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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 237, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative drugs are available with potential side effects such as peptic ulcer and addiction among other things. In this regard, research is underway to find safe, effective, and economical drugs free of these side effects. In this study, an isolated natural product from Diospyros lotus, was tested for the aforementioned bioactivities. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative potential of D. lotus extracts in animal paradigms using BALB/c mice as experimental model. METHODS: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative activities of dinaphthodiospyrol G (1) isolated from the chloroform fraction of D. lotus were evaluated using different experimental procedures. Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using the carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema, whereas the antinociceptive effect was quantified by means of the hot plate analgesiometer. On the other hand, the sedative effect was determined using animal assay for screening the locomotors effects of compound 1. Compound 1 was also subjected to molecular modeling studies against cyclooxygenase enzymes. RESULTS: Results from this investigation showed that the extract is devoid of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potentials but has a significant sedative effect, whereas the tested compound exhibited 55.23 and 78.34% attenuation in paw edema by carrageenan and histamine assays, respectively. A significant (p < 0.001) and dose-dependent antinociceptive and sedative effects were demonstrated by the isolated compound. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation studies of the isolated compound against cyclooxygenase enzyme indicated that compound 1 forms specific interactions with key residues in the active site of the target receptor, which validates the potential use of the isolated compound as cyclooxygenase inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: Compound 1 exhibited remarkable analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative activities. These findings strongly justify the traditional use of D. lotus in the treatment of inflammation, pain, and insomnia.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697756

RESUMO

Objectives To review red algae bioactive compounds and their pharmaceutical applications. Content Seaweed sources are becoming attractive to be used in health and therapeutics. Among these red algae is the largest group containing bioactive compounds utilized in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, manure and various supplements in food formula. Various significant bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides (aginate, agar, and carrageenan), lipids and polyphenols, steroids, glycosides, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, antheraquinones and cardiac glycosides have been reported in red algae. The red algae have rich nutritional components Different polysaccharides of red algae possess the antiviral potential namely agarans, carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran and naviculan. Sulfated polysaccharides and carraginans of red algae are rich source of soluble fibers which can account for antitumor activities depending upon chemistry of various secondary metabolites and metabolism of cell line. Flavons-3-ols containing catechins from many red algae block the telomerase activity in colon cancer cells. Contraceptive agents were tested from red algae as a source for post-coital. Lectin of red algae showed pro-healing properties and anti-ulcerogenic activities. Carragenates from red algae also conferred a positive influence on diabetes. Red algae depicted a reducing effect on plasma lipids and obesity. Porphyran from red alga can act as anti-hyperlipidemic agent also reduces the apolipoprotein B100 via suppression of lipid synthesis in human liver. Summary The polyphenolic extracts of Laurencia undulate, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and Solieria robusta extract show anti-inflammatory effects against multiple genera of devastating fungi. Antioxidants such as phlorotannins, ascorbic acids, tocopherols, carotenoids from red algae showed toxicity on some cancer cells without side effects. Red algae Laurencia nipponica was found insecticidal against mosquito larvae. Red algae fibers are very important in laxative and purgative activities. Gracilaria tenuistipitat resisted in agricultural lands polluted with cadmium and copper. Outlook In the recent decades biotechnological applications of red algae has been increased. Polysaccharides derived from red algae are important tool for formulation of drugs delivery system via nanotechnology.

3.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538679

RESUMO

The current study aims at exploring enzyme inhibition of four species of medicinal herbs, namely Senna bicapsularis, Thevetia peruviana, Nerium oleander and Vinca major. Plant selection was done on the basis of their therapeutic uses by local practitioners. The crude methanolic extracts of these plants were tested for their α-glycosidase and urease enzyme inhibition potential. The observed urease inhibitory potential for the crude extract of S. bicapsularis, T. peruviana and N. oleander were 8.3 ± 0.33 µg, 6.98 ± 0.98 µg and 9.56 ± 1.43 µg, respectively while the V. major did not show any inhibition. In addition, the IC50 value for Thiourea was 22.3 ± 1.14 µg. The crude extracts of S. bicapsularis, T. peruviana, N. oleander, V. major were shown to inhibit α-glycosidase activity with an IC50 value of 630.3 ± 0.03 µg, 700.7 ± 2.43 µg, 430.4 ± 3.97 µg, and the standard (acarbose) 880 ± 1.03  µM, respectively. Based on the TLC profile, the extract of S. bicapsularis was subjected to column chromatography and the major component named rhein (1) was identified. Compound 1 exhibited excellent urease and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 7.4 ± 0.32 and 622.3 ± 1.03 µM, respectively.

