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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the legal demands of tiotropium bromide to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We included secondary data from the pharmaceutical care management systems made available by the Paraná State Drug Center. RESULTS: Public interest civil action and ordinary procedures, among others, were the most common used by the patients to obtain the medicine. Two Health Centers in Paraná (Londrina and Umuarama) concentrated more than 50% of the actions. The most common specialty of physicians who prescribed (33.8%) was pulmonology. There is a small financial impact of tiotropium bromide on general costs with medicines of the Paraná State Drug Center. However, a significant individual financial impact was observed because one unit of the medicine represents 38% of the Brazilian minimum wage. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need of incorporating this medicine in the class of long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator in the Brazilian public health system.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/economia , Brasil , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
2.
ABCS health sci ; 43(3): 136-140, 20 dez 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-967911

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Com o propósito de estimular a adesão aos antirretrovirais e minimizar os riscos de resistência a estes medicamentos, o Ministério da Saúde (MS) passou a disponibilizar o medicamento 3 em 1, uma coformulação de tenofovir (300 mg), lamivudina (300 mg) e efavirenz (600 mg), o qual inova com uso de um único comprimido diário. OBJETIVO: Estimar a adesão aos medicamentos antirretrovirais da primeira linha de tratamento contra o HIV. MÉTODOS: Verificação da frequência dos retornos mensais de pacientes a um dispensário dos medicamentos antirretrovirais fornecidos pelo MS. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes em tratamento com o medicamento 3 em 1 foram mais assíduos e retornaram com frequência 65% maior ao dispensário. CONCLUSÃO: Com a introdução do 3 em 1 confirma-se que a simplificação de esquemas terapêuticos é uma medida que facilita a adesão ao tratamento. Isso gera a expectativa de manter por mais tempo os indivíduos em uso da primeira linha de tratamento, retardando a necessidade de recorrer a outras linhas terapêuticas mais onerosas, com maior número de medicamentos e riscos associados.


INTRODUCTION: In order to stimulate adherence to antiretrovirals and minimize the risks of viral mutations and resistance to these drugs, the Ministry of Health (MS) started providing the 3-in-1 drug, a co-formulation of tenofovir (300 mg), lamivudine (300 mg) and efavirenz (600 mg), which innovates by the use of a single daily tablet. OBJECTIVE: Estimating the adherence to antiretroviral drugs in the first line of HIV treatment. METHODS: Verification of the frequency of monthly patient returns to a dispensary of antiretroviral drugs provided by MS. RESULTS: Patients treated with the 3-in-1 medication were more assiduous and returned 65% higher at the dispensary. CONCLUSION: The introduction of 3-in-1 confirms that the simplification of therapeutic schemes is a measure that facilitates adherence to treatment. This generates the expectation of keeping individuals in the first line of treatment longer, delaying the need to resort to other more expensive therapeutic lines, with a higher number of drugs and associated risks.


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Adesão à Medicação , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
ABCS health sci ; 43(2): 69-76, 02 ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-908967

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH) é a única alternativa para o tratamento de algumas doenças. Entretanto, identifica-se escassez de estudos na população brasileira. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil dos pacientes submetidos ao TCTH no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC/UFPR), entre 2011 e 2015, com base em variáveis demográficas, diagnóstico, duração da internação, e a taxa de mortalidade na instituição. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa de séries temporais baseada em dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares. Avaliou-se a tendência na distribuição das proporções ao longo dos anos por meio do teste de Cochran­Armitage e da regressão binomial negativa. A presença de Autocorrelação seriada foi testada pelo teste de Durbin-Watson. RESULTADOS: De 2011-2015 o Paraná foi responsável por 9,2% dos TCTH realizados no Brasil. O HC/UFPR foi responsável por 46,0% destes procedimentos realizados no Paraná. Não foram observadas variações significativas na distribuição das variáveis sexo (p=0,788) e número de TCTH (p=0,213). 59,5% dos pacientes residiam no PR, 49,4% tinham entre 0 e 17 anos, 79,9% eram brancos, e 63,5% do sexo masculino. O TCTH alogênico foi o mais realizado (88,5%). 58,5% permaneceram internados de 31 a 60 dias (média=37,6 dias). 9,1% foram a óbito. A anemia aplástica adquirida foi a doença base mais frequente (31,9%). CONCLUSÃO: O TCTH é um procedimento de alto custo e complexidade. O estudo e a compreensão dos fatores determinantes para o seu sucesso são de extrema importância para o melhor planejamento, estimativa de risco e elaboração de políticas públicas de saúde.


INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only alternative for the treatment of some diseases. However, there is a shortage of studies in Brazilian population. OBJECTIVE: To identify the profile of patients submitted to HSCT at the Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC/UFPR), between 2011 and 2015, based on demographic variables, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization and the mortality ration in the institution. METHODS: Time Series Studies research based on data from the Hospital Information System. The trend in the distribution of proportions over the years was evaluated through Cochran­Armitage test and negative binomial regression. The presence of serial autocorrelation was tested by the Durbin­Watson test. RESULTS: From 2011-2015 Paraná was responsible for 9.2% of HSCT performed in Brazil. HC/UFPR accounted for 46.0% of these procedures performed in Paraná. There were no significant variations in the sex distribution (p=0.788) and number of HSCT (p=0.213). 59.5% of the patients were from PR, 49.4% were between 0 and 17 years old, 79.9% were white, and 63.5% were male. The allogeneic HSCT was the most performed procedure (88.5%). 58.5% were hospitalized from 31 to 60 days (mean=37.6 days). 9.1% died. Acquired aplastic anemia was the most common underlying disease (31.9%). CONCLUSION: HSCT is a procedure of high cost and complexity. The study and the understanding of the determinants of its success are of extreme importance for the best planning, risk estimation and elaboration of public health policies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Estudos de Séries Temporais
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(3): 238-248, mayo 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-915320

RESUMO

The present article studied the use of industrialized phytotherapies by patients attended at the basic health units in Pinhais county, located in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. This is a quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study that was conducted by semi-structured questionnaire interviews that were used as a data collection instrument. The population sample consisted of 267 patients from basic health care organizations. Regardless of gender or age, 56.2% of the interviewed participants reported using industrialized herbal medicines, of which 21.3% acquired their drugs from drugstores from around the county. Patients reported positive results using industrialized herbal medicines (89.33%), of whom women were predominant, making up (80%) (p<0.05). Among the drugs used by all the patients, "guaco" syrup was the most frequent (34%). The present study demonstrates the good acceptance by patients of treatments that involve integrative practices, such as herbal medicine, but when a drug has a vegetal origin, the idea that these products do not cause adverse effects persists.


El presente articulo se estudio el uso de hierbas medicinales procesadas por pacientes tratados en unidades básicas de salud del município de Pinhais, en la región metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, observacional y transversal, realizado por medio de entrevistas que utilizan como instrumento de recolección de datos un cuestionario semi-estructurado. La población de la muestra consistió en 267 pacientes de atención básica a la salud. Independiente del sexo o de la edad, 56.2% de los entrevistados relató hacer uso de fitoterápicos industrializados, siendo que de los 21.3% hizo la adquisición en las farmacias de las unidades de salud del municipio. Los pacientes reportaron resultados positivos con el tratamiento realizado con fitoterápicos industrializados (89.33%). Entre ellos predominan las mujeres (80%) (p<0.05). Entre los medicamentos citados por los pacientes, el jarabe de guaco se mostró el más frecuente (34%). El presente estudio demuestra la buena aceptación por parte de los pacientes en realizar tratamientos que implican prácticas integrativas como la fitoterapia, pero, por poseer origen vegetal, todavía existe la idea de que estos productos no tienen la capacidad de causar efectos adversos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Terapias Complementares , Indústria Farmacêutica , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantas Medicinais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; (77): 1-9, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: ses-38187

RESUMO

A redução da incidência de doenças transmitidas pela água foi alcançada com a difusão douso de técnicas de cloração. Apesar dos benefícios desse método de desinfecção, as reações decloro com a matéria orgânica natural presente na água levam à formação de subprodutos dedesinfecção como trihalometanos. Esses produtos já foram associados à incidência de algunstipos de câncer em animais, e muitas vezes podem ser detectados em água tratada e fornecidapara o consumo. Pela legislação brasileira não é obrigatório efetuar o monitoramento detrihalometanos após o tratamento e distribuição de água. Frente a este problema, este estudoteve como objetivo avaliar as concentrações de trihalometanos em água coletada em diferentespontos de abastecimento no município de Colombo...(AU)


The reduction of the incidence of water-borne diseases is achieved with the diffusion of the useof chlorination techniques. However, in spite of the benefits of this disinfection method,the reactions of chlorine with the natural organic matter occurring in the water induce theproduction of disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes. These products have already beenassociated with the incidence of some cancers types. Considering that in the Brazilian legislation,it is not mandatory measuring and controlling the occurrence of trihalomethanes at the exitand during the water distribution to the consumer. This study aimed at analyzing the relationshipbetween chlorination and its by products. Thus, this project evaluated the concentrations oftrihalomethanes in water collected...(AU)


Assuntos
Trialometanos , Água Potável , Cloretos
6.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; (77): 1-9, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-982812

