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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315290

RESUMO

Cancer cells can develop a strong addiction to discrete molecular regulators, which control the aberrant gene expression programs that drive and maintain the cancer phenotype. Here, we report the identification of the RNA-binding protein HuR/ELAVL1 as a central oncogenic driver for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs), which are highly aggressive sarcomas that originate from cells of the Schwann cell lineage. HuR was found to be highly elevated and bound to a multitude of cancer-associated transcripts in human MPNST samples. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of HuR had potent cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on tumour growth, and strongly supressed metastatic capacity in vivo. Importantly, we linked the profound tumorigenic function of HuR to its ability to simultaneously regulate multiple essential oncogenic pathways in MPNST cells, including the Wnt/beta-Catenin, YAP/TAZ, Rb-E2F and BET proteins, which converge on key transcriptional networks. Given the exceptional dependency of MPNST cells on HuR for survival, proliferation, and dissemination, we propose that HuR represents a promising therapeutic target for MPNST treatment.

2.
Cell Rep ; 31(2): 107513, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294451

RESUMO

Sertoli cells are supporting cells of the testicular seminiferous tubules, which provide a nurturing environment for spermatogenesis. Adult Sertoli cells are polarized so that they can simultaneously support earlier-stage spermatogenic cells (e.g., spermatogonia) basally and later-stage cells (e.g., spermatids) apically. To test the consequences of disrupting cell polarity in Sertoli cells, we perform a Sertoli-specific conditional deletion of Rac1, which encodes a Rho GTPase required for apicobasal cell polarity. Rac1 conditional knockout adults exhibit spermatogenic arrest at the round spermatid stage, with severe disruption of Sertoli cell polarity, and show increased germline and Sertoli cell apoptosis. Thus, Sertoli Rac1 function is critical for the progression of spermatogenesis but, surprisingly, is dispensable for fetal testicular development, adult maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia, and meiotic entry. Our data indicate that Sertoli Rac1 function is required only for certain aspects of spermatogenesis and reveal that there are distinct requirements for cell polarity during cellular differentiation.

3.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(1): 157-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664505

RESUMO

In Neurofibromatosis type 1, NF1 gene mutations in Schwann cells (SC) drive benign plexiform neurofibroma (PNF), and no additional SC changes explain patient-to-patient variability in tumor number. Evidence from twin studies suggests that variable expressivity might be caused by unidentified modifier genes. Whole exome sequencing of SC and fibroblast DNA from the same resected PNFs confirmed biallelic SC NF1 mutations; non-NF1 somatic SC variants were variable and present at low read number. We identified frequent germline variants as possible neurofibroma modifier genes. Genes harboring variants were validated in two additional cohorts of NF1 patients and by variant burden test. Genes including CUBN, CELSR2, COL14A1, ATR and ATM also showed decreased gene expression in some neurofibromas. ATM-relevant DNA repair defects were also present in a subset of neurofibromas with ATM variants, and in some neurofibroma SC. Heterozygous ATM G2023R or homozygous S707P variants reduced ATM protein expression in heterologous cells. In mice, genetic Atm heterozygosity promoted Schwann cell precursor self-renewal and increased tumor formation in vivo, suggesting that ATM variants contribute to neurofibroma initiation. We identify germline variants, rare in the general population, overrepresented in NF1 patients with neurofibromas. ATM and other identified genes are candidate modifiers of PNF pathogenesis.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(3): 597-606, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825160

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of genetic disorders that result from germline pathogenic variants affecting RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes. RASopathies share RAS/MAPK pathway dysregulation and share phenotypic manifestations affecting numerous organ systems, causing lifelong and at times life-limiting medical complications. RASopathies may benefit from precision medicine approaches. For this reason, the Sixth International RASopathies Symposium focused on exploring precision medicine. This meeting brought together basic science researchers, clinicians, clinician scientists, patient advocates, and representatives from pharmaceutical companies and the National Institutes of Health. Novel RASopathy genes, variants, and animal models were discussed in the context of medication trials and drug development. Attempts to define and measure meaningful endpoints for treatment trials were discussed, as was drug availability to patients after trial completion.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19704, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873172