4.
Med Chem ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the best methods to treat Alzheimer disease (AD) is through the effective use of cholinesterase inhibitors as vital drugs due to the identification of acetylcholine deficit in the AD patients. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims the investigation of spiro heterocyclic compounds as potential AD agents supported by their metal chelation capacity, POM analyses and DFT studies respectively. METHOD: The cholinesterase inhibition and metal chelation ability was performed on ELISA microtiter assay. Whereas B3LYP method with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set was implemented to study HOMO-LUMO energy calculations. The pharmacokinetic properties of the synthesized molecules were studied through Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM). RESULTS: The six spiro (1-6) skeletons were tested for their inhibitory potential and metal-chelation capacity. Our findings revealed that the tested spiro skeletons exerted none or lower than 50% inhibition against both cholinesterases, while compound 4 proved to be the most active molecule with 57.21±0.89% of inhibition toward BChE. The spiro molecule 3 exhibited the highest metal-chelation capacity (9.12±5.26%). Molecular docking model for the most active molecule exhibited promising bindings with AChE and BChE's active site pertained to hydrophobic hydrogen bonds and positive ionizable interactions. The POM analyses gave the information about the flexibility at the site of coordination of spiro compounds (1-6). CONCLUSION: The screening of spirocompounds (1-6) against cholinesterases revealed that some of them show considerable potential to inhibit AChE and BChE. Herein we propose that the spiro molecules after further derivatization could serve interesting AD inhibitor drugs.

5.
Steroids ; 160: 108661, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450084

RESUMO

Hepcidin is a peptide hormone which helps in regulating iron homeostasis in the human body. Iron obtained from daily diet is passed through the intestinal enterocyte apical membrane via divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), which is either stored as ferritin or moved into the plasma by hepcidin-ferroportin (Fpn) as an exporter. Hepcidin (hepatic bactericidal protein) is a cysteine rich peptide, was initially identified as a urinary antimicrobial peptide. It contains 25 amino acids and four disulfide bridges. It has significant role in regulation of iron in the body. Stimulation of iron in plasma and further its storage is linked with the production of hepcidin. This enhancement of iron hampers the absorption of iron from the diet. The cause of hereditary recessive anemia also known as Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) is characterized by increased hepcidin production due to a gene mutation in the suppressor matriptase-2/TMPRSS6. During infection, hepcidin plays a defensive role against various infections by depleting the extracellular iron from the body. Moreover, hepcidin lowers the concentrations of iron from the duodenal enterocytes, macrophages and also decrease its transport across the placenta.This review highlights the significant role of hepcidin in the iron homeostasis and as an antimicrobial agent.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 725: 138313, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464743

RESUMO

Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of neuronal structures and functions that lead to copious disorders like Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), Huntington's (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and other less recurring diseases. Aging is the prime culprit for most neurodegenerative events. Moreover, the shared pathogenic factors of many neurodegenerative processes are inflammatory responses and oxidative stress (OS). Unfortunately, it is very complicated to treat neurodegeneration and there is no effective remedy. The rapid progression of the neurodegenerative diseases that exacerbate the burden and the concurrent absence of effective treatment strategies force the researchers to investigate more therapeutic approaches that ultimately target the causative factors of the neurodegeneration. Phytochemicals have great potential to exert their neuroprotective effects by targeting various mechanisms, such as OS, neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurotrophic factor deficiency, disruption in mitochondrial function, and apoptosis. Therefore, this review represents the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection by multifunctional phytochemicals to combat age-linked neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos Fitoquímicos
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21953-21964, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281067

RESUMO

Farming community confronted with sundry type of risks while production and environmental risks are more significant. Farms management decisions and operations are considerably influenced by farmers' perceptions and attitude to risks. Risk management issues specific to cereals crops not properly focused in developing countries specifically to Pakistan, so this gap tried to address in this study. This research work was spotlighted to quantify farmers' perception and attitude of diverse form of risks toward rice crop in Pakistan. The present study used cross-sectional data of 450 rice farmers categorized as low, medium, and high production base six rice districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In attempting to identify farmers attitude to risk, the study used Equally Likely Certainty Equivalent approach, as farmers' perception were ranked in four catastrophic risk basis, rice diseases, high input prices, drought, and heavy rainfall and hail, by risk matrix. In estimating the factors influencing farmers' attitude and perceptions to risk, the study used Probit model. Farmers believe heavy rainfall and hails, high input prices, drought, and rice disease major threats for rice crop while mostly farmer is risk-averse behavior as indicated in the results of the study. Estimates of the study signified as education, gender, size of farm, religious, age, credit, off-farm income, farmer livestock, and experience of farming significantly influences farmer risk perception and risk attitude. This research provided applied and suitable investigation for farming community, extension services, researchers, agricultural policymakers, and insurance institutions. Farmers confronting risk and their attitude need to understand by researcher and policymakers' access them accurate information regarding sophisticated tools of risk management and risks to make sure the provision of advance extension services and agricultural finance. In formulating applied policy measures, it is prerequisite for researchers and policymakers to accurate understanding of local environmental conditions, crop-related threats, and farmers' perceptions and attitude.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Oryza , Agricultura , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Paquistão
8.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250219