RESUMO

The reduction of the incidence of water-borne diseases is achieved with the diffusion of the useof chlorination techniques. However, in spite of the benefits of this disinfection method,the reactions of chlorine with the natural organic matter occurring in the water induce theproduction of disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes. These products have already beenassociated with the incidence of some cancers types. Considering that in the Brazilian legislation,it is not mandatory measuring and controlling the occurrence of trihalomethanes at the exitand during the water distribution to the consumer. This study aimed at analyzing the relationshipbetween chlorination and its by products. Thus, this project evaluated the concentrations oftrihalomethanes in water collected at different points of supply in the municipality of Colombo,Paraná, Brazil, during the period from November 2015 to February 2016. Chromatographicmethods were employed, besides the spreadsheets provided by the Health Surveillance ofColombo for comparison. The found values were tabulated and they were compared with thelimits established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health- Ordinance No 05/2017. The results confirmedthat the values of those provided by the concessionaire responsible for the city water treatmentand supply, and being within the standards determined by the legislation.


A redução da incidência de doenças transmitidas pela água foi alcançada com a difusão douso de técnicas de cloração. Apesar dos benefícios desse método de desinfecção, as reações decloro com a matéria orgânica natural presente na água levam à formação de subprodutos dedesinfecção como trihalometanos. Esses produtos já foram associados à incidência de algunstipos de câncer em animais, e muitas vezes podem ser detectados em água tratada e fornecidapara o consumo. Pela legislação brasileira não é obrigatório efetuar o monitoramento detrihalometanos após o tratamento e distribuição de água. Frente a este problema, este estudoteve como objetivo avaliar as concentrações de trihalometanos em água coletada em diferentespontos de abastecimento no município de Colombo, PR, Brasil, durante o período de novembrode 2015 a fevereiro de 2016. Utilizou-se método cromatográfico para as análises, além deplanilhas fornecidas pela Vigilância Sanitária de Colombo. Todos os valores foram comparadoscom os limites estabelecidos na Portaria de Consolidação Nº 05/2017 do Ministério da Saúde.Os resultados confirmaram que os valores de trihalometanos fornecidos pela concessionária,responsável pelo tratamento e fornecimento de água na cidade, atendem aos parâmetros legais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cloretos , Água Potável , Trialometanos
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 141(1): 501-9, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22465728

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Previous studies have shown that the extracts obtained from Tropaeolum majus L., and its main compound isoquercitrin (ISQ), exhibit pronounced diuretic effects, supporting the ethnopharmacological use of this plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms underlying the diuretic action of an ethanolic extract of Tropaeolum majus (HETM), its purified fraction (TMLR), and its main compound ISQ, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diuretic effects of HETM (300mg/kg; p.o.), TMLR (100mg/kg; p.o.), and ISQ (10mg/kg; p.o.), were compared with classical diuretics in 7days repeated-dose treatment. The urinary volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, conductivity, pH and density were estimated in the sample collected for 15h. The plasmatic concentration of sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin, nitrite and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were measured in samples collected at the end of the experiment (seventh day). Using pharmacological antagonists or inhibitors, we determine the involvement of bradykinin, prostaglandin and nitric oxide (NO) in ISQ-induced diuresis. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of erythrocytary carbonic anhydrase and renal Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase were evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: HETM, TMLR and ISQ increased diuresis similarly to spironolactone and also presented K(+)-sparing effects. All groups presented both plasmatic aldosterone levels and ACE activity reduced. Previous treatment with HOE-140 (a B2-bradykinin receptor antagonist), or indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or L-NAME (a NO synthase inhibitor), fully avoided the diuretic effect of ISQ. In addition, the 7days treatment with ISQ resulted in increased plasmatic levels of nitrite and reducing ROS production. Moreover, the renal Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase activity was significantly decreased by ISQ. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the mechanisms through ISQ and extracts of Tropaeolum majus increase diuresis in SHR rats are mainly related to ACE inhibition, increased bioavailability of bradykinin, PGI2, and nitric oxide, besides an inhibitory effect on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.


Assuntos
Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Tropaeolum , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diuréticos/isolamento & purificação , Epoprostenol/metabolismo , Etanol/química , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo , Tropaeolum/química
8.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 63(6): 875-81, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21585387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo cardiovascular effects of the crude hydroalcoholic extract from Polygala paniculata (HEPP) in rats. METHODS: The procedures were performed on aortic rings and on normotensive anaesthetized rats. KEY FINDINGS: When tested in endothelium-intact aorta rings, HEPP (30-1000 µg/ml) produced a significant non-concentration-dependent relaxing effect (∼40%), which was completely prevented by incubation with L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), ODQ (soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor) and partially inhibited by tetraethylammonium (TEA; a non-selective potassium channel blocker) and charybdotoxin (a large- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker). In contrast, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist) or pyrilamine(a histamine H1 receptor antagonist) had no effect. Furthermore, oral administration of HEPP (30-300 mg/kg) in anaesthetized rats caused a dose-dependent and sustained hypotensive action. This effect was unchanged by atropine or TEA, but was strongly reduced in rats continuously infused with L-NAME or methylene blue. Moreover, rutin (1-3 mg/kg) administered by an intravenous route also caused a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the extract obtained from P. paniculata induces potent hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects that are dependent on the nitric oxide/guanylate cyclase pathway. These effects could be related, at least in part, to the rutin contents in this extract.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygala/química , Rutina/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/fisiologia , Atropina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Guanilato Ciclase/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Pirilamina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 380(6): 487-95, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19894035

