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1.
Transgenic Res ; 30(4): 427-459, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143358

RESUMO

The conventional breeding of crops struggles to keep up with increasing food needs and ever-adapting pests and pathogens. Global climate changes have imposed another layer of complexity to biological systems, increasing the challenge to obtain improved crop cultivars. These dictate the development and application of novel technologies, like genome editing (GE), that assist targeted and fast breeding programs in crops, with enhanced resistance to pests and pathogens. GE does not require crossings, hence avoiding the introduction of undesirable traits through linkage in elite varieties, speeding up the whole breeding process. Additionally, GE technologies can improve plant protection by directly targeting plant susceptibility (S) genes or virulence factors of pests and pathogens, either through the direct edition of the pest genome or by adding the GE machinery to the plant genome or to microorganisms functioning as biocontrol agents (BCAs). Over the years, GE technology has been continuously evolving and more so with the development of CRISPR/Cas. Here we review the latest advancements of GE to improve plant protection, focusing on CRISPR/Cas-based genome edition of crops and pests and pathogens. We discuss how other technologies, such as host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) and the use of BCAs could benefit from CRISPR/Cas to accelerate the development of green strategies to promote a sustainable agriculture in the future.

2.
Mol Cell ; 81(1): 88-103.e6, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220178

RESUMO

The small molecule ISRIB antagonizes the activation of the integrated stress response (ISR) by phosphorylated translation initiation factor 2, eIF2(αP). ISRIB and eIF2(αP) bind distinct sites in their common target, eIF2B, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2. We have found that ISRIB-mediated acceleration of eIF2B's nucleotide exchange activity in vitro is observed preferentially in the presence of eIF2(αP) and is attenuated by mutations that desensitize eIF2B to the inhibitory effect of eIF2(αP). ISRIB's efficacy as an ISR inhibitor in cells also depends on presence of eIF2(αP). Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) showed that engagement of both eIF2B regulatory sites by two eIF2(αP) molecules remodels both the ISRIB-binding pocket and the pockets that would engage eIF2α during active nucleotide exchange, thereby discouraging both binding events. In vitro, eIF2(αP) and ISRIB reciprocally opposed each other's binding to eIF2B. These findings point to antagonistic allostery in ISRIB action on eIF2B, culminating in inhibition of the ISR.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/química , Cicloexilaminas/química , Fator de Iniciação 2B em Eucariotos/química , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/química , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2B em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2B em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fosforilação
3.
Elife ; 92020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295873

RESUMO

The metazoan endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves both as a hub for maturation of secreted proteins and as an intracellular calcium storage compartment, facilitating calcium-release-dependent cellular processes. ER calcium depletion robustly activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, it is unclear how fluctuations in ER calcium impact organellar proteostasis. Here, we report that calcium selectively affects the dynamics of the abundant metazoan ER Hsp70 chaperone BiP, by enhancing its affinity for ADP. In the calcium-replete ER, ADP rebinding to post-ATP hydrolysis BiP-substrate complexes competes with ATP binding during both spontaneous and co-chaperone-assisted nucleotide exchange, favouring substrate retention. Conversely, in the calcium-depleted ER, relative acceleration of ADP-to-ATP exchange favours substrate release. These findings explain the rapid dissociation of certain substrates from BiP observed in the calcium-depleted ER and suggest a mechanism for tuning ER quality control and coupling UPR activity to signals that mobilise ER calcium in secretory cells.


