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1.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413152

RESUMO

Newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia is often deemed a medical emergency, requiring urgent treatment. This is in contradiction with the need for accurate cytogenetic and molecular data, which is not immediately available, to select optimal therapy. We hypothesized that cytoreduction with hydroxyurea or cytarabine would enable urgent disease control and provide a bridge to clinical trial enrollment. We analyzed three prospective frontline clinical trials that allowed the use of cytoreduction before treatment initiation. Among 274 patients with a median age of 62 (range, 18-89), there was no significant difference in short- and long-term outcome and safety among patients who did (CytoRed) or did not receive (NoCytoRed) cytoreduction. The overall response rate in CytoRed group was 91%, compared with 86% in NoCytoRed group (p = .264). The 30- and 60-day mortality rates were 2% and 7% in CytoRed group, compared with 2% (p = .978) and 6% (p = .652) in NoCytoRed group, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between in CytoRed group compared with NoCytoRed group (Hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.37, p = .879). Results were unchanged after stratification by age (< or ≥65 years) or after multivariate analyses for OS. Our data suggests that urgent cytoreduction using hydroxyurea or cytarabine is a feasible and safe approach to facilitate acquisition of complete diagnostic information prior to treatment initiation on a clinical trial.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors influence the choice of primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing remission induction chemotherapy (RIC) given the recent incorporation of targeted leukemia therapies into these regimens. METHODS: We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of breakthrough IFI (bIFI) in 277 adult patients with newly diagnosed AML undergoing RIC with high-intensity, or low-intensity venetoclax-containing therapy. Patients receiving posaconazole (PCZ), voriconazole (VCZ), or isavuconazole (ISA) for > 5 days as PAP during RIC were included. Echinocandin use prior to, but not concomitantly with, the PAP azole was allowed. IFI (modified EORTC/MSG criteria) occurring after > 5 days of continuous azole exposure or within 14 days of discontinuation were considered bIFI. RESULTS: Proven or probable bIFI were observed in 11 patients (4%). The incidence of bIFI was 2.9% for PCZ, 4.8% for VCZ, and 5.7% for ISA (p=0.55). 161 patients (58%) received echinocandin prophylaxis prior to azole initiation. Neither echinocandin exposure nor chemotherapy intensity impacted bIFI rate. Patients with bIFI had a lower rate of absolute neutrophil count recovery >1000 cells/µL (64% vs 90%, p=0.021) or complete remission (CR; 18% vs 66%, p=0.002) after RIC. Thirty-eight patients (14%) discontinued PAP due to toxicity, most often hepatotoxicity. Discontinuation due to hepatotoxicity was similar among azoles (PCZ: 13%; VCZ: 15%; ISA: 13%). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of bIFI is low during RIC in patients with newly diagnosed AML receiving any of the mold-active triazoles as PAP. Neutrophil recovery and achievement of CR are important for bIFI risk.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(14): 3402-3410, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380367

