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1.
Oncogene ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079083

RESUMO

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that cause significant mortality in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1. We compared gene expression of growth factors in normal human nerves to MPNST and normal human Schwann cells to MPNST cell lines. We identified WNT5A as the most significantly upregulated ligand-coding gene and verified its protein expression in MPNST cell lines and tumors. In many contexts WNT5A acts as an oncogene. However, inhibiting WNT5A expression using shRNA did not alter MPNST cell proliferation, invasion, migration, or survival in vitro. Rather, shWNT5A-treated MPNST cells upregulated mRNAs associated with the remodeling of extracellular matrix and with immune cell communication. In addition, these cells secreted increased amounts of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1, CCL2, IL6, CXCL8, and ICAM1. Versus controls, shWNT5A-expressing MPNST cells formed larger tumors in vivo. Grafted tumors contained elevated macrophage/stromal cells, larger and more numerous blood vessels, and increased levels of Mmp9, Cxcl13, Lipocalin-1, and Ccl12. In some MPNST settings, these effects were mimicked by targeting the WNT5A receptor ROR2. These data suggest that the non-canonical Wnt ligand WNT5A inhibits MPNST tumor formation by modulating the MPNST microenvironment, so that blocking WNT5A accelerates tumor growth in vivo.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808166

RESUMO

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive, genomically complex, have soft tissue sarcomas, and are derived from the Schwann cell lineage. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome (NF1), an autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome, are at a high risk for MPNSTs, which usually develop from pre-existing benign Schwann cell tumors called plexiform neurofibromas. NF1 is characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 gene, which encode neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase activating protein (GAP) and negative regulator of RasGTP-dependent signaling. In addition to bi-allelic loss of NF1, other known tumor suppressor genes include TP53, CDKN2A, SUZ12, and EED, all of which are often inactivated in the process of MPNST growth. A sleeping beauty (SB) transposon-based genetic screen for high-grade Schwann cell tumors in mice, and comparative genomics, implicated Wnt/ß-catenin, PI3K-AKT-mTOR, and other pathways in MPNST development and progression. We endeavored to more systematically test genes and pathways implicated by our SB screen in mice, i.e., in a human immortalized Schwann cell-based model and a human MPNST cell line, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We individually induced loss-of-function mutations in 103 tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and oncogene candidates. We assessed anchorage-independent growth, transwell migration, and for a subset of genes, tumor formation in vivo. When tested in a loss-of-function fashion, about 60% of all TSG candidates resulted in the transformation of immortalized human Schwann cells, whereas 30% of oncogene candidates resulted in growth arrest in a MPNST cell line. Individual loss-of-function mutations in the TAOK1, GDI2, NF1, and APC genes resulted in transformation of immortalized human Schwann cells and tumor formation in a xenograft model. Moreover, the loss of all four of these genes resulted in activation of Hippo/Yes Activated Protein (YAP) signaling. By combining SB transposon mutagenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 screening, we established a useful pipeline for the validation of MPNST pathways and genes. Our results suggest that the functional genetic landscape of human MPNST is complex and implicate the Hippo/YAP pathway in the transformation of neurofibromas. It is thus imperative to functionally validate individual cancer genes and pathways using human cell-based models, to determinate their role in different stages of MPNST development, growth, and/or metastasis.

3.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(4): 45, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721151