Assuntos
Cálcio/deficiência , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteostase , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Drosophila , Escherichia coli , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
4.
EMBO J ; 38(21): e102177, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531998

RESUMO

AMPylation is an inactivating modification that alters the activity of the major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP to match the burden of unfolded proteins. A single ER-localised Fic protein, FICD (HYPE), catalyses both AMPylation and deAMPylation of BiP. However, the basis for the switch in FICD's activity is unknown. We report on the transition of FICD from a dimeric enzyme, that deAMPylates BiP, to a monomer with potent AMPylation activity. Mutations in the dimer interface, or of residues along an inhibitory pathway linking the dimer interface to the enzyme's active site, favour BiP AMPylation in vitro and in cells. Mechanistically, monomerisation relieves a repressive effect allosterically propagated from the dimer interface to the inhibitory Glu234, thereby permitting AMPylation-competent binding of MgATP. Moreover, a reciprocal signal, propagated from the nucleotide-binding site, provides a mechanism for coupling the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of FICD to the energy status of the ER.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Conformação Proteica
5.
Elife ; 82019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869076

RESUMO

How endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to cytotoxicity is ill-defined. Previously we showed that HeLa cells readjust homeostasis upon proteostatically driven ER stress, triggered by inducible bulk expression of secretory immunoglobulin M heavy chain (µs) thanks to the unfolded protein response (UPR; Bakunts et al., 2017). Here we show that conditions that prevent that an excess of the ER resident chaperone (and UPR target gene) BiP over µs is restored lead to µs-driven proteotoxicity, i.e. abrogation of HRD1-mediated ER-associated degradation (ERAD), or of the UPR, in particular the ATF6α branch. Such conditions are tolerated instead upon removal of the BiP-sequestering first constant domain (CH1) from µs. Thus, our data define proteostatic ER stress to be a specific consequence of inadequate BiP availability, which both the UPR and ERAD redeem.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteostase , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 541, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710085

RESUMO

Despite its known role as a secreted neuroprotectant, much of the mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of producer cells. There, by unknown mechanisms, MANF plays a role in protein folding homeostasis in complex with the ER-localized Hsp70 chaperone BiP. Here we report that the SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS (SAP) domain of MANF selectively associates with the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of ADP-bound BiP. In crystal structures the SAP domain engages the cleft between NBD subdomains Ia and IIa, stabilizing the ADP-bound conformation and clashing with the interdomain linker that occupies this site in ATP-bound BiP. MANF inhibits both ADP release from BiP and ATP binding to BiP, and thereby client release. Cells lacking MANF have fewer ER stress-induced BiP-containing high molecular weight complexes. These findings suggest that MANF contributes to protein folding homeostasis as a nucleotide exchange inhibitor that stabilizes certain BiP-client complexes.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HEK293 , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/química , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Eletricidade Estática , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
7.
Cell ; 171(7): 1625-1637.e13, 2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198525

RESUMO

When unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the unfolded protein response (UPR) increases ER-protein-folding capacity to restore protein-folding homeostasis. Unfolded proteins activate UPR signaling across the ER membrane to the nucleus by promoting oligomerization of IRE1, a conserved transmembrane ER stress receptor. However, the coupling of ER stress to IRE1 oligomerization and activation has remained obscure. Here, we report that the ER luminal co-chaperone ERdj4/DNAJB9 is a selective IRE1 repressor that promotes a complex between the luminal Hsp70 BiP and the luminal stress-sensing domain of IRE1α (IRE1LD). In vitro, ERdj4 is required for complex formation between BiP and IRE1LD. ERdj4 associates with IRE1LD and recruits BiP through the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, forcibly disrupting IRE1 dimers. Unfolded proteins compete for BiP and restore IRE1LD to its default, dimeric, and active state. These observations establish BiP and its J domain co-chaperones as key regulators of the UPR.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Cricetinae , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Dobramento de Proteína
8.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 24(1): 23-29, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918543

RESUMO

Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is defended by an unfolded protein response that matches ER chaperone capacity to the burden of unfolded proteins. As levels of unfolded proteins decline, a metazoan-specific FIC-domain-containing ER-localized enzyme (FICD) rapidly inactivates the major ER chaperone BiP by AMPylating T518. Here we show that the single catalytic domain of FICD can also release the attached AMP, restoring functionality to BiP. Consistent with a role for endogenous FICD in de-AMPylating BiP, FICD-/- hamster cells are hypersensitive to introduction of a constitutively AMPylating, de-AMPylation-defective mutant FICD. These opposing activities hinge on a regulatory residue, E234, whose default state renders FICD a constitutive de-AMPylase in vitro. The location of E234 on a conserved regulatory helix and the mutually antagonistic activities of FICD in vivo, suggest a mechanism whereby fluctuating unfolded protein load actively switches FICD from a de-AMPylase to an AMPylase.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Células CHO , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Domínio Catalítico , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Células HEK293 , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Humanos , Cinética , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Nucleotidiltransferases , Ligação Proteica
9.
Elife ; 4: e12621, 2015 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26673894

