Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 179
Filtrar
1.
Genet Med ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658631

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe a novel neurobehavioral phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with de novo or inherited deleterious variants in members of the RFX family of genes. RFX genes are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that act as master regulators of central nervous system development and ciliogenesis. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 38 individuals (from 33 unrelated families) with de novo variants in RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7. We describe their common clinical phenotypes and present bioinformatic analyses of expression patterns and downstream targets of these genes as they relate to other neurodevelopmental risk genes. RESULTS: These individuals share neurobehavioral features including ASD, intellectual disability, and/or ADHD; other frequent features include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and sleep problems. RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 are strongly expressed in developing and adult human brain, and X-box binding motifs as well as RFX ChIP-seq peaks are enriched in the cis-regulatory regions of known ASD risk genes. CONCLUSION: These results establish a likely role of deleterious variation in RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 in cases of monogenic intellectual disability, ADHD and ASD, and position these genes as potentially critical transcriptional regulators of neurobiological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disease pathogenesis.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 828-833, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443317

RESUMO

The Mediator multiprotein complex functions as a regulator of RNA polymerase II-catalyzed gene transcription. In this study, exome sequencing detected biallelic putative disease-causing variants in MED27, encoding Mediator complex subunit 27, in 16 patients from 11 families with a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome. Patient phenotypes are highly homogeneous, including global developmental delay, intellectual disability, axial hypotonia with distal spasticity, dystonic movements, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Seizures and cataracts were noted in severely affected individuals. Identification of multiple patients with biallelic MED27 variants supports the critical role of MED27 in normal human neural development, particularly for the cerebellum. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:828-833.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1044-1061, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159882

RESUMO

Heparan sulfate belongs to the group of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), highly sulfated linear polysaccharides. Heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS2ST1) is one of several specialized enzymes required for heparan sulfate synthesis and catalyzes the transfer of the sulfate groups to the sugar moiety of heparan sulfate. We report bi-allelic pathogenic variants in HS2ST1 in four individuals from three unrelated families. Affected individuals showed facial dysmorphism with coarse face, upslanted palpebral fissures, broad nasal tip, and wide mouth, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, flexion contractures, brachydactyly of hands and feet with broad fingertips and toes, and uni- or bilateral renal agenesis in three individuals. HS2ST1 variants cause a reduction in HS2ST1 mRNA and decreased or absent heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase 1 in two of three fibroblast cell lines derived from affected individuals. The heparan sulfate synthesized by the individual 1 cell line lacks 2-O-sulfated domains but had an increase in N- and 6-O-sulfated domains demonstrating functional impairment of the HS2ST1. As heparan sulfate modulates FGF-mediated signaling, we found a significantly decreased activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 in FGF-2-stimulated cell lines of affected individuals that could be restored by addition of heparin, a GAG similar to heparan sulfate. Focal adhesions in FGF-2-stimulated fibroblasts of affected individuals concentrated at the cell periphery. Our data demonstrate that a heparan sulfate synthesis deficit causes a recognizable syndrome and emphasize a role for 2-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in human neuronal, skeletal, and renal development.