RESUMO

Tumors of soft tissue and bone represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasias characterized by a wide variety of genetic aberrations. Albeit knowledge on tumorigenesis in mesenchymal tumors is continuously increasing, specific insights on altered signaling pathways as a basis for molecularly targeted therapeutic strategies are still sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of YAP1/TAZ-mediated signals in tumors of soft tissue and bone. Expression levels of YAP1 and TAZ were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 486 tumor specimens, comprising angiosarcomas (AS), Ewing sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), solitary fibrous tumors, synovial sarcomas (SySa), well-differentiated/dedifferentiated/pleomorphic and myxoid liposarcomas (MLS). Moderate to strong nuclear staining of YAP1 and TAZ was detected in 53% and 33%, respectively. YAP1 nuclear expression was most prevalent in MPNST, SySa and MLS, whereas nuclear TAZ was predominately detected in AS, MLS and MPNST. In a set of sarcoma cell lines, immunoblotting confirmed nuclear localization of YAP1 and TAZ, corresponding to their transcriptionally active pool. Suppression of YAP1/TAZ-TEAD mediated transcriptional activity significantly impaired sarcoma cell viability in vitro and in vivo. Our findings identify nuclear YAP1 and TAZ positivity as a common feature in subsets of sarcomas of soft tissue and bone and provide evidence of YAP1/TAZ-TEAD signaling as a specific liability to be considered as a new target for therapeutic intervention. Nuclear YAP1/TAZ expression may represent a biomarker suited to identify patients that could benefit from YAP1/TAZ-TEAD directed therapeutic approaches within future clinical trials.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107888

RESUMO

In addition to large plexiform neurofibromas (pNF), NF1 patients are frequently disfigured by cutaneous neurofibromas (cNF) and are often afflicted with chronic pain and itch even from seemingly normal skin areas. Both pNFs and cNF consist primarily of benign hyperproliferating nonmyelinating Schwann cells (nSC). While pNF clearly arise within deep nerves and plexuses, the role of cutaneous innervation in the origin of cNF and in chronic itch and pain is unknown. First, we conducted a comprehensive, multi-molecular, immunofluorescence (IF) analyses on 3mm punch biopsies from three separate locations in normal appearing, cNF-free skin in 19 NF1 patients and skin of 16 normal subjects. At least one biopsy in 17 NF1 patients had previously undescribed micro-lesions consisting of a small, dense cluster of nonpeptidergic C-fiber endings and the affiliated nSC consistently adjoining adnexal structures-dermal papillae, hair follicles, sweat glands, sweat ducts, and arterioles-where C-fiber endings normally terminate. Similar micro-lesions were detected in hind paw skin of mice with conditionally-induced SC Nf1-/- mutations. Hypothesizing that these microlesions were pre-cNF origins of cNF, we subsequently analyzed numerous overt, small cNF (s-cNF, 3-6 mm) and discovered that each had an adnexal structure at the epicenter of vastly increased nonpeptidergic C-fiber terminals, accompanied by excessive nSC. The IF and functional genomics assays indicated that neurturin (NTRN) and artemin (ARTN) signaling through cRET kinase and GFRα2 and GFRα3 co-receptors on the aberrant C-fiber endings and nSC may mutually promote the onset of pre-cNF and their evolution to s-cNF. Moreover, TrpA1 and TrpV1 receptors may, respectively, mediate symptoms of chronic itch and pain. These newly discovered molecular characteristics might be targeted to suppress the development of cNF and to treat chronic itch and pain symptoms in NF1 patients.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/metabolismo , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/imunologia , Neurturina/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Adv ; 5(4): eaau8389, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032403

RESUMO

Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to develop neurofibromas, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of neurofibromagenesis are not fully understood. We showed dual genetic deletion of Runx1 and Runx3 in Schwann cells (SCs) and SC precursors delayed neurofibromagenesis and prolonged mouse survival. We identified peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22/Gas3) related to neurofibroma initiation. Knockdown of Pmp22 with short hairpin RNAs increased Runx1fl/fl;Runx3fl/fl;Nf1fl/fl;DhhCre tumor-derived sphere numbers and enabled significantly more neurofibroma-like microlesions on transplantation. Conversely, overexpression of Pmp22 in mouse neurofibroma SCs decreased cell proliferation. Mechanistically, RUNX1/3 regulated alternative promoter usage and induced levels of protein expression of Pmp22 to control SC growth. Last, pharmacological inhibition of RUNX/core-binding factor ß (CBFB) activity significantly reduced neurofibroma volume in vivo. Thus, we identified a signaling pathway involving RUNX1/3 suppression of Pmp22 in neurofibroma initiation and/or maintenance. Targeting disruption of RUNX/CBFB interaction might provide a novel therapy for patients with neurofibroma.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 4117-4127, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936125