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, age-related, and irreversible brain disorder that typically develops slowly and gets worse over time. At present, the simultaneous modulation of several targets linked to AD by one potent molecule is the auspicious drug candidate for the treatment of AD. The new therapeutic approach involves drug candidates that are designed to act on multiple targets and have various pharmacological properties. This trend has triggered the development of various multimodal drugs including TV-3326 (i.e. ladostigil) and M-30 (i.e. a new multitarget iron chelator). TV-3326 combines the neurorestorative/neuroprotective actions of the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory activity of rivastigmine with rasagiline (a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor and novel antiparkinsonian agent) in a single molecule. M-30, the second derivative of rasagiline, was developed by combining the propargyl moiety of rasagiline into the skeleton of VK-28 (i.e. a novel brain permeable neuroprotective iron chelator). It has been revealed that both the compounds possess anti-AD effects and therefore, the clinical development is directed to the treatment of this type of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). In this article, we have reviewed the neuroprotective molecular mechanisms and multimodal actions of TV-3326 and M-30.

9.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314615

RESUMO

Increasing awareness about the use of compounds obtained from natural sources exerting health-beneficial properties, including antimicrobial and antioxidant effects, led to increased number of research papers focusing on the study of functional properties of target compounds to be used as functional foods or in preventive medicine. Pomegranate has shown positive health properties due to the presence of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins. Punicalagin is the major antioxidant, abundantly found in pomegranate's peel. Research has shown that pomegranate polyphenols not only have a strong antioxidant capacity but they also inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria like V. cholera, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and S. virulence factor, and inhibits fungi such as A. Ochraceus, and P. citrinum. Compounds of natural origin inhibit the growth of various pathogens by extending the shelf life of foodstuffs and assuring their safety. Therefore, the need to find compounds to be used in combination with antibiotics or as new antimicrobial sources, such as plant extracts. On the basis of the above discussion, this review focuses on the health benefits of pomegranate, by summarizing the current body of research focusing on pomegranate bioactive constituents and their therapeutic potential against some pathogenic microbes.

10.
Genomics ; 112(4): 2729-2733, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147526

RESUMO

Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is characterized by development of extra digits, which mostly segregates in autosomal recessive pattern. The underlying genetic cause of recessive non-syndromic PAP type A has been associated with sequence variants in five different genes (ZNF141, IQCE, GLI1, FAM92A, KIAA0825). The present study was aimed to investigate clinical and genetic causes of PAPA in a consanguineous family of Pakistani origin. Microsatellite-based linkage analysis was used to search for the disease-causing gene. Linkage in the family was established at chromosome 5q15 harbouring a candidate gene KIAA0825. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing revealed a novel homozygous missense variant [c.50T>C; p. (Leu17Ser)] in the gene, which co-segregated with the disease within the family. Protein structural analysis predicted a substantial change in the secondary structure of the mutant protein affecting its function. This is the third disease causing variant identified in the KIAA0825. This has not only expanded spectrum of the mutations in the gene but also further substantiated its role in the limb development in human.

11.
Neurotox Res ; 38(1): 8-17, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157628

RESUMO

The ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) is considered as a central protein degradation system in all eukaryotes. The UPS comprises of several factors such as Ub and Ub-like molecules, Ub hydrolases, E3 Ub ligases, and the proteasome itself. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the dysfunction of UPS plays an essential role in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, current evidence has suggested that the UPS components can be connected with the initial stage of AD that is characterized by synaptic dysfunction, and to the late phases of AD, marked by neurodegeneration. In AD patients, the accumulations of insoluble protein in the brain can be caused by overload or dysfunction of the UPS, or by conformational alterations in the protein substrates that prevent their degradation and recognition by the UPS. Synaptic dysfunction is also caused by defective proteolysis that has found in the initial stage in AD as the UPS is widely recognized to play a pivotal role in the regular activities of synapses. Conversely, its precise cause and pathogenesis are unclear. Presently accepted medicines for AD give symptomatic relief, though they are unable to stop the progression of the disease. Besides, the components of the cellular quality control system demonstrate a significant emphasis on the advancement of targeted and effective treatments for AD. In this review, we focus on the role of UPS in the pathogenesis of AD and highlight how the UPS-linked treatments influence in the management of AD.