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Hsp70 chaperone BiP affects protein folding homeostasis and the response to ER stress. Reversible inactivating covalent modification of BiP is believed to contribute to the balance between chaperones and unfolded ER proteins, but the nature of this modification has so far been hinted at indirectly. We report that deletion of FICD, a gene encoding an ER-localized AMPylating enzyme, abolished detectable modification of endogenous BiP enhancing ER buffering of unfolded protein stress in mammalian cells, whilst deregulated FICD activity had the opposite effect. In vitro, FICD AMPylated BiP to completion on a single residue, Thr(518). AMPylation increased, in a strictly FICD-dependent manner, as the flux of proteins entering the ER was attenuated in vivo. In vitro, Thr(518) AMPylation enhanced peptide dissociation from BiP 6-fold and abolished stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by J-domain cofactor. These findings expose the molecular basis for covalent inactivation of BiP.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/enzimologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases
10.
Elife ; 42015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774600

RESUMO

Dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a (eIF2a) restores protein synthesis at the waning of stress responses and requires a PP1 catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit, PPP1R15A/GADD34 or PPP1R15B/CReP. Surprisingly, PPP1R15-PP1 binary complexes reconstituted in vitro lacked substrate selectivity. However, selectivity was restored by crude cell lysate or purified G-actin, which joined PPP1R15-PP1 to form a stable ternary complex. In crystal structures of the non-selective PPP1R15B-PP1G complex, the functional core of PPP1R15 made multiple surface contacts with PP1G, but at a distance from the active site, whereas in the substrate-selective ternary complex, actin contributes to one face of a platform encompassing the active site. Computational docking of the N-terminal lobe of eIF2a at this platform placed phosphorylated serine 51 near the active site. Mutagenesis of predicted surface-contacting residues enfeebled dephosphorylation, suggesting that avidity for the substrate plays an important role in imparting specificity on the PPP1R15B-PP1G-actin ternary complex.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 1/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células CHO , Domínio Catalítico , Bovinos , Sequência Conservada , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação , Coelhos , Especificidade por Substrato
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(Database issue): D213-21, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25428371

RESUMO

The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a freely available resource that can be used to classify sequences into protein families and to predict the presence of important domains and sites. Central to the InterPro database are predictive models, known as signatures, from a range of different protein family databases that have different biological focuses and use different methodological approaches to classify protein families and domains. InterPro integrates these signatures, capitalizing on the respective strengths of the individual databases, to produce a powerful protein classification resource. Here, we report on the status of InterPro as it enters its 15th year of operation, and give an overview of new developments with the database and its associated Web interfaces and software. In particular, the new domain architecture search tool is described and the process of mapping of Gene Ontology terms to InterPro is outlined. We also discuss the challenges faced by the resource given the explosive growth in sequence data in recent years. InterPro (version 48.0) contains 36,766 member database signatures integrated into 26,238 InterPro entries, an increase of over 3993 entries (5081 signatures), since 2012.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Proteínas/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Software
12.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e55277, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23424627