4.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106617

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) caused by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) dysfunction have mainly been associated with de novo variants in PPP2R5D and PPP2CA, and more rarely in PPP2R1A. Here, we aimed to better understand the latter by characterizing 30 individuals with de novo and often recurrent variants in this PP2A scaffolding Aα subunit. METHODS: Most cases were identified through routine clinical diagnostics. Variants were biochemically characterized for phosphatase activity and interaction with other PP2A subunits. RESULTS: We describe 30 individuals with 16 different variants in PPP2R1A, 21 of whom had variants not previously reported. The severity of developmental delay ranged from mild learning problems to severe intellectual disability (ID) with or without epilepsy. Common features were language delay, hypotonia, and hypermobile joints. Macrocephaly was only seen in individuals without B55α subunit-binding deficit, and these patients had less severe ID and no seizures. Biochemically more disruptive variants with impaired B55α but increased striatin binding were associated with profound ID, epilepsy, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and sometimes microcephaly. CONCLUSION: We significantly expand the phenotypic spectrum of PPP2R1A-related NDD, revealing a broader clinical presentation of the patients and that the functional consequences of the variants are more diverse than previously reported.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(10): e1409, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A minority of breast cancer (BC) patients suffer from severe reaction to adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Although deficient DNA double-strand break repair is considered the main basis for the reactions, pretreatment identification of high-risk patients has been challenging. METHODS: To retrospectively determine the etiology of severe local reaction to RT in a 39-year-old woman with BC, we performed next-generation sequencing followed by further clinical and functional studies. RESULTS: We found a -4 intronic variant (c.2251-4A>G) in trans with a synonymous (c.3576G>A) variant affecting the ATM DNA-repair gene (NG_009830.1, NM_000051.3) which is linked to autosomal recessive ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). We verified abnormal transcripts resulting from both variants, next to a minor wild-type transcript leading to a residual ATM kinase activity and genomic instability. Follow-up examination of the patient revealed no classic sign of A-T but previously unnoticed head dystonia and mild dysarthria, a family history of BC and late-onset ataxia segregating with the variants. Additionally, her serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was elevated similar to A-T patients. CONCLUSION: Considering the variable presentations of A-T and devastating impact of severe reactions to RT, we suggest a routine measurement of AFP in RT-candidate BC patients followed by next-generation sequencing with special attention to non-canonical splice site and synonymous variants in ATM.

6.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 252: 19-29, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive prenatal testing by targeted or genome-wide copy number profiling (cnNIPT) has the potential to outperform standard NIPT targeting the common trisomies 13, 18, and 21, only. Nevertheless, prospective results and outcome data on cnNIPT are still scarce and there is increasing evidence for maternal copy number variants (CNVs) interfering with results of both, standard and cnNIPT. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed the performance of cnNIPT in 3053 prospective and 116 retrospective cases with special consideration of maternal CNVs in singleton and multiple gestational pregnancies at any risk, as well as comprehensive follow-up. RESULTS: A result was achieved in 2998 (98.2%) of total prospective cases (89.2% analyzed genome-wide). Confirmed fetal chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 45 (1.5%) cases, of which five (11%) would have remained undetected in standard NIPTs. Additionally, we observed 4 likely fetal trisomies without follow-up and a likely phenotype associated placental partial trisomy 16. Moreover, we observed clinically relevant confirmed maternal CNVs in 9 (0.3%) cases and likely maternal clonal hematopoiesis in 3 (0.1%). For common fetal trisomies we prospectively observed a very high sensitivity (100% [95% CI: 91.96-100%]) and specificity (>99.9% [95% CI: 99.8-100%]), and positive predictive value (PPV) (97.8% [95% CI: 86.1-99.7%]), but our retrospective control cases demonstrated that due to cases of fetal restricted mosaicism the true sensitivity of NIPT is lower. After showing that 97.3% of small CNVs prospectively observed in 8.3% of genome-wide tests were mostly benign maternal variants, sensitivity (75.0% [95% CI: 19.4%-99.4%]), specificity (99.7% [99.5%-99.9%]) and PPV (30.0% [14.5%-52.1%]) for relevant fetal CNVs were relatively high, too. Maternal autoimmune disorders and medication, such as dalteparin, seem to impair assay quality. CONCLUSION: When maternal CNVs are recognized as such, cnNIPT showed a very high sensitivity, specificity and PPV for common trisomies in single and multiple pregnancies at any risk and very good values genome-wide. We found that the resolution for segmental aberrations is generally comparable to standard karyotyping, and exceeds the latter if the fetal fraction is above 10%, which allows detection of the 2.5 Mb 22q11.2 microdeletion associated with the velocardiofacial syndrome, even if the mother is not a carrier.

7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20254, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579701

RESUMO

The recent introduction of newborn screening for severe primary T and B cell deficiencies in Switzerland allows rapid identification of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Outcomes for SCID are greatly improved by early diagnosis and treatment with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or, in selected cases, gene therapy. National centralised newborn screening is performed in Switzerland since January 2019 using a combined T cell receptor excision circles (TREC) / κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) assay, also revealing infants with non-SCID severe T and B cell disorders, who are often diagnosed with a substantial delay. Here, we outline the screening procedure currently performed in Switzerland and give recommendations for diagnostic evaluations and precautionary measures against infection in children with abnormal screening test results.