12.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168835

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the utmost chronic neurodegenerative disorders, which is characterized from a neuropathological point of view by the aggregates of amyloid beta (Aß) peptides that are deposited as senile plaques and tau proteins which form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Even though advancement has been observed in order to understand AD pathogenesis, currently available therapeutic methods can only deliver modest symptomatic relief. Interestingly, naturally occurring dietary flavonoids have gained substantial attention due to their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloidogenic properties as alternative candidates for AD therapy. Experimental proof provides support to the idea that some flavonoids might protect AD by interfering with the production and aggregation of Aß peptides and/or decreasing the aggregation of tau. Flavonoids have the ability to promote clearance of Aß peptides and inhibit tau phosphorylation by the mTOR/autophagy signaling pathway. Moreover, due to their cholinesterase inhibitory potential, flavonoids can represent promising symptomatic anti-Alzheimer agents. Several processes have been suggested for the aptitude of flavonoids to slow down the advancement or to avert the onset of Alzheimer's pathogenesis. To enhance cognitive performance and to prevent the onset and progress of AD, the interaction of flavonoids with various signaling pathways is proposed to exert their therapeutic potential. Therefore, this review elaborates on the probable therapeutic approaches of flavonoids aimed at averting or slowing the progression of the AD pathogenesis.

13.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(9): 731-737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dryopteris cycadina has diverse traditional uses in the treatment of various human disorders which are supported by pharmacological studies. Similarly, the phytochemical studies of this plant led to the isolation of numerous compounds. METHODOLOGY: The present study deals with α-glucosidase inhibition of various kaempferol derivates including kaempferol-3, 4/-di-O-α- L-rhamnopyranoside 1, kaempferol-3, 5-di-O-α-L-rhamnoside 2 and kaempferol-3,7-di-O-α- L-rhamnopyranoside 3. RESULTS: The results showed marked concentration-dependent inhibition of the enzyme when assayed at different concentrations and the IC50 values of compounds 1-3 were 137±9.01, 110±7.33, and 136±1.10 mM, respectively far better than standard compound, acarbose 290±0.54 mM. The computational studies revealed strong docking scores of these compounds and augmented the in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the isolated kaempferol derivatives 1-3 from D. cycadina exhibited potent α- glucosidase inhibition.

14.
Life Sci ; 240: 117104, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783054

RESUMO

Xanthophylls constitute a major part of carotenoids in nature. They are an oxidized version of carotenoid. Xanthophyll has widely drawn scientists' attentions in terms of its functionality, bioavailability and diversity. An assortment of xanthophyll varieties includes lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-cryptoxanthin, capsanthin, astaxanthin, and fucoxanthin. Chemically, lutein and zeaxanthin are dipolar carotenoids with hydroxyl groups at both ends of their molecules that bestow hydrophilic properties to them. Hydrophilic affinity in lutein and zeaxanthin makes better bioavailability in reaction with singlet oxygen in water phase, whereas non-polar carotenoids have shown to have less efficiency in scavenging free radicals. Xanthophylls have been studied for their effects in a wide variety of diseases including neurologic, ophthalmologic, oral, allergic and immune diseases. This review highlights pharmaco-pharmaceutical applications of xanthophylls as well asits drug interactions with beta-carotene. Different types of xanthophylls have been shown to have neuroprotective effects. Fucoxanthin demonstrated potent antiplasmodial activity. Lutein and zeaxanthin prevent the progression of age related macular degeneration. They have also demonstrated promising effects on uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, scleritis, cataracts, glaucoma, retinal ischemia and choroideremia. Astaxanthin showed to have skin protecting effects against ultraviolet light injury. Astaxanthin have anti-allergic activity against the contact dermatitis especially to treat the patients having adverse reactions induced by steroids. Astaxanthin has been reported to exert beneficial effects in preventing oral lichen planus and early stage cancers. ß-cryptoxanthin has been considered a good candidate for prevention of bone loss via osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. There is also some concern that higher dose of xanthophylls may be linked to increased risk of skin cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. However this increased risk was not statistically significant when adjusted for confounding factors. Further researches including clinical studies are needed to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of xanthophylls in prevention and treatment of different diseases.