RESUMO

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) in the setting of concomitant medullary AML is relatively well described, while much less is known about patients presenting with MS with <20% bone marrow blasts. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 56 patients with MS with <20% marrow blasts seen at MD Anderson between 2005 and 2020. The prevalence of MS without medullary AML was 1.4% among all newly diagnosed AML patients. The majority (75%) of patients had a single known anatomic site involved, with the skin (34%) being the most frequent. The most common histologic subtype was monocytic, and 11% of patients had a known history of an antecedent hematologic disorder. The majority of patients (70%) received frontline intensive chemotherapy induction, with 75% of those evaluable attaining complete or partial responses. The median overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 3.41 and 3.07 years, respectively. Patients with bone marrow blasts of ≥5% or medullary relapse had inferior outcomes, while age (>60 years) was not associated with outcomes. There was a suggestion that patients with isolated leukemia cutis may have had better outcomes compared to patients with other organ involvement, but this did not reach statistical significance. Most patients who had cytogenetic analysis had a diploid karyotype within their MS and bone marrow. RAS pathway mutations were enriched in MS at diagnosis, and at time of medullary relapse. Our study provides a large dataset summarizing the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with MS with <20% BM blasts and suggests that monitoring for medullary leukemia is important for early detection of relapse.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Sarcoma Mieloide , Medula Óssea/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma Mieloide/diagnóstico , Sarcoma Mieloide/genética
5.
Cancer ; 127(22): 4213-4220, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has poor outcomes. Although lower-intensity venetoclax-containing regimens are standard for older/unfit patients with newly diagnosed AML, it is unknown how such regimens compare with intensive chemotherapy (IC) for R/R AML. METHODS: Outcomes of R/R AML treated with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) were compared with IC-based regimens including idarubicin with cytarabine, with or without cladribine, clofarabine, or fludarabine, with or without additional agents. Propensity scores derived from patient baseline characteristics were used to match DEC10-VEN and IC patients to minimize bias. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients in the DEC10-VEN cohort were matched to 130 IC recipients. The median ages for the DEC10-VEN and IC groups were 64 and 58 years, respectively, and baseline characteristics were balanced between the 2 cohorts. DEC10-VEN conferred significantly higher responses compared with IC including higher overall response rate (60% vs 36%; odds ratio [OR], 3.28; P < .001), complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi, 19% vs 6%; OR, 3.56; P = .012), minimal residual disease negativity by flow cytometry (28% vs 13%; OR, 2.48; P = .017), and lower rates of refractory disease. DEC10-VEN led to significantly longer median event-free survival compared with IC (5.7 vs 1.5 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70; P < .001), as well as median overall survival (OS; 6.8 vs 4.7 months; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86; P = .008). DEC10-VEN was independently associated with improved OS compared with IC in multivariate analysis. Exploratory analysis for OS in 27 subgroups showed that DEC10-VEN was comparable with IC as salvage therapy for R/R AML. CONCLUSION: DEC10-VEN represents an appropriate salvage therapy and may offer better responses and survival compared with IC in adults with R/R AML.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Citarabina , Decitabina , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sulfonamidas
6.
Cancer ; 127(20): 3772-3781, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TP53 mutation (TP53mut ) confers an adverse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Venetoclax with hypomethylating agents is a current standard for older patients; however, recent reports suggest that TP53mut confers resistance to venetoclax. The authors investigated the outcomes of patients with TP53mut AML who were treated with a 10-day decitabine and venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03404193). METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AML received decitabine 20 mg/m2 for 10 days every 4 to 6 weeks for induction, followed by decitabine for 5 days after response. The venetoclax dose was 400 mg daily. TP53mut was identified in bone marrow samples using next-generation sequencing, with sensitivity of 5%. Outcomes were analyzed according to European LeukemiaNet 2017 guidelines. RESULTS: Among 118 patients (median age, 72 years; age range, 49-89 years), 63 (53%) had secondary AML, 39 (33%) had AML with complex karyotype, and 35 (30%) had TP53mut AML. The median TP53 variant allele frequency was 32% (interquartile range, 16%-65%), 8 patients (23%) had only a single TP53 mutation, 15 (43%) had multiple mutations, and 12 (34%) had mutation and deletion. Outcomes were significantly worse in patients who had TP53mut AML compared with those who had wild-type TP53 AML, with an overall response rate of 66% vs 89% (P = .002), a complete response/complete response with incomplete hematologic recovery rate of 57% vs 77% (P = .029), and a 60-day mortality of 26% vs 4% (P < .001), respectively. Patients with TP53mut versus wild-type TP53 had shorter overall survival at 5.2 versus 19.4 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.44-8.93; P < .0001), and shorter relapse-free survival at 3.4 versus 18.9 months (hazard ratio, 4.80; 95% CI, 1.97-11.69; P < .0001), respectively. Outcomes with DEC10-VEN in patients with TP53mut AML were comparable to historical results with 10-day decitabine alone. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TP53mut AML have lower response rates and shorter survival with DEC10-VEN.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sulfonamidas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(9): 2184-2192, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830856

RESUMO

Liposomal daunorubicin/cytarabine (CPX-351) gained FDA approval for secondary AML after demonstrating improved outcomes over daunorubicin and cytarabine (7 + 3). A number of study limitations prompted a comparison of safety/efficacy of CPX-351 against regimens containing a purine analogue and high-dose cytarabine (HIDAC). This retrospective study compared complete response rates with/without count recovery (CR/CRi) between HIDAC-based regimens and CPX-351 in 169 patients with newly diagnosed sAML. The CR/CRi rate was 62.7% in the HIDAC-based therapy arm vs. 47.9% in the CPX-351 arm (p = 0.002 [one-sided for non-inferiority]). Median time to absolute neutrophil and platelet count recovery was shorter after HIDAC-based therapy (18 and 23 days, respectively) compared to CPX-351 (36 and 38 days; p < 0.001). Median overall survival was 9.8 months in the HIDAC-based group and 9.14 months in the CPX-351 group. 30-day mortality was greater with CPX-351 (8.5%) compared to HIDAC-based (1.3%; p = 0.039). These results reveal comparable efficacy and favorable safety with HIDAC-based regimens.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Daunorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Blood Adv ; 5(7): 1876-1883, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792630