8.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 59(11): 611-619, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537760

RESUMO

The hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC) is defined by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene and associated with leiomyomas and aggressive renal cell carcinomas with FH deficiency. Here, we comprehensively characterize two new patients with HLRCC syndrome on a morphological, immunohistochemical and genetic level. The patients developed aggressive HLRCC syndrome-associated RCCs, uterine leiomyomas and dermal leiomyomas. One HLRCC syndrome-associated RCC exhibited an unusual morphology with accumulation of "colloid-like" cytoplasmic inclusions, which might serve as a novel sentinel feature to trigger further testing. This case showed partially retained FH expression, initially hampering correct diagnosis. Comprehensive next-generation sequencing analyses of HLRCC syndrome-associated RCC and leiomyomas in our patients revealed divergent genetic changes in the FH gene in different tumors from the same patient. While all leiomyomas (uterine and cutaneous) showed a FH loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as a wildtype allele inactivating event, one HLRCC-RCC showed a second, undescribed NM_000143.3; c.947C>T; p.Ala316Val FH mutation accompanying the preexisting splice site mutation c.378+2T>C. In the other HLRCC syndrome-associated RCC, the FH mutation (NM_000143.3; c.462T>G; p.Asn154Lys with a somatic LOH) represents another variant of unknown significance that we link to HLRCC - and thus classify as likely pathogenic. Due to the specific diagnosis of metastatic HLRCC syndrome-associated RCC, both cases were treated in first line with bevacizumab/erlotinib and showed remarkable and long lasting responses. These findings allow new morphological and molecular insights into the biology of the HLRCC syndrome, corroborate the "second hit" hypothesis of tumor formation in HLRCC patients and may promote a distinct therapeutic approach.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346159

RESUMO

Defects in histone methyltransferases (HMTs) are major contributing factors in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Heterozygous variants of SETD1A involved in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation were previously identified in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we define the clinical features of the Mendelian syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of SETD1A by investigating 15 predominantly pediatric individuals who all have de novo SETD1A variants. These individuals present with a core set of symptoms comprising global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, subtle facial dysmorphisms, behavioral and psychiatric problems. We examined cellular phenotypes in three patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines with three variants: p.Gly535Alafs*12, c.4582-2_4582delAG, and p.Tyr1499Asp. These patient cell lines displayed DNA damage repair defects that were comparable to previously observed RNAi-mediated depletion of SETD1A. This suggested that these variants, including the p.Tyr1499Asp in the catalytic SET domain, behave as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. Previous studies demonstrated a role for SETD1A in cell cycle control and differentiation. However, individuals with SETD1A variants do not show major structural brain defects or severe microcephaly, suggesting that defective proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors is unlikely the single underlying cause of the disorder. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster SETD1A orthologue is required in postmitotic neurons of the fly brain for normal memory, suggesting a role in post development neuronal function. Together, this study defines a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by dominant de novo LoF variants in SETD1A and further supports a role for H3K4 methyltransferases in the regulation of neuronal processes underlying normal cognitive functioning.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034419

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The reproductive axis is controlled by a network of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons born in the primitive nose that migrate to the hypothalamus alongside axons of the olfactory system. The observation that congenital anosmia (inability to smell) is often associated with GnRH deficiency in humans led to the prevailing view that GnRH neurons depend on olfactory structures to reach the brain, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to determine the potential for normal reproductive function in the setting of completely absent internal and external olfactory structures. METHODS: We conducted comprehensive phenotyping studies in 11 patients with congenital arhinia. These studies were augmented by review of medical records and study questionnaires in another 40 international patients. RESULTS: All male patients demonstrated clinical and/or biochemical signs of GnRH deficiency, and the 5 men studied in person had no luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses, suggesting absent GnRH activity. The 6 women studied in person also had apulsatile LH profiles, yet 3 had spontaneous breast development and 2 women (studied from afar) had normal breast development and menstrual cycles, suggesting a fully intact reproductive axis. Administration of pulsatile GnRH to 2 GnRH-deficient patients revealed normal pituitary responsiveness but gonadal failure in the male patient. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with arhinia teach us that the GnRH neuron, a key gatekeeper of the reproductive axis, is associated with but may not depend on olfactory structures for normal migration and function, and more broadly, illustrate the power of extreme human phenotypes in answering fundamental questions about human embryology.