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at increased risk for benign and malignant neoplasms. Recently, targeted therapy with the MEK inhibitor class has helped address these needs. We highlight recent successes with selumetinib while acknowledging ongoing challenges for NF1 patients and future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: MEK inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy for NF1-related conditions, including plexiform neurofibromas and low-grade gliomas, two common causes of NF1-related morbidity. Active investigations for NF1-related neoplasms have benefited from advanced understanding of the genomic and cell signaling alterations in these conditions and development of sound preclinical animal models. Selumetinib has become the first FDA-approved targeted therapy for NF1 following its demonstrated efficacy for inoperable plexiform neurofibroma. Investigations of combination therapy and the development of a representative NF1 swine model hold promise for translating therapies for other NF1-associated pathology.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(7): 797-806, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) frequently develop plexiform neurofibromas (PNs), which can cause significant morbidity. We performed a phase II trial of the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor, mirdametinib (PD-0325901), in patients with NF1 and inoperable PNs. The primary objective was response rate based on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included age ≥ 16 years and a PN that was either progressive or causing significant morbidity. First-dose pharmacokinetics were performed. Patients completed patient-reported outcome measures. Patients received mirdametinib by mouth twice a day at 2 mg/m2/dose (maximum dose = 4 mg twice a day) in a 3-week on/1-week off sequence. Each course was 4 weeks in duration. Evaluations were performed after four courses for the first year and then after every six courses. Patients could receive a maximum of 24 total courses. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were enrolled, and all 19 received mirdametinib. The median age was 24 years (range, 16-39 years); the median baseline tumor volume was 363.8 mL (range, 3.9-5,161 mL). Eight of the 19 patients (42%) achieved a partial response of the target PN by course 12, and 10 (53%) had stable disease. One patient (5%) developed progressive disease at course 8. Significant and durable decreases were observed in pain ratings. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this analysis represents the first characterization of the activity and pharmacokinetics of mirdametinib in patients with NF1 and PNs and is the first published response study for MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitors in adults with NF1 and PNs. Mirdametinib given at 2 mg/m2/dose (maximum dose, 4 mg) twice daily in a 3-week on/1-week off sequence resulted in a 42% partial response rate with preliminary evidence of reduction in pain.

5.
Glia ; 69(8): 1837-1851, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507559

RESUMO

To facilitate analyses of purinergic signaling in peripheral nerve glia, we review recent literature and catalog purinergic receptor mRNA expression in cultured mouse Schwann cells (SCs). Purinergic signaling can decrease developmental SC proliferation, and promote SC differentiation. The purinergic receptors P2RY2 and P2RX7 are implicated in nerve development and in the ratio of Remak SCs to myelinating SCs in differentiated peripheral nerve. P2RY2, P2RX7, and other receptors are also implicated in peripheral neuropathies and SC tumors. In SC tumors lacking the tumor suppressor NF1, the SC pathway that suppresses SC growth through P2RY2-driven ß-arrestin-mediated AKT signaling is aberrant. SC-released purinergic agonists acting through SC and/or neuronal purinergic receptors activate pain responses. In all these settings, purinergic receptor activation can result in calcium-independent and calcium-dependent release of SC ATP and UDP, growth factors, and cytokines that may contribute to disease and nerve repair. Thus, current research suggests that purinergic agonists and/or antagonists might have the potential to modulate peripheral glia function in development and in disease.

6.
Oncogene ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293695

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that can have large impacts on oncogenic pathways. Possible functions of dysregulated miRs have not been studied in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs). In PNFs, Schwann cells (SCs) have biallelic NF1 mutations necessary for tumorigenesis. We analyzed a miR microarray comparing with normal and PNF SCs and identified differences in miR expression, and we validated in mouse PNFs versus normal mouse SCs by qRT-PCR. Among these, miR-155 was a top overexpressed miR, and its expression was regulated by RAS/MAPK signaling. Overexpression of miR-155 increased mature Nf1-/- mouse SC proliferation. In SC precursors, which model tumor-initiating cells, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of miR-155 decreased PNF-derived sphere numbers in vitro, and we identified Maf as a miR-155 target. In vivo, global deletion of miR-155 significantly decreased tumor number and volume, increasing mouse survival. Fluorescent nanoparticles entered PNFs, suggesting that an anti-miR might have therapeutic potential. However, treatment of established PNFs using anti-miR-155 peptide nucleic acid-loaded nanoparticles marginally decreased tumor numbers and did not reduce tumor growth. These results suggest that miR-155 plays a functional role in PNF growth and/or SC proliferation, and that targeting neurofibroma miRs is feasible, and might provide novel therapeutic opportunities.