RESUMO

Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) is a glycosphingolipid present in most cell membranes that displays antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. It has been recently described that GM1 induces pial vessel vasodilation and increases NO( x ) content in cerebral cortex, which are fully prevented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). However, it is not known whether GM1 relaxes larger vessels, as well as the mechanisms by which GM1 causes vasorelaxation. In this study, we demonstrate that GM1 (10, 30, 100, 300 microM, 1 and 3 mM) induces vascular relaxation determined by isometric tension studies in rat mesenteric artery rings contracted with 1 microM phenylephrine. The vasorelaxation induced by GM1 was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation with L-NAME (1 microM), and partially inhibited by the blockade of potassium channels by 1 mM tetraethylammonium, 10 microM glibenclamide, by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (10 microM), and by 50 nM charybdotoxin, a blocker of large and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Moreover, GM1-induced relaxation was not affected by apamin (50 nM), a small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker. The results indicate that direct and indirect nitric oxide pathways play a pivotal role in vasorelaxation induced by GM1, which is mediated mainly by potassium channels activation. We suggest that vasodilation may underlie some of the biological effects of exogenous GM1 ganglioside.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeo G(M1)/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
10.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 51(2-3): 140-6, 2009 Aug-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19520189

RESUMO

Regular intake of moderate amounts of beverages rich in polyphenols such as red wine is associated with a protective effect on the vascular system, in part, by increasing the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO), a major vasoprotective factor. Since estrogens are potent inducers of NO formation and polyphenols have been shown to have phytoestrogen properties, we determined whether estrogen receptors mediate the stimulatory effect of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) on the endothelial formation of NO using isolated rat aortic rings and cultured endothelial cells. RWPs caused endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were more pronounced in the aorta of female than male rats. Increased relaxations were also observed to acetylcholine but not to sodium nitroprusside. Relaxations to RWPs were abolished by nitro l-arginine and MnTMPyP, markedly reduced by polyethyleneglycol-catalase and wortmannin, and not affected by the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780 in aortic rings from males and females. eNOS expression was higher in aortic sections of female than male rats. RWPs caused the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in endothelial cells, which was unaffected by ICI 182,780. Thus, RWPs cause redox-sensitive PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent NO-mediated relaxations, which are more pronounced in the aorta of female than male rats; an effect most likely due to the increased expression level of eNOS rather than activation of estrogen receptors.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Vinho/análise , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aorta , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Vasos Coronários , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Masculino , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosforilação , Polifenóis , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Suínos
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 112(3): 430-9, 2007 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17573215

RESUMO

Mikania laevigata, popularly known in Brazil as "guaco", is largely used in folk medicine against respiratory diseases. However, neither the assessment of the toxicity of "guaco" syrup (GS, used by humans) nor its efficacy or mechanisms of action has been properly investigated. Using in vitro procedures, we showed that the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from Mikania laevigata induces a concentration-dependent relaxation of rat trachea which does not depend on epithelium-derived substances but involves changes in the cellular mobilization of calcium, perhaps due to a direct effect on membrane potassium channels. In addition, we assessed both oral and intraperitoneal acute toxicity, as well as the oral subchronic and chronic toxicity of GS containing controlled amounts of coumarin, the main biological marker of Mikania laevigata preparations used in humans. The calculated LD(50) of GS after intraperitoneal administration was 0.904 g/kg in mice (both sexes) and 0.967 and 0.548 g/kg in male and female rats, respectively. However, the LD(50) values of GS by the oral route were calculated to be up to 10 g/kg, in both male and female mice and rats. Repeated dose 28- or 90-day oral treatment with GS (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) did not produce any disturbances in the hematological or biochemical parameters of either male or female rats, nor did it provide evidence of toxicity in the hepatic, renal or pancreatic systems. Besides the mechanistic findings, our results provide evidence of the safety of Mikania laevigata in rodents, even after subchronic and chronic administration, at least in relation to the evaluated parameters.


Assuntos
Mikania/química , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glibureto/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tetraetilamônio/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica/métodos , Traqueia/fisiologia
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