11.
J Med Genet ; 57(6): 389-399, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hereditary microcephaly (MCPH) comprises a large group of autosomal recessive disorders mainly affecting cortical development and resulting in a congenital impairment of brain growth. Despite the identification of >25 causal genes so far, it remains a challenge to distinguish between different MCPH forms at the clinical level. METHODS: 7 patients with newly identified mutations in CDK5RAP2 (MCPH3) were investigated by performing prospective, extensive and systematic clinical, MRI, psychomotor, neurosensory and cognitive examinations under similar conditions. RESULTS: All patients displayed neurosensory defects in addition to microcephaly. Small cochlea with incomplete partition type II was found in all cases and was associated with progressive deafness in 4 of them. Furthermore, the CDK5RAP2 protein was specifically identified in the developing cochlea from human fetal tissues. Microphthalmia was also present in all patients along with retinal pigmentation changes and lipofuscin deposits. Finally, hypothalamic anomalies consisting of interhypothalamic adhesions, a congenital midline defect usually associated with holoprosencephaly, was detected in 5 cases. CONCLUSION: This is the first report indicating that CDK5RAP2 not only governs brain size but also plays a role in ocular and cochlear development and is necessary for hypothalamic nuclear separation at the midline. Our data indicate that CDK5RAP2 should be considered as a potential gene associated with deafness and forme fruste of holoprosencephaly. These children should be given neurosensory follow-up to prevent additional comorbidities and allow them reaching their full educational potential. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01565005.

12.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(1): 81-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838600

RESUMO

Copy-number variants (CNVs), in particular rare, small and large ones (< 1% frequency) and those encompassing brain-related genes, have been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID). However, the vast majority of CNV findings lack specificity with respect to autistic or developmental-delay phenotypes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the size and frequency of CNVs in high-functioning ASD (HFA) without ID compared with a random population sample and with published findings in ASD and ID. To investigate the role of CNVs for the "core symptoms" of high-functioning autism, we included in the present exploratory study only patients with HFA without ID. The aim was to test whether HFA have similar large rare (> 1 Mb) CNVs as reported in ASD and ID. We performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in 108 children and adolescents with HFA without ID. There was no significant difference in the overall number of rare CNVs compared to 124 random population samples. However, patients with HFA carried significantly more frequently CNVs containing brain-related genes. Surprisingly, six HFA patients carried very large CNVs known to be typically present in ID. Our findings provide new evidence that not only small, but also large CNVs affecting several key genes contribute to the genetic etiology/risk of HFA without affecting their intellectual ability.

13.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(2): 140-151, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742845

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder, with a heritability of around 60-80%. Large (>100 kb) rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) occur more frequently in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Currently, there are no studies reporting genome-wide CNVs in clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rare genome-wide CNVs in 84 CHR-P individuals and 124 presumably healthy controls. There were no significant differences in all rare CNV frequencies and sizes between CHR-P individuals and controls. However, brain-related CNVs and brain-related deletions were significantly more frequent in CHR-P individuals than controls. In CHR-P individuals, significant associations were found between brain-related CNV carriers and attenuated positive symptoms syndrome or cognitive disturbances (OR = 3.07, p = .0286). Brain-related CNV carriers experienced significantly higher negative symptoms (p = .0047), higher depressive symptoms (p = .0175), and higher disturbances of self and surroundings (p = .0029) than noncarriers. Furthermore, enrichment analysis of genes was performed in the regions of rare CNVs using three independent methods, which confirmed significant clustering of predefined genes involved in synaptic/brain-related functional pathways in CHR-P individuals. These results suggest that rare CNVs might affect synaptic/brain-related functional pathways in CHR-P individuals.