8.
Cancer Res ; 80(21): 4720-4730, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816910

RESUMO

Plexiform neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath Schwann cell tumors characterized by biallelic mutations in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene. Atypical neurofibromas show additional frequent loss of CDKN2A/Ink4a/Arf and may be precursor lesions of aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Here we combined loss of Nf1 in developing Schwann cells with global Ink4a/Arf loss and identified paraspinal plexiform neurofibromas and atypical neurofibromas. Upon transplantation, atypical neurofibromas generated genetically engineered mice (GEM)-PNST similar to human MPNST, and tumors showed reduced p16INK4a protein and reduced senescence markers, confirming susceptibility to transformation. Superficial GEM-PNST contained regions of nerve-associated plexiform neurofibromas or atypical neurofibromas and grew rapidly on transplantation. Transcriptome analyses showed similarities to corresponding human tumors. Thus, we recapitulated nerve tumor progression in NF1 and provided preclinical platforms for testing therapies at each tumor grade. These results support a tumor progression model in which loss of NF1 in Schwann cells drives plexiform neurofibromas formation, additional loss of Ink4a/Arf contributes to atypical neurofibromas formation, and further changes underlie transformation to MPNST. SIGNIFICANCE: New mouse models recapitulate the stepwise progression of NF1 tumors and will be useful to define effective treatments that halt tumor growth and tumor progression in NF1.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22506-22513, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839340

RESUMO

Neurofibromin gene (NF1) mutation causes neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a disorder in which brain white matter deficits identified by neuroimaging are common, yet of unknown cellular etiology. In mice, Nf1 loss in adult oligodendrocytes causes myelin decompaction and increases oligodendrocyte nitric oxide (NO) levels. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors rescue this pathology. Whether oligodendrocyte pathology is sufficient to affect brain-wide structure and account for NF1 imaging findings is unknown. Here we show that Nf1 gene inactivation in adult oligodendrocytes (Plp-Nf1 fl/+ mice) results in a motor coordination deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging in awake mice showed that fractional anisotropy is reduced in Plp-Nf1 fl/+ corpus callosum and that interhemispheric functional connectivity in the motor cortex is also reduced, consistent with disrupted myelin integrity. Furthermore, NOS-specific inhibition rescued both measures. These results suggest that oligodendrocyte defects account for aspects of brain dysfunction in NF1 that can be identified by neuroimaging and ameliorated by NOS inhibition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neurofibromina 1 , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Deleção de Genes , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
10.
Neurooncol Adv ; 2(Suppl 1): i23-i32, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642730

RESUMO

Plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) are peripheral nerve tumors caused by bi-allelic loss of NF1 in the Schwann cell (SC) lineage. PNF are common in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) and can cause significant patient morbidity, spurring research into potential therapies. Immune cells are rare in peripheral nerve, whereas in PNF 30% of the cells are monocytes/macrophages. Mast cells, T cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) are also present. NF1 mutant neurofibroma SCs with elevated Ras-GTP signaling resemble injury-induced repair SCs, in producing growth factors and cytokines not normally present in SCs. This provides a cytokine-rich environment facilitating PNF immune cell recruitment and fibrosis. We propose a model based on genetic and pharmacologic evidence in which, after loss of Nf1 in the SC lineage, a lag occurs. Then, mast cells and macrophages are recruited to nerve. Later, T cell/DC recruitment through CXCL10/CXCR3 drives neurofibroma initiation and sustains PNF macrophages and tumor growth. Stat3 signaling is an additional critical mediator of neurofibroma initiation, cytokine production, and PNF growth. At each stage of PNF development therapeutic benefit should be achievable through pharmacologic modulation of leukocyte recruitment and function.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1786-1793, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601387