RESUMO

Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) provides prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the utility of MRD with venetoclax-based lower intensity regimens is unknown. We analyzed the prognostic value of achieving a negative MRD in older/"unfit" patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. MRD was evaluated in bone marrow specimens using multicolor flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.1%). Ninety-seven patients achieving either a complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) or morphologic leukemia-free state were included. Median age was 72 years (interquartile range, 68-78 years), and 64% had adverse-risk AML. Eighty-three patients achieved CR/CRi, and 52 (54%) became MRD negative. Median time to becoming MRD negative was 2.0 months (interquartile range, 0.9-3.1 months). Patients becoming MRD negative by 2 months had longer relapse-free survival (RFS) compared with those remaining MRD positive (median RFS, not reached vs 5.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.78; P = .004), longer event-free survival (EFS) (median EFS, not reached vs 5.8 months; HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55; P < .001), as well as longer overall survival (OS) (median OS, 25.1 vs 7.1 months; HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.51; P < .001). Patients achieving an MRD-negative CR had longer OS compared with those with an inferior response (median OS, 25.1 vs 11.6 months; HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.58; P < .0005). Patients becoming MRD negative within 1 month had an improved OS compared with MRD-positive patients (median OS, 25.1 vs 3.4 months; HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.64; P < .0001). Differential impact of MRD status on survival outcomes persisted at a later 4-month time point of evaluation. In conclusion, MRD-negative status at 1, 2, and 4 months after starting therapy confers significantly better survival in older/unfit patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03404193.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Sulfonamidas
9.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2489-2499, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax (VEN) combined with the hypomethylating agent (HMA) azacitidine improves survival in patients aged ≥75 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). VEN and HMA treatment can result in prolonged and often profound neutropenia, and this warrants antifungal prophylaxis. Azole antifungals inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4, the primary enzyme responsible for VEN metabolism; this results in VEN dose reductions for each concomitant antifungal. Limited clinical data exist on outcomes for patients treated with VEN, an HMA, and various azoles. METHODS: The time to neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] > 1000 cells/mm3 ) and platelet (PLT) recovery (PLT count > 100,000 cells/mm3 ) in 64 patients with newly diagnosed AML who achieved a response after course 1 of VEN plus an HMA were evaluated. HMA therapy included azacitidine (75 mg/m2 intravenously/subcutaneously for 7 days) or decitabine (20 mg/m2 intravenously for 5 or 10 days). RESULTS: Forty-seven patients (73%) received an azole: posaconazole (n = 17; 27%), voriconazole (n = 9; 14%), isavuconazole (n = 20; 31%), or fluconazole (n = 1; 2%). The median time to ANC recovery were similar for patients who did receive an azole (37 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 34-38 days) and patients who did not receive an azole (39 days; 95% CI, 30 days to not estimable; P = .8). The median time to PLT recovery was significantly longer for patients receiving azoles (28 vs 22 days; P = .01). The median times to ANC recovery (35 vs 38 days) and PLT recovery (26 vs 32 days) were similar with posaconazole and voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: VEN plus an HMA resulted in neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with the latter prolonged in patients receiving concomitant azoles. Concomitant posaconazole or voriconazole and VEN (100 mg) resulted in similar ANC and PLT recovery times, suggesting the safety of these dosage combinations during course 1.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Trombocitopenia , Idoso , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Humanos , Sulfonamidas , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1755-1763, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mold-active primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is routinely recommended in neutropenic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC). Isavuconazole (ISAV) is an extended spectrum mold-active triazole and has superior tolerability and fewer significant drug-drug interactions compared with other triazoles. METHODS: In our investigator-initiated, phase 2 trial, treatment-naive adult patients with AML or MDS starting RIC received ISAV per the dosing recommendations in the US label until neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] ≥ 0.5 × 109/L) and attainment of complete remission, occurrence of invasive fungal infection (IFI), or for a maximum of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFI during ISAV PAP and up to 30 days after the last dose. RESULTS: Sixty-five of 75 enrolled patients received ISAV PAP (median age, 67 years, median ANC at enrollment, 0.72 × 109/L). Thirty-two patients (49%) received oral targeted leukemia treatments (venetoclax, FTL3 inhibitors). Including the 30-day follow-up period, probable/proven and possible IFIs were encountered in 4 (6%) and 8 patients (12%), respectively. ISAV trough serum concentrations were consistently > 1 µg/mL, showed low intraindividual variation, and were not significantly influenced by chemotherapy regimen. Tolerability of ISAV was excellent, with only 3 cases (5%) of mild to moderate elevations of liver function tests and no QTc prolongations. CONCLUSIONS: ISAV is a safe and effective alternative for PAP in patients with newly diagnosed AML/MDS undergoing RIC in the era of recently approved or emerging small-molecule antileukemia therapies. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03019939.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Micoses , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas , Triazóis/uso terapêutico
14.
Acta Haematol ; 144(2): 132-145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392559