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains 20 CNGCs, which are proposed to encode cyclic nucleotide gated, non-selective, Ca²âº-permeable ion channels. CNGC7 and CNGC8 are the two most similar with 74% protein sequence identity, and both genes are preferentially expressed in pollen. Two independent loss-of-function T-DNA insertions were identified for both genes and used to generate plant lines in which only one of the two alleles was segregating (e.g., cngc7-1+/-/cngc8-2-/- and cngc7-3-/-/cngc8-1+/-). While normal pollen transmission was observed for single gene mutations, pollen harboring mutations in both cngc7 and 8 were found to be male sterile (transmission efficiency reduced by more than 3000-fold). Pollen grains harboring T-DNA disruptions of both cngc7 and 8 displayed a high frequency of bursting when germinated in vitro. The male sterile defect could be rescued through pollen expression of a CNGC7 or 8 transgene including a CNGC7 with an N-terminal GFP-tag. However, rescue efficiencies were reduced ∼10-fold when the CNGC7 or 8 included an F to W substitution (F589W and F624W, respectively) at the junction between the putative cyclic nucleotide binding-site and the calmodulin binding-site, identifying this junction as important for proper functioning of a plant CNGC. Using confocal microscopy, GFP-CNGC7 was found to preferentially localize to the plasma membrane at the flanks of the growing tip. Together these results indicate that CNGC7 and 8 are at least partially redundant and provide an essential function at the initiation of pollen tube tip growth.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Germinação , Mutação , Pólen/citologia , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico , Reprodução
13.
Plant Physiol ; 161(2): 1010-20, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23370720

RESUMO

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) have been implicated in diverse aspects of plant growth and development, including responses to biotic and abiotic stress, as well as pollen tube growth and fertility. Here, genetic evidence identifies CNGC16 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as critical for pollen fertility under conditions of heat stress and drought. Two independent transfer DNA disruptions of cngc16 resulted in a greater than 10-fold stress-dependent reduction in pollen fitness and seed set. This phenotype was fully rescued through pollen expression of a CNGC16 transgene, indicating that cngc16-1 and 16-2 were both loss-of-function null alleles. The most stress-sensitive period for cngc16 pollen was during germination and the initiation of pollen tube tip growth. Pollen viability assays indicate that mutant pollen are also hypersensitive to external calcium chloride, a phenomenon analogous to calcium chloride hypersensitivities observed in other cngc mutants. A heat stress was found to increase concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic guanyl monophosphate in both pollen and leaves, as detected using an antibody-binding assay. A quantitative PCR analysis indicates that cngc16 mutant pollen have attenuated expression of several heat-stress response genes, including two heat shock transcription factor genes, HsfA2 and HsfB1. Together, these results provide evidence for a heat stress response pathway in pollen that connects a cyclic nucleotide signal, a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel, and a signaling network that activates a downstream transcriptional heat shock response.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/genética , Tubo Polínico/genética , Pólen/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 39(11): 4587-97, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21303766

RESUMO

The antizyme protein, Oaz1, regulates synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine by controlling stability of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme mRNA translation depends upon a polyamine-stimulated +1 ribosomal frameshift, forming a complex negative feedback system in which the translational frameshifting event may be viewed in engineering terms as a feedback controller for intracellular polyamine concentrations. In this article, we present the first systems level study of the characteristics of this feedback controller, using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. Quantitative analysis of mutant yeast strains in which polyamine synthesis and interconversion were blocked revealed marked variations in frameshift responses to the different polyamines. Putrescine and spermine, but not spermidine, showed evidence of co-operative stimulation of frameshifting and the existence of multiple ribosome binding sites. Combinatorial polyamine treatments showed polyamines compete for binding to common ribosome sites. Using concepts from enzyme kinetics and control engineering, a mathematical model of the translational controller was developed to describe these complex ribosomal responses to combinatorial polyamine effects. Each one of a range of model predictions was successfully validated against experimental frameshift frequencies measured in S-adenosylmethionine-decarboxylase and antizyme mutants, as well as in the wild-type genetic background.


