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1.
Gigascience ; 9(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tandem repeat sequences are widespread in the human genome, and their expansions cause multiple repeat-mediated disorders. Genome-wide discovery approaches are needed to fully elucidate their roles in health and disease, but resolving tandem repeat variation accurately remains a challenging task. While traditional mapping-based approaches using short-read data have severe limitations in the size and type of tandem repeats they can resolve, recent third-generation sequencing technologies exhibit substantially higher sequencing error rates, which complicates repeat resolution. RESULTS: We developed TRiCoLOR, a freely available tool for tandem repeat profiling using error-prone long reads from third-generation sequencing technologies. The method can identify repetitive regions in sequencing data without a prior knowledge of their motifs or locations and resolve repeat multiplicity and period size in a haplotype-specific manner. The tool includes methods to interactively visualize the identified repeats and to trace their Mendelian consistency in pedigrees. CONCLUSIONS: TRiCoLOR demonstrates excellent performance and improved sensitivity and specificity compared with alternative tools on synthetic data. For real human whole-genome sequencing data, TRiCoLOR achieves high validation rates, suggesting its suitability to identify tandem repeat variation in personal genomes.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(9): e12104, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755029

RESUMO

We aimed at identifying the developmental stage at which leukemic cells of pediatric T-ALLs are arrested and at defining leukemogenic mechanisms based on ATAC-Seq. Chromatin accessibility maps of seven developmental stages of human healthy T cells revealed progressive chromatin condensation during T-cell maturation. Developmental stages were distinguished by 2,823 signature chromatin regions with 95% accuracy. Open chromatin surrounding SAE1 was identified to best distinguish thymic developmental stages suggesting a potential role of SUMOylation in T-cell development. Deconvolution using signature regions revealed that T-ALLs, including those with mature immunophenotypes, resemble the most immature populations, which was confirmed by TF-binding motif profiles. We integrated ATAC-Seq and RNA-Seq and found DAB1, a gene not related to leukemia previously, to be overexpressed, abnormally spliced and hyper-accessible in T-ALLs. DAB1-negative patients formed a distinct subgroup with particularly immature chromatin profiles and hyper-accessible binding sites for SPI1 (PU.1), a TF crucial for normal T-cell maturation. In conclusion, our analyses of chromatin accessibility and TF-binding motifs showed that pediatric T-ALL cells are most similar to immature thymic precursors, indicating an early developmental arrest.

3.
Nature ; 580(7803): 396-401, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296180

RESUMO

Cancer genomics has revealed many genes and core molecular processes that contribute to human malignancies, but the genetic and molecular bases of many rare cancers remains unclear. Genetic predisposition accounts for 5 to 10% of cancer diagnoses in children1,2, and genetic events that cooperate with known somatic driver events are poorly understood. Pathogenic germline variants in established cancer predisposition genes have been recently identified in 5% of patients with the malignant brain tumour medulloblastoma3. Here, by analysing all protein-coding genes, we identify and replicate rare germline loss-of-function variants across ELP1 in 14% of paediatric patients with the medulloblastoma subgroup Sonic Hedgehog (MBSHH). ELP1 was the most common medulloblastoma predisposition gene and increased the prevalence of genetic predisposition to 40% among paediatric patients with MBSHH. Parent-offspring and pedigree analyses identified two families with a history of paediatric medulloblastoma. ELP1-associated medulloblastomas were restricted to the molecular SHHα subtype4 and characterized by universal biallelic inactivation of ELP1 owing to somatic loss of chromosome arm 9q. Most ELP1-associated medulloblastomas also exhibited somatic alterations in PTCH1, which suggests that germline ELP1 loss-of-function variants predispose individuals to tumour development in combination with constitutive activation of SHH signalling. ELP1 is the largest subunit of the evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which catalyses translational elongation through tRNA modifications at the wobble (U34) position5,6. Tumours from patients with ELP1-associated MBSHH were characterized by a destabilized Elongator complex, loss of Elongator-dependent tRNA modifications, codon-dependent translational reprogramming, and induction of the unfolded protein response, consistent with loss of protein homeostasis due to Elongator deficiency in model systems7-9. Thus, genetic predisposition to proteome instability may be a determinant in the pathogenesis of paediatric brain cancers. These results support investigation of the role of protein homeostasis in other cancer types and potential for therapeutic interference.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/genética , Linhagem , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética
4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 230, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA sequencing is at the core of many molecular biology laboratories. Despite its long history, there is a lack of user-friendly Sanger sequencing data analysis tools that can be run interactively as a web application or at large-scale in batch from the command-line. RESULTS: We present Tracy, an efficient and versatile command-line application that enables basecalling, alignment, assembly and deconvolution of sequencing chromatogram files. Its companion web applications make all functionality of Tracy easily accessible using standard web browser technologies and interactive graphical user interfaces. Tracy can be easily integrated in large-scale pipelines and high-throughput settings, and it uses state-of-the-art file formats such as JSON and BCF for reporting chromatogram sequencing results and variant calls. The software is open-source and freely available at https://github.com/gear-genomics/tracy, the companion web applications are hosted at https://www.gear-genomics.com. CONCLUSIONS: Tracy can be routinely applied in large-scale validation efforts conducted in clinical genomics studies as well as for high-throughput genome editing techniques that require a fast and rapid method to confirm discovered variants or engineered mutations. Molecular biologists benefit from the companion web applications that enable installation-free Sanger chromatogram analyses using intuitive, graphical user interfaces.