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses several challenges to the management of patients with leukemia. The biology of each leukemia and its corresponding treatment with conventional intensive chemotherapy, with or without targeted therapies (venetoclax, FLT3 inhibitors, IDH1/2 inhibitors, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors), introduce additional layers of complexity during COVID-19 high-risk periods. The knowledge about COVID-19 is accumulating rapidly. An important distinction is the prevalence of "exposure" versus "clinical infectivity," which determine the risk versus benefit of modifying potentially highly curative therapies in leukemia. At present, the rate of clinical infection is <1-2% worldwide. With a mortality rate of 1-5% in CO-VID-19 patients in the general population and potentially of >30% in patients with cancer, careful consideration should be given to the risk of COVID-19 in leukemia. Instead of reducing patient access to specialized cancer centers and modifying therapies to ones with unproven curative benefit, there is more rationale for less intensive, yet effective therapies that may require fewer clinic visits or hospitalizations. Here, we offer recommendations on the optimization of leukemia management during high-risk COVID-19 periods.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Leucemia/complicações , Leucemia/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Doença Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/terapia , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Hematol ; 96(3): 282-291, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264443

RESUMO

Hypomethylating agents (HMA) with venetoclax is a new standard for older/unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, it is unknown how HMA with venetoclax compare to intensive chemotherapy (IC) in patients who are "fit" or "unfit" for IC. We compared outcomes of older patients with newly diagnosed AML receiving 10-day decitabine with venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) vs IC. DEC10-VEN consisted of daily venetoclax with decitabine 20 mg/m2 for 10 days for induction and decitabine for 5 days as consolidation. The IC cohort received regimens containing cytarabine ≥1 g/m2 /d. A validated treatment-related mortality score (TRMS) was used to classify patients at high-risk or low-risk for TRM with IC. Propensity scores were used to match patients to minimize bias. Median age of the DEC10-VEN cohort (n = 85) was 72 years (range 63-89) and 28% patients were at high-risk of TRM with IC. The comparator IC group (n = 85) matched closely in terms of baseline characteristics. DEC10-VEN was associated with significantly higher CR/CRi compared to IC (81% vs 52%, P < .001), and lower rate of relapse (34% vs 56%, P = .01), 30-day mortality (1% vs 24%, P < .01), and longer overall survival (OS; 12.4 vs 4.5 months, HR = 0.48, 95%CI 0.29-0.79, P < .01). In patients at both at high-risk and low-risk of TRM, DEC10-VEN showed significantly higher CR/CRi, lower 30-day mortality, and longer OS compared to IC. Patients at both high-risk and low-risk of TRM had comparable outcomes with DEC10-VEN. In conclusion, DEC10-VEN offers better outcomes compared to intensive chemotherapy in older patients with newly diagnosed AML, particularly in those at high-risk of TRM.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
18.
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs ; 25(4): 491-499, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161749

