeks, left ventricular pacing threshold, impedance, R wave height and slew rate were not different as compared to right ventricular pacing. Holter recording for 24 hours revealed regular left ventricular pacing at the end of two weeks in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that left ventricular pacing through coronary sinus tributaries is feasible and reliable. Acute and subacute maturation of left ventricular pacing are similar to right ventricular apical pacing.


Assuntos
Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Bloqueio Cardíaco/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 43(2): 161-3, 2000 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11217275

RESUMO

Intracranial malignant cartilaginous tumors, not arising from the skull bones are a rare phenomenon, and few cases have been reported till date in literature. We hereby describe one such case treated by us.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Condrossarcoma/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Radioterapia
20.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 41(3): 355-6, 1998 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9805860

RESUMO

Malignant mesenchymal tumours of the breast are rare neoplasms. Their incidence varies from 1%-3% of all malignant breast tumours (1). Stromal sarcoma of the breast is an extremely uncommon tumour (2). We present a rare case of advanced stromal sarcoma of the breast successfully managed with radical surgery and radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mesenquimoma/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mesenquimoma/radioterapia , Mesenquimoma/cirurgia , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Sarcoma/cirurgia
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