Assuntos
Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Códon de Terminação , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Deleção de Genes , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Putrescina/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Espermina/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 10: 179, 2010 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20718953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The continuous polarized vesicle secretion in pollen tubes is essential for tip growth but the location of endo- and exocytic sub-domains remains however controversial. In this report we aimed to show that Arabidopsis thaliana syntaxins are involved in this process and contribute to spatially define exocytosis and membrane recycling. RESULTS: Using GFP-fusion constructs, we imaged the distribution of pollen-specific (AtSYP124) and non-pollen syntaxins (AtSYP121 and AtSYP122) in transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes. All three proteins associate with the plasma membrane and with apical vesicles indicating a conserved action mechanism for all SYPs. However, the GFP tagged SYP124 showed a specific distribution with a higher labelling at the plasma membrane flanks, 10-25 mum behind the apex. This distribution is affected by Ca2+ fluxes as revealed by treatment with Gd3+ (an inhibitor of extracellular Ca2+ influx) and TMB-8 (an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release). Both inhibitors decreased growth rate but the distribution of SYP124 at the plasma membrane was more strongly affected by Gd3+. Competition with a related dominant negative mutant affected the specific distribution of SYP124 but not tip growth. In contrast, co-expression of the phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphate 5-kinase 4 (PIP5K4) or of the small GTPase Rab11 perturbed polarity and the normal distribution of GFP-SYP but did not inhibit the accumulation in vesicles or at the plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented suggest that in normal growing pollen tubes, a net exocytic flow occurs in the flanks of the tube apex mediated by SYP124. The specific distribution of SYP124 at the plasma membrane is affected by changes in Ca2+ levels in agreement with the importance of this ion for exocytosis. Apical growth and the specific localization of SYP124 were affected by regulators of membrane secretion (Ca2+, PIP5K4 and Rab11) but competition with a dominant negative mutant affected only SYP distribution. These data thus suggest that syntaxins alone do not provide the level of specificity that is required for apical growth and that additional signalling and functional mechanisms are required.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/genética , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Plant J ; 38(6): 887-97, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15165182

RESUMO

Our present understanding implicates both calmodulin (CaM) and 3',5'-cyclicAMP (cAMP) in the regulation of pollen tube growth. However, downstream molecules of these signalling pathways and the cellular processes they modulate remain largely unknown. In order to elucidate the role of CaM, we mapped its activity in growing pollen tubes. 2-chloro-(epsilon-amino-Lys(75))-[6-4-(N,N'-diethylaminophenyl)-1,3,5-triazin-4-yl]-calmodulin (TA-CaM) and fluorescein-calmodulin (FL-CaM), fluorescent analogues of CaM, were loaded into pollen tubes and CaM activity was mapped by fluorescence ratio imaging. It was found that CaM activity exhibits a tip-focused gradient, similar to the distribution of cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca(2+)](c)). In long pollen tubes, apical CaM activity was also found to oscillate with a period similar to [Ca(2+)](c) (40-80 sec). This oscillatory behaviour was not observed in small pollen tubes or in tubes that had stopped growing. Changes in CaM activity within the dome of the pollen tube apex resulting from the photolysis of caged photolysis of RS-20 (a peptide antagonist of CaM) induced re-orientation of the growth axis, suggesting that CaM is also involved in the guidance mechanism. CaM activity was strongly modulated by intracellular changes in cAMP (induced by activators and antagonists of adenylyl cyclase). These results indicate that the action of this protein is dependent not solely on [Ca(2+)](c) but also on a cross-talk with other signalling pathways. A putative target of this cross-talk is the secretory machinery as observed in pollen tubes loaded with the FM (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-dibutylamino)styryl)pyridinium dibromide 1-43 dye and exposed to different antagonists and activators of these molecules. Our data thus suggest that pollen tube growth and orientation depend on an intricate cross-talk between multiple signalling pathways in which CaM is a key element.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/análogos & derivados , Calmodulina/fisiologia , AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Calmodulina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/farmacologia , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/fisiologia , Fluoresceínas/farmacologia , Lilium , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Triazinas/farmacologia
17.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 5(5): 425-9, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12183181

RESUMO

Significant advances in understanding plant cyclic nucleotide signalling have been made in the past two years. The roles of these molecules in the regulation of ionic channels, defence responses and the apical growth of cells are being uncovered.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/enzimologia , Sistemas do Segundo Mensageiro
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