Assuntos
Xantofilas/farmacologia , Xantofilas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 553-557, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317858

RESUMO

Urease inhibition potential of compound (1), guaiane-type sesquiterpene (2), confertin (3) and scopoletin (4) was carried out with high throughout mechanism-based assay. These compounds were isolated from Hypochaeris radicata L., an Asteraceae family member. The pure compounds were screened for their urease and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activities. The ethyl acetate fractions were subjected to column chromatography, which resulted in the isolation and purification of four compounds (1-4). On evaluation, compounds (1-4) exhibited selective activity against urease enzyme with an IC50 value of 180.11 ± 2.00, 27.18 ± 0.80, 24.12 ± 0.2 and 30.12 ± 1.10 µM respectively. The compounds (1-4) were found to be inactive against carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Thiourea was used as standard inhibitor (21 ± 0.14 µM) of urease enzyme.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Urease/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
16.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 29(1): 17-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469663

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by six major features: postaxial polydactyly, obesity, learning disabilities, renal anomalies, retinitis pigmentosa and hypogonadism and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. BBS is caused by disease causing sequence variants in the 22 BBS genes identified to date. In the present study, a single consanguineous Pakistani Family with BBS was clinically and genetically characterized. After establishing linkage to a BBS gene on chromosome 4q27, Sanger sequencing was performed in all available affected and unaffected members. Sequence analysis of the BBS7 gene revealed novel substitution mutation (c.719G>T; p. Gly240Val). Our findings further extend the body of evidence implicating BBS7 in causing BBS and expand the mutation spectrum.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Família , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão
17.
Biotechnol Rep (Amst) ; 24: e00400, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799147

RESUMO

Maltase is an economically valuable enzyme that is used to catalyze the hydrolytic process of maltose and yields d-glucose as a product. In this study, the catalytic behavior of maltase was optimized under various physicochemical condition. Results indicated that bacterial maltase exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 45 °C and pH-6.5 after 5.0 min. It presented greater stability within 0.1 M K2HPO4 buffer having pH-6.5 and showed 100 % activity even after 1.0 h. It retained 83.6 % and 45.0 % activity at 40 °C after 1.0 and 3.0 h, respectively. The enzyme retained 90.0 % activity at -20 °C even after 60 days. The molecular weight of enzyme was deduced to be 157.2 kDa as calculated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and zymography. It was concluded that the characterized maltase has notable stability profile with reference to temperature, pH and other reaction conditions which anticipates its utilization in various starch and maltose hydrolyzing processes for the synthesis of glucose.

18.
Life Sci ; 235: 116797, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472146

RESUMO

Chrysin is a promising phytochemical that is categorized under the class of flavonoids based on its chemical structure. Naturally, it is widely present in propolis, honey, passion fruit, and even in mushrooms and other plant sources, whereas its synthetic counterparts are also being employed for pharmacological purposes. It has widely been employed in treatment of various degenerative disorders and provides cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory functions. Its antioxidant and disease preventing abilities are attributed to its structural diversity arising in ring-A and absence of oxygenation in B and C ring. In this review, the scientific studies are being reported emphasizing benefits and its allied health claims on chrysin in numerous metabolic malfunctions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos
19.
J Food Biochem ; 43(5): e12822, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353529

RESUMO

Recently, phytochemical-based dietary intervention has gained attention as a preventive and curative strategy against cancers owing to their safety, better tolerance, and economics. Against this background, black tea extract which contains the flavanol-3-ol, theaflavins (TF), and thearubigins (TR) with promising anti-oncogenic activity were assessed to determine its in vitro inhibitory impact on colon cancer (HCT 116) and lung cancer cell lines (HT 460). In a dose-dependent manner, results revealed that TF, TR, and their combinations cause inhibition in cell viability. However, TF imparted a maximum reduction in cell viability of HCT 116 and HT 460. Flow cytometry data revealed that TF, TR, and their combinations exhibited substantial cell arrest at the G2/M phase. The influence was more prominent in lung cancer cells (HT 460) when compared with colon cells (HCT 116). All treatments resulted in apoptosis, however, the combination of TF and TR exhibited the highest apoptotic ability in comparison to individual treatments. TF and TR exhibited a synergistic impact and significantly inhibited cell proliferation of HCT 116 and HT 460 in dose- and time-dependent manners by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, wherein TF showed a more pronounced impact. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Results from the present study revealed that black tea-isolated polyphenols (TF and TR) exhibited a significant inhibition of lung and colon cancer cell growth. A promising synergistic effect of TF and TR as inhibitors of cancer cells was observed. More clinical work, perhaps on a human subject, is needed before these two isolated compounds can be prescribed as anticancer drugs.

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