14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(2): 100-112, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

15.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 124-131, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups. RESULTS: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.


Assuntos
Aracnodactilia/diagnóstico , Contratura/diagnóstico , Fibrilina-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Aracnodactilia/genética , Criança , Contratura/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).


Assuntos
Axônios/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Olho/patologia , Genitália/patologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia
17.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(12): 1136-1147, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 17q12 microdeletions containing HNF1B and intragenic variants within this gene are associated with variable developmental, endocrine, and renal anomalies, often already noted prenatally as hyperechogenic/cystic kidneys. Here, we describe prenatal and postnatal phenotypes of seven individuals with HNF1B aberrations and compare their clinical and genetic data to those of previous studies. METHODS: Prenatal sequencing and postnatal chromosomal microarray analysis were performed in seven individuals with renal and/or neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We evaluated HNF1B-related clinical features from 82 studies and reclassified 192 reported intragenic HNF1B variants. RESULTS: In a prenatal case, we identified a novel in-frame deletion p.(Gly239del) within the HNF1B DNA-binding domain, a mutational hot spot as demonstrated by spatial clustering analysis and high computational prediction scores. The six postnatally diagnosed individuals harbored 17q12 microdeletions. Literature screening revealed variable reporting of HNF1B-associated clinical traits. Overall, both mutation groups showed a high phenotypic heterogeneity. The reclassification of all previously reported intragenic HNF1B variants provided an up-to-date overview of the mutational spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the value of prenatal HNF1B screening in renal developmental diseases. Standardized clinical reporting and systematic classification of HNF1B variants are necessary for a more accurate risk quantification of prenatal and postnatal clinical features, improving genetic counseling and prenatal decision making.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico , Análise em Microsséries , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Mutação , Gravidez , Síndrome
18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20092, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, organised germline screening, independent of the personal and family cancer history, has been frequently proposed. Since ethnic and geographic populations significantly differ in their mutation spectra and prevalence, one critical prerequisite would be the knowledge of the expected carrier frequencies. OBJECTIVE: For the first time, in a retrospective non-cancer related cohort from a single Swiss genetic centre, we systematically assessed the prevalence of secondary findings in 19 genes (BRCA1/2 plus 17 non-BRCA genes) previously designated by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) germline testing. DESIGN: A total of 400 individuals without a cancer diagnosis undergoing whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) from 2015 to 2017 at IMG Zurich were included after quality assessment. Among these, 180 were unaffected parental couples, 27 unaffected parental singles and 13 NDD index patients (mean age 43 years). The majority of the cohort was of Caucasian ethnicity (n = 336, 84.0%) and of Northwest European ancestry (n = 202, 50.5%), for 70 of whom (42.5%) an autochthonous Swiss descent was assumed. For WES filtering of rare, potentially actionable secondary variants in HBOC genes, an overall minor allele frequency (MAF) below 0.65% was used as cut-off. Each rare variant was manually evaluated according to the recommended ACGM-AMP standards, with some adaptations including “hypomorphic” as an additional distinct pathogenicity class. RESULTS: Overall, 526 rare secondary variants (339 different variants) were encountered, with the BRCA1/2 genes accounting for 27.2% of the total variant yield. If stratified for variant pathogenicity, for BRCA1/2, three pathogenic variants were found in three females of Italian ancestry (carrier frequency of 0.8%). In the non-BRCA genes, five carriers of (likely) pathogenic variants (1.3%) were identified, with two Swiss individuals harbouring the same CHEK2 Arg160Gly variant known to be recurrent among Caucasians. Hence, the overall carrier rate added up to 2.0%. Additionally, seven various hypomorphic HBOC predisposing alleles were detected in 22 individuals (5.5%). CONCLUSION: We provide the first evidence of a high prevalence of HBOC-related cancer susceptibility in the heterogeneous Swiss general population and relevant subpopulations, particularly in individuals of Italian descent. These pioneering data may substantiate population-based HBOC screening in Switzerland.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Heterozigoto , Adulto , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deleção de Genes , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Adolescente , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Via de Sinalização Wnt
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...