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically heterogeneous hematologic malignancy with poor long term outcomes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the backbone of therapy especially among younger patients; however the effective incorporation of targeted therapies continues to be an area of active research in an effort to improve response durations and survival. Cell cycle inhibitors (CCI) are a novel class of agents which may be of particular interest for development in patients with AML. Areas covered: We will review the concept of CCIs along with available pre-clinical and clinical data in the treatment of AML both in North America and abroad. Specific drug targets reviewed include cyclin D kinase, Aurora kinase, CHK1, and WEE1. Expert opinion: Utilization of CCIs in patients with AML is an emerging approach that has shown promise in pre-clinical models. It has been challenging to translate this concept into clinical success thus far, due to marginal single-agent activity and significant toxicity profiles, however clinical evaluation is ongoing. Addition of these agents to cytotoxic chemotherapy and other targeted therapies provides a potential combinatorial path forward for this novel class of therapies. Developing optimal combinations while balancing toxicity are among the top clinical challenges that must be overcome before we can anticipate adoption of these agents into the armamentarium of AML therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
19.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e724-e736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who are 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Pharmacodynamic studies have suggested superiority of the longer 10-day regimen of decitabine that has shown promising results in patients with high-risk AML in phase 2 trials. We hypothesised that venetoclax with 10-day decitabine could have improved activity in patients with newly diagnosed AML and those with relapsed or refractory AML, particularly in high-risk subgroups. METHODS: This single centre, phase 2 trial was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). The study enrolled older patients (aged >60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy; secondary AML (progressed after myelodysplastic syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia); and relapsed or refractory AML. Patients were required to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 3 or less, white blood cell count less than 10 × 109 per L, and adequate end-organ function. Patients with favourable-risk cytogenetics (eg, t[15;17] or core-binding factor AML) or who had received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 10 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, followed by decitabine for 5 days with daily venetoclax for consolidation. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. The secondary endpoints analysed within this report include safety, overall survival, and duration of response, in keeping with recommendations of European LeukemiaNet 2017 guidelines. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were eligible for safety and response assessments. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03404193) and continues to accrue patients. FINDINGS: Between Jan 19, 2018, and Dec 16, 2019, we enrolled 168 patients; 70 (42%) had newly diagnosed AML, 15 (9%) had untreated secondary AML, 28 (17%) had treated secondary AML, and 55 (33%) had relapsed or refractory AML. The median age was 71 years (IQR 65-76) and 30% of patients had ECOG performance status of 2 or higher. The median follow-up for all patients was 16 months (95% CI 12-18; actual follow-up 6·5 months; IQR 3·4-12·4). The overall response rate was 74% (125 of 168 patients; 95% CI 67-80) and in disease subgroups were: 89% in newly diagnosed AML (62 of 70 patients; 79-94), 80% in untreated secondary AML (12 of 15 patients; 55-93), 61% in treated secondary AML (17 of 28 patients; 42-76), and 62% in relapsed or refractory AML (34 of 55 patients; 49-74). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events included infections with grades 3 or 4 neutropenia (n=79, 47%) and febrile neutropenia (n=49, 29%). 139 (83%) of 168 patients had serious adverse events, most frequently neutropenic fever (n=63, 38%), followed by pneumonia (n=17, 10%) and sepsis (n=16, 10%). The 30-day mortality for all patients was 3·6% (n=6, 95% CI 1·7-7·8). The median overall survival was 18·1 months (95% CI 10·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 7·8 months (2·9-10·7) in untreated secondary AML, 6·0 months (3·4-13·7) in treated secondary AML, and 7·8 months (5·4-13·3) relapsed or refractory AML. The median duration of response was not reached (95% CI 9·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 5·1 months (95% CI 0·9-not reached) in untreated secondary AML, not reached (95% CI 2·5-not reached) in previously treated secondary AML, and 16·8 months (95% CI 6·6-not reached) in relapsed or refractory AML. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax with 10-day decitabine has a manageable safety profile and showed high activity in newly diagnosed AML and molecularly defined subsets of relapsed or refractory AML. Future larger and randomised studies are needed to clarify activity in high-risk subsets. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(5): 1220-1224, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437235

RESUMO

The advent of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Life expectancy for patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia now nears that of the healthy population; however, optimal outcomes require continuous tyrosine kinase inhibitor administration, which can impact patient quality of life. Consequently, the concept of treatment-free remission has been explored in patients achieving and sustaining a deep molecular response. Heterogeneous data exist with multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors; however, nilotinib is currently the only therapy that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment-free remission. The decision to pursue treatment-free remission is one that relies heavily on both patient- and disease-related factors. Herein, we will discuss relevant considerations to be made when determining an optimal candidate for treatment-free remission.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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