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Plexiform neurofibromas (pNF) develop in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and can be associated with several skeletal comorbidities. Preclinical mouse studies revealed Nf1 deficiency in osteoprogenitor cells disrupts, in a MEK-dependent manner, pyrophosphate (PPi) homeostasis and skeletal mineralization. The etiology of NF-associated skeletal manifestations remains unknown. METHODS: We used mouse models of NF1 neurofibromas to assess bone mineralization of skeletal structures adjacent to tumors. Expression of genes involved in pyrophosphate homeostasis was assessed in mouse and human NF tumors and Schwann cell cultures. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess tumor-associated changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in an individual with NF1 following treatment with the MEK inhibitor selumetinib. RESULTS: We detected increased nonmineralized bone surfaces adjacent to tumors in mouse models of NF1 neurofibromas. Expression of Enpp1, a PPi-generating ectophosphatase, and ANKH, a PPi transporter, was increased in mouse and human neurofibroma-derived tissues and Schwann cells, respectively. In one patient, tumor-associated reductions in BMD were partially rescued following therapy with selumetinib. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that NF-associated skeletal pathologies in NF1 are associated with dysregulated pyrophosphate homeostasis in adjacent NF tumors and suggest that treatment of NFs with MEK inhibitors may improve skeletal manifestations of the disease.

12.
Cell Rep ; 31(2): 107513, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294451

RESUMO

Sertoli cells are supporting cells of the testicular seminiferous tubules, which provide a nurturing environment for spermatogenesis. Adult Sertoli cells are polarized so that they can simultaneously support earlier-stage spermatogenic cells (e.g., spermatogonia) basally and later-stage cells (e.g., spermatids) apically. To test the consequences of disrupting cell polarity in Sertoli cells, we perform a Sertoli-specific conditional deletion of Rac1, which encodes a Rho GTPase required for apicobasal cell polarity. Rac1 conditional knockout adults exhibit spermatogenic arrest at the round spermatid stage, with severe disruption of Sertoli cell polarity, and show increased germline and Sertoli cell apoptosis. Thus, Sertoli Rac1 function is critical for the progression of spermatogenesis but, surprisingly, is dispensable for fetal testicular development, adult maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia, and meiotic entry. Our data indicate that Sertoli Rac1 function is required only for certain aspects of spermatogenesis and reveal that there are distinct requirements for cell polarity during cellular differentiation.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 130(7): 3848-3864, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315290

RESUMO

Cancer cells can develop a strong addiction to discrete molecular regulators, which control the aberrant gene expression programs that drive and maintain the cancer phenotype. Here, we report the identification of the RNA-binding protein HuR/ELAVL1 as a central oncogenic driver for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), which are highly aggressive sarcomas that originate from cells of the Schwann cell lineage. HuR was found to be highly elevated and bound to a multitude of cancer-associated transcripts in human MPNST samples. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of HuR had potent cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on tumor growth, and strongly suppressed metastatic capacity in vivo. Importantly, we linked the profound tumorigenic function of HuR to its ability to simultaneously regulate multiple essential oncogenic pathways in MPNST cells, including the Wnt/ß-catenin, YAP/TAZ, RB/E2F, and BET pathways, which converge on key transcriptional networks. Given the exceptional dependency of MPNST cells on HuR for survival, proliferation, and dissemination, we propose that HuR represents a promising therapeutic target for MPNST treatment.