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and in highly aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), constitutively active RAS-GTP and increased MAPK signaling are important in tumorigenesis. Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are negative regulators of MAPK signaling that dephosphorylate p38, JNK, and ERK in different settings. Although often acting as tumor suppressors, DUSPs may also act as oncogenes, helping tumor cells adapt to high levels of MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that inhibiting DUSPs might be selectively toxic to cells from NF1-driven tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined DUSP gene and protein expression in neurofibroma and MPNSTs. We used small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down DUSP1 and DUSP6 to evaluate cell growth, downstream MAPK signaling, and mechanisms of action. We evaluated the DUSP inhibitor, (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI), in MPNST cell lines and in cell-line and patient-derived MPNST xenografts. RESULTS: DUSP1 and DUSP6 are expressed in NF1-deleted tumors. Knockdown of DUSP1 and DUSP6, alone or in combination, reduced MPNST cell growth and led to ERK and JNK hyperactivation increasing downstream TP53 and p-ATM. The DUSP inhibitor, BCI, diminished the survival of NF1-deleted Schwann cells and MPNST cell lines through activation of JNK. In vivo, treatment of an established cell-line xenograft or a novel patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of MPNSTs with BCI increased ERK and JNK activation, caused tumor necrosis and fibrosis, and reduced tumor volume in one model. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting DUSP1 and DUSP6 genetically or with BCI effectively inhibits MPNST cell growth and promotes cell death, in vitro and in xenograft models. The data support further investigation of DUSP inhibition in MPNSTs.

10.
Sci Signal ; 12(578)2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015291

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an inherited, neoplastic disease associated with schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas and that is caused by inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene NF2 The NF2 gene product, Merlin, has no intrinsic catalytic activity; its tumor suppressor function is mediated through the proteins with which it interacts. We used proximity biotinylation followed by mass spectrometry and direct binding assays to identify proteins that associated with wild-type and various mutant forms of Merlin in immortalized Schwann cells. We defined a set of 52 proteins in close proximity to wild-type Merlin. Most of the Merlin-proximal proteins were components of cell junctional signaling complexes, suggesting that additional potential interaction partners may exist in adherens junctions, tight junctions, and focal adhesions. With mutant forms of Merlin that cannot bind to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) or that constitutively adopt a closed conformation, we confirmed a critical role for PIP2 binding in Merlin function and identified a large cohort of proteins that specifically interacted with Merlin in the closed conformation. Among these proteins, we identified a previously unreported Merlin-binding protein, apoptosis-stimulated p53 protein 2 (ASPP2, also called Tp53bp2), that bound to closed-conformation Merlin predominately through the FERM domain. Our results demonstrate that Merlin is a component of cell junctional mechanosensing complexes and defines a specific set of proteins through which it acts.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1091-1097, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908877

RESUMO

The neurofibromatoses, which include neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis, are a group of syndromes characterized by tumor growth in the nervous system. The RASopathies are a group of syndromes caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The RASopathies include NF1, Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, Costello syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Legius syndrome, capillary malformation arterio-venous malformation syndrome, and SYNGAP1 autism. Due to their common underlying pathogenetic etiology, all these syndromes have significant phenotypic overlap of which one common feature include a predisposition to tumors, which may be benign or malignant. Together as a group, they represent one of the most common multiple congenital anomaly syndromes estimating to affect approximately one in 1000 individuals worldwide. The subcontinent of India represents one of the largest populations in the world, yet remains underserved from an aspect of clinical genetics services. In an effort to bridge this gap, the First International Conference on RASopathies and Neurofibromatoses in Asia: Identification and Advances of New Therapeutics was held in Kochi, Kerala, India. These proceedings chronicle this timely and topical international symposium directed at discussing the best practices and therapies for individuals with neurofibromatoses and RASopathies.

