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J Anxiety Disord ; 71: 102198, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109828


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has empirically-established associations with positive emotion dysregulation. Extending existing research, we utilized a network approach to examine relations between PTSD symptom clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], alterations in arousal and reactivity [AAR]) and positive emotion dysregulation dimensions (nonacceptance, impulse control, goal-directed behavior). We identified (1) differential relations of PTSD symptom clusters with positive emotion dysregulation, and (2) central symptoms accounting for the PTSD and positive emotion dysregulation inter-group interconnections. Participants were 371 trauma-exposed community individuals (Mage = 43.68; 70.9 % females; 34.5 % white). We estimated a regularized Gaussian Graphic Model comprising four nodes representing the PTSD symptom clusters and three nodes representing positive emotion dysregulation dimensions. Study results indicated the key role of AAR and intrusions clusters in the PTSD group and impulse control difficulties in the positive emotion dysregulation group. Regarding cross-group connectivity patterns, findings indicate the pivotal role of (1) AAR in its link with positive emotion dysregulation dimensions, and (2) nonacceptance of positive emotions and impairment in goal-directed behavior in the context of positive emotions in their link to PTSD symptom clusters. Thus, the current study indicates the potentially central role of particular PTSD symptom clusters and positive emotion dysregulation dimensions, informing assessment and treatment targets.

Addict Behav ; 105: 106322, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006684


INTRODUCTION: The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse presents a pervasive and clinically relevant concern among US military veterans. OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to examine the role of positive emotion dysfunction in the relation between PTSD symptomatology and alcohol misuse. To do so, we examined the separate and sequential roles of positive emotional intensity and positive emotional avoidance in the relation between PTSD symptoms and alcohol misuse among US military veterans. METHOD: Cross-sectional data were collected from 468 US military veterans (M age = 37.74, 70.5% male, 69.0% White) who responded to an online survey. RESULTS: Findings suggest that positive emotional avoidance, separately, and positive emotional intensity and positive emotional avoidance, sequentially, mediated the relation between PTSD symptoms and alcohol misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings advance theory on the role of positive emotions and related processes in the co-occurrence of PTSD and alcohol misuse, and highlight important avenues for future research and treatment focused on the PTSD-alcohol misuse co-occurrence.

J Affect Disord ; 262: 344-349, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740111


OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and impairing condition that often involves difficulties with interpersonal functioning. Targeting interpersonal difficulties may be a promising alternative approach to reducing PTSD symptoms, particularly given the relatively low rates of treatment engagement and efficacy for first-line treatments for PTSD. Recent research has identified perceived burdensomeness (i.e., feelings of being a burden on others) and thwarted belongingness (i.e., feeling isolated and as if one does not belong) as two specific interpersonal factors related to increased PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested whether a brief, computerized intervention would reduce PTSD symptoms via reductions in perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, vs. a repeated contact control condition. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested among 250 trauma-exposed participants who were randomized to receive one of two active computerized interventions designed to target interpersonal factors (i.e., perceived burdensomeness or thwarted belongingness) or anxiety sensitivity, or participate in a repeated contact control condition, as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Participants were then followed over six-months. RESULTS: Results indicated a direct effect of the active interventions on PTSD symptoms at month-one, that was not detected at months three or six. However, there was a significant indirect effect of condition at all-time points, such that reductions in perceived burdensomeness mediated condition effects on PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings identify perceived burdensomeness as a potential etiological factor in the maintenance of PTSD symptoms, and suggest that targeting perceived burdensomeness may be an effective approach to reducing PTSD symptoms.

Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1173-1184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735251


BACKGROUND: Anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), or fear of cognitive dyscontrol sensations, confers risk for anxiety and mood psychopathology. Recent work demonstrated that novel perceptual challenges generated by a head mounted display can elicit fear among those with elevated ASCC. This suggests that interoceptive exposure to perceptual challenges may offer a means to mitigate ASCC. This study was designed to evaluate whether repeated exposure to novel perceptual challenges can reduce ASCC, and if these effects are stronger among those experiencing greater negative emotionality as a proxy for individuals likely to present for treatment. METHODS: Participants with elevated ASCC (N = 57) were randomized to one of three experimental conditions utilizing a head-mounted display. In the rotations condition (n = 20), participants viewed themselves spinning in a circle. In the opposite directions condition (n = 20), participants turned their head while the camera moved in the opposite direction creating dissonance in their visual field. In the control condition (n = 17), participants completed a series of simple arithmetic problems. RESULTS: Participants in the rotation condition, relative to control, reported significant reductions in ASCC from pre- to post-exposure and these effects were strongest for those with elevated negative affect. The main effect of the opposite directions exposure on post-treatment ASCC was non-significant, but follow-up analyses revealed that reductions in ASCC were observed among those with elevated negative affectivity. DISCUSSION: Perceptual illusion challenges appear to have utility for reducing ASCC through repeated exposure. There was evidence for the perceptual illusion exercises, particularly the rotations condition, specifically reducing ASCC, making this challenge the first we are aware of that specifically targets ASCC-related concerns. LIMITATIONS: As a proof-of-concept study, the present sample was not recruited for clinically-significant psychopathology, and only a brief follow-up was utilized. Future research should utilize a longer follow-up and test if these exposures mitigate ASCC-relevant psychopathology among clinical samples.

Ansiedade/psicologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-13, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955483


The current study tested whether emotion dysregulation predicts suicidal ideation over the course of 6 months. Community members (N = 298) with elevated suicide risk completed a clinical interview and self-report questionnaires at baseline and month-6 follow-up appointments. Elevated general emotion dysregulation but not subscales significantly predicted increases in suicidal ideation at month-6 follow-up after accounting for initial suicidal ideation, treatment condition, and negative affectivity. Furthermore, general emotion dysregulation as well as lack of awareness and lack of clarity subscales were significantly associated with prior suicide attempts at baseline after accounting for negative affectivity. Findings support the establishment of emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for suicidal ideation and provide evidence for a role in suicide attempts. Findings call for the development of interventions targeting emotion dysregulation in effectively predicting and preventing suicidality.