14.
Am J Cancer Res ; 10(3): 856-869, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266095

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are two dominantly inherited disorders that cause tumors in Schwann cells. NF1 patients have a high risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), which are often inoperable and do not respond well to current chemotherapies or radiation. NF2 patients have a high risk for schwannomas. To identify potential therapeutic targets in these two tumors, we screened the NF1 MPNST cell line, ST88-14, and the NF2 schwannoma cell line, HEI-193, against ~2000 drugs of known mechanisms of action (including ~600 cancer relevant drugs), and also screened the cell lines against an siRNA library targeting most protein kinases. Both the drug screen and the siRNA screen identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) among the most potent hits in both cell lines. Since PLK1 acts on the cell cycle primarily at the G2/M transition, the same stage where aurora kinase (AURKA) acts, we explored PLK1 and its relationship to aurora kinase in MPNST. Quantitative profiling of PLK1 inhibitors against a panel of 10 neurofibromatosis cell lines found that they were potent inhibitors and, unlike AURKA inhibitors, were not more selective for NF1 over NF2 tumor cells. Furthermore, one PLK1 inhibitor, BI6727 stabilized tumor volume in MPNST xenografts. We conclude that PLK1 is a therapeutic target for MPNSTs and schwannomas, but inhibitors may have a narrow therapeutic index that limits their use as a single agent.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(3): 597-606, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825160

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of genetic disorders that result from germline pathogenic variants affecting RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes. RASopathies share RAS/MAPK pathway dysregulation and share phenotypic manifestations affecting numerous organ systems, causing lifelong and at times life-limiting medical complications. RASopathies may benefit from precision medicine approaches. For this reason, the Sixth International RASopathies Symposium focused on exploring precision medicine. This meeting brought together basic science researchers, clinicians, clinician scientists, patient advocates, and representatives from pharmaceutical companies and the National Institutes of Health. Novel RASopathy genes, variants, and animal models were discussed in the context of medication trials and drug development. Attempts to define and measure meaningful endpoints for treatment trials were discussed, as was drug availability to patients after trial completion.

16.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(1): 157-174, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664505

RESUMO

In Neurofibromatosis type 1, NF1 gene mutations in Schwann cells (SC) drive benign plexiform neurofibroma (PNF), and no additional SC changes explain patient-to-patient variability in tumor number. Evidence from twin studies suggests that variable expressivity might be caused by unidentified modifier genes. Whole exome sequencing of SC and fibroblast DNA from the same resected PNFs confirmed biallelic SC NF1 mutations; non-NF1 somatic SC variants were variable and present at low read number. We identified frequent germline variants as possible neurofibroma modifier genes. Genes harboring variants were validated in two additional cohorts of NF1 patients and by variant burden test. Genes including CUBN, CELSR2, COL14A1, ATR and ATM also showed decreased gene expression in some neurofibromas. ATM-relevant DNA repair defects were also present in a subset of neurofibromas with ATM variants, and in some neurofibroma SC. Heterozygous ATM G2023R or homozygous S707P variants reduced ATM protein expression in heterologous cells. In mice, genetic Atm heterozygosity promoted Schwann cell precursor self-renewal and increased tumor formation in vivo, suggesting that ATM variants contribute to neurofibroma initiation. We identify germline variants, rare in the general population, overrepresented in NF1 patients with neurofibromas. ATM and other identified genes are candidate modifiers of PNF pathogenesis.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19704, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873172

RESUMO

Tumors of soft tissue and bone represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasias characterized by a wide variety of genetic aberrations. Albeit knowledge on tumorigenesis in mesenchymal tumors is continuously increasing, specific insights on altered signaling pathways as a basis for molecularly targeted therapeutic strategies are still sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of YAP1/TAZ-mediated signals in tumors of soft tissue and bone. Expression levels of YAP1 and TAZ were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 486 tumor specimens, comprising angiosarcomas (AS), Ewing sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), solitary fibrous tumors, synovial sarcomas (SySa), well-differentiated/dedifferentiated/pleomorphic and myxoid liposarcomas (MLS). Moderate to strong nuclear staining of YAP1 and TAZ was detected in 53% and 33%, respectively. YAP1 nuclear expression was most prevalent in MPNST, SySa and MLS, whereas nuclear TAZ was predominately detected in AS, MLS and MPNST. In a set of sarcoma cell lines, immunoblotting confirmed nuclear localization of YAP1 and TAZ, corresponding to their transcriptionally active pool. Suppression of YAP1/TAZ-TEAD mediated transcriptional activity significantly impaired sarcoma cell viability in vitro and in vivo. Our findings identify nuclear YAP1 and TAZ positivity as a common feature in subsets of sarcomas of soft tissue and bone and provide evidence of YAP1/TAZ-TEAD signaling as a specific liability to be considered as a new target for therapeutic intervention. Nuclear YAP1/TAZ expression may represent a biomarker suited to identify patients that could benefit from YAP1/TAZ-TEAD directed therapeutic approaches within future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Humanos , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107888