12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 177, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of microarrays and RNA-seq technologies is ubiquitous for transcriptome analyses in modern biology. With proper analysis tools, the differential gene expression analysis process can be significantly accelerated. Many open-source programs provide cutting-edge techniques, but these often require programming skills and lack intuitive and interactive or graphical user interfaces. To avoid bottlenecks impeding seamless analysis processing, we have developed an Interactive Gene Expression Analysis Kit, we term iGEAK, focusing on usability and interactivity. iGEAK is designed to be a simple, intuitive, light-weight that contrasts with heavy-duty programs. RESULTS: iGEAK is an R/Shiny-based client-side desktop application, providing an interactive gene expression data analysis pipeline for microarray and RNA-seq data. Gene expression data can be intuitively explored using a seamless analysis pipeline consisting of sample selection, differentially expressed gene prediction, protein-protein interaction, and gene set enrichment analyses. For each analysis step, users can easily alter parameters to mine more relevant biological information. CONCLUSION: iGEAK is the outcome of close collaboration with wet-bench biologists who are eager to easily explore, mine, and analyze new or public microarray and RNA-seq data. We designed iGEAK as a gene expression analysis pipeline tool to provide essential analysis steps and a user-friendly interactive graphical user interface. iGEAK enables users without programing knowledge to comfortably perform differential gene expression predictions and downstream analyses. iGEAK packages, manuals, tutorials, sample datasets are available at the iGEAK project homepage ( https://sites.google.com/view/iGEAK ).


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
JCI Insight ; 4(3)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728335

RESUMO

Plexiform neurofibroma is a major contributor to morbidity in patients with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Macrophages and mast cells infiltrate neurofibroma, and data from mouse models implicate these leukocytes in neurofibroma development. Antiinflammatory therapy targeting these cell populations has been suggested as a means to prevent neurofibroma development. Here, we compare gene expression in Nf1-mutant nerves, which invariably form neurofibroma, and show disruption of neuron-glial cell interactions and immune cell infiltration to mouse models, which rarely progresses to neurofibroma with or without disruption of neuron-glial cell interactions. We find that the chemokine Cxcl10 is uniquely upregulated in NF1 mice that invariably develop neurofibroma. Global deletion of the CXCL10 receptor Cxcr3 prevented neurofibroma development in these neurofibroma-prone mice, and an anti-Cxcr3 antibody somewhat reduced tumor numbers. Cxcr3 expression localized to T cells and DCs in both inflamed nerves and neurofibromas, and Cxcr3 expression was necessary to sustain elevated macrophage numbers in Nf1-mutant nerves. To our knowledge, these data support a heretofore-unappreciated role for T cells and DCs in neurofibroma initiation.

14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(2): e27520, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408304

RESUMO

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma with an unfavorable prognosis and limited therapeutic options. MPNSTs can be sporadic, but are often associated with neurofibromatosis (NF) 1 and usually arise from preexisting neurofibromas. MPNSTs in patients with NF2 have been reported in only exceedingly rare cases, and the mechanisms underlying transformation into an MPNST have not been fully elucidated. Here, we describe the clinicopathological and genomic features of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST), with a primary diagnosis of a neurofibroma, as it transforms into a high-grade MPNST in the context of NF2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia , Neurofibromatose 2/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/genética , Neurofibromatose 2/genética , Sarcoma/genética
15.
Oncogene ; 38(15): 2876-2884, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542122

RESUMO

Plexiform neurofibroma, a benign peripheral nerve tumor, is associated with the biallelic loss of function of the NF1 tumor suppressor in Schwann cells. Here, we show that FLLL32, a small molecule inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3 signaling, reduces neurofibroma growth in mice with conditional, biallelic deletion of Nf1 in the Schwann cell lineage. FLLL32 treatment or Stat3 deletion in tumor cells reduced inflammatory cytokine expression and tumor macrophage numbers in neurofibroma. Although STAT3 inhibition downregulated the chemokines CCL2 and CCL12, which can signal through CCR2 to recruit macrophages to peripheral nerves, deletion of Ccr2 did not improve survival or reduce macrophage numbers in neurofibroma-bearing mice. Interestingly, Iba1+; F4/80+;CD11b+ macrophages accounted for ~20-40% of proliferating cells in untreated tumors. FLLL32 suppressed macrophage proliferation, implicating STAT3-dependent, local proliferation in neurofibroma macrophage accumulation, and decreased Schwann cell proliferation and increased Schwann cell death. The functions of STAT3 signaling in neurofibroma Schwann cells and macrophages, and its relevance as a therapeutic target in neurofibroma, merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/tratamento farmacológico , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Quimioatraentes de Monócitos/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 127, 2018 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470263