RESUMO

In addition to large plexiform neurofibromas (pNF), NF1 patients are frequently disfigured by cutaneous neurofibromas (cNF) and are often afflicted with chronic pain and itch even from seemingly normal skin areas. Both pNFs and cNF consist primarily of benign hyperproliferating nonmyelinating Schwann cells (nSC). While pNF clearly arise within deep nerves and plexuses, the role of cutaneous innervation in the origin of cNF and in chronic itch and pain is unknown. First, we conducted a comprehensive, multi-molecular, immunofluorescence (IF) analyses on 3mm punch biopsies from three separate locations in normal appearing, cNF-free skin in 19 NF1 patients and skin of 16 normal subjects. At least one biopsy in 17 NF1 patients had previously undescribed micro-lesions consisting of a small, dense cluster of nonpeptidergic C-fiber endings and the affiliated nSC consistently adjoining adnexal structures-dermal papillae, hair follicles, sweat glands, sweat ducts, and arterioles-where C-fiber endings normally terminate. Similar micro-lesions were detected in hind paw skin of mice with conditionally-induced SC Nf1-/- mutations. Hypothesizing that these microlesions were pre-cNF origins of cNF, we subsequently analyzed numerous overt, small cNF (s-cNF, 3-6 mm) and discovered that each had an adnexal structure at the epicenter of vastly increased nonpeptidergic C-fiber terminals, accompanied by excessive nSC. The IF and functional genomics assays indicated that neurturin (NTRN) and artemin (ARTN) signaling through cRET kinase and GFRα2 and GFRα3 co-receptors on the aberrant C-fiber endings and nSC may mutually promote the onset of pre-cNF and their evolution to s-cNF. Moreover, TrpA1 and TrpV1 receptors may, respectively, mediate symptoms of chronic itch and pain. These newly discovered molecular characteristics might be targeted to suppress the development of cNF and to treat chronic itch and pain symptoms in NF1 patients.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/metabolismo , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/imunologia , Neurturina/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 4117-4127, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936125

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and in highly aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), constitutively active RAS-GTP and increased MAPK signaling are important in tumorigenesis. Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are negative regulators of MAPK signaling that dephosphorylate p38, JNK, and ERK in different settings. Although often acting as tumor suppressors, DUSPs may also act as oncogenes, helping tumor cells adapt to high levels of MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that inhibiting DUSPs might be selectively toxic to cells from NF1-driven tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined DUSP gene and protein expression in neurofibroma and MPNSTs. We used small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down DUSP1 and DUSP6 to evaluate cell growth, downstream MAPK signaling, and mechanisms of action. We evaluated the DUSP inhibitor, (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI), in MPNST cell lines and in cell-line and patient-derived MPNST xenografts. RESULTS: DUSP1 and DUSP6 are expressed in NF1-deleted tumors. Knockdown of DUSP1 and DUSP6, alone or in combination, reduced MPNST cell growth and led to ERK and JNK hyperactivation increasing downstream TP53 and p-ATM. The DUSP inhibitor, BCI, diminished the survival of NF1-deleted Schwann cells and MPNST cell lines through activation of JNK. In vivo, treatment of an established cell-line xenograft or a novel patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of MPNSTs with BCI increased ERK and JNK activation, caused tumor necrosis and fibrosis, and reduced tumor volume in one model. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting DUSP1 and DUSP6 genetically or with BCI effectively inhibits MPNST cell growth and promotes cell death, in vitro and in xenograft models. The data support further investigation of DUSP inhibition in MPNSTs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase 6 de Especificidade Dupla/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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