RESUMO

Normal Schwann cells (SCs) are quiescent in adult nerves, when ATP is released from the nerve in an activity dependent manner. We find that suppressing nerve activity in adult nerves causes SC to enter the cell cycle. In vitro, ATP activates the SC G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) P2Y2. Downstream of P2Y2, ß-arrestin-mediated signaling results in PP2-mediated de-phosphorylation of AKT, and PP2 activity is required for SC growth suppression. NF1 deficient SC show reduced growth suppression by ATP, and are resistant to the effects of ß-arrestin-mediated signaling, including PP2-mediated de-phosphorylation of AKT. In patients with the disorder Neurofibromatosis type 1, NF1 mutant SCs proliferate and form SC tumors called neurofibromas. Elevating ATP levels in vivo reduced neurofibroma cell proliferation. Thus, the low proliferation characteristic of differentiated adult peripheral nerve may require ongoing, nerve activity-dependent, ATP. Additionally, we identify a mechanism through which NF1 SCs may evade growth suppression in nerve tumors.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Arrestina/metabolismo , Neurofibromina 1/deficiência , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/citologia , Animais , Bupivacaína/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Mamíferos , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Humanos , Hidróxidos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Medição da Dor , Neuropatia Ciática , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia
17.
Commun Biol ; 1: 158, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302402

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in Neurofibromin 1 (NF1). NF1 patients present with a variety of clinical manifestations and are predisposed to cancer development. Many NF1 animal models have been developed, yet none display the spectrum of disease seen in patients and the translational impact of these models has been limited. We describe a minipig model that exhibits clinical hallmarks of NF1, including café au lait macules, neurofibromas, and optic pathway glioma. Spontaneous loss of heterozygosity is observed in this model, a phenomenon also described in NF1 patients. Oral administration of a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor suppresses Ras signaling. To our knowledge, this model provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the complex biology and natural history of NF1 and could prove indispensable for development of imaging methods, biomarkers, and evaluation of safety and efficacy of NF1-targeted therapies.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2924-2929, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302932

RESUMO

This report summarizes and highlights the fifth International RASopathies Symposium: When Development and Cancer Intersect, held in Orlando, Florida in July 2017. The RASopathies comprise a recognizable pattern of malformation syndromes that are caused by germ line mutations in genes that encode components of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Because of their common underlying pathogenetic etiology, there is significant overlap in their phenotypic features, which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and ocular abnormalities, neurological and neurocognitive issues, and a predisposition to cancer. The RAS pathway is a well-known oncogenic pathway that is commonly found to be activated in somatic malignancies. As in somatic cancers, the RASopathies can be caused by various pathogenetic mechanisms that ultimately impact or alter the normal function and regulation of the MAPK pathway. As such, the RASopathies represent an excellent model of study to explore the intersection of the effects of dysregulation and its consequence in both development and oncogenesis.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas ras/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Desenvolvimento Humano , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Organogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4410, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353012

RESUMO

The nature and role of global transcriptional deregulations in cancers are not fully understood. We report that a large proportion of cancers have widespread defects in mRNA transcription elongation (TE). Cancers with TE defects (TEdeff) display spurious transcription and defective mRNA processing of genes characterized by long genomic length, poised promoters and inducible expression. Signaling pathways regulated by such genes, such as pro-inflammatory response pathways, are consistently suppressed in TEdeff tumors. Remarkably, TEdeff correlates with the poor response and outcome in immunotherapy, but not chemo- or targeted therapy, -treated renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma patients. Forced pharmacologic or genetic induction of TEdeff in tumor cells impairs pro-inflammatory response signaling, and imposes resistance to the innate and adaptive anti-tumor immune responses and checkpoint inhibitor therapy in vivo. Therefore, defective TE is a previously unknown mechanism of tumor immune resistance, and should be assessed in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 20(11): 1328, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190576

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, in ref. 34 the first author's name was spelled incorrectly. The correct reference is: Rodón, L. et al. Active CREB1 promotes a malignant TGFß2 autocrine loop in glioblastoma. Cancer Discov. 10, 1230-1241 (2014). This has now been amended in all online versions of the Article.

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