5.
Bioinformatics ; 36(4): 1267-1269, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589307

RESUMO

SUMMARY: VISOR is a tool for haplotype-specific simulations of simple and complex structural variants (SVs). The method is applicable to haploid, diploid or higher ploidy simulations for bulk or single-cell sequencing data. SVs are implanted into FASTA haplotypes at single-basepair resolution, optionally with nearby single-nucleotide variants. Short or long reads are drawn at random from these haplotypes using standard error profiles. Double- or single-stranded data can be simulated and VISOR supports the generation of haplotype-tagged BAM files. The tool further includes methods to interactively visualize simulated variants in single-stranded data. The versatility of VISOR is unmet by comparable tools and it lays the foundation to simulate haplotype-resolved cancer heterogeneity data in bulk or at single-cell resolution. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: VISOR is implemented in python 3.6, open-source and freely available at https://github.com/davidebolo1993/VISOR. Documentation is available at https://davidebolo1993.github.io/visordoc/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

6.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(3): 343-354, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873213

RESUMO

Structural variation (SV), involving deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations of DNA segments, is a major source of genetic variability in somatic cells and can dysregulate cancer-related pathways. However, discovering somatic SVs in single cells has been challenging, with copy-number-neutral and complex variants typically escaping detection. Here we describe single-cell tri-channel processing (scTRIP), a computational framework that integrates read depth, template strand and haplotype phase to comprehensively discover SVs in individual cells. We surveyed SV landscapes of 565 single cells, including transformed epithelial cells and patient-derived leukemic samples, to discover abundant SV classes, including inversions, translocations and complex DNA rearrangements. Analysis of the leukemic samples revealed four times more somatic SVs than cytogenetic karyotyping, submicroscopic copy-number alterations, oncogenic copy-neutral rearrangements and a subclonal chromothripsis event. Advancing current methods, single-cell tri-channel processing can directly measure SV mutational processes in individual cells, such as breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, facilitating studies of clonal evolution, genetic mosaicism and SV formation mechanisms, which could improve disease classification for precision medicine.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Leucemia/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Cromotripsia , Evolução Clonal , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Inversão de Sequência , Translocação Genética
7.
Nature ; 576(7786): 274-280, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802000

RESUMO

Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are aggressive paediatric embryonal brain tumours with a universally poor prognosis1. Here we collected 193 primary ETMRs and 23 matched relapse samples to investigate the genomic landscape of this distinct tumour type. We found that patients with tumours in which the proposed driver C19MC2-4 was not amplified frequently had germline mutations in DICER1 or other microRNA-related aberrations such as somatic amplification of miR-17-92 (also known as MIR17HG). Whole-genome sequencing revealed that tumours had an overall low recurrence of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), but showed prevalent genomic instability caused by widespread occurrence of R-loop structures. We show that R-loop-associated chromosomal instability can be induced by the loss of DICER1 function. Comparison of primary tumours and matched relapse samples showed a strong conservation of structural variants, but low conservation of SNVs. Moreover, many newly acquired SNVs are associated with a mutational signature related to cisplatin treatment. Finally, we show that targeting R-loops with topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors might be an effective treatment strategy for this deadly disease.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recidiva , Ribonuclease III/genética
8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(12): 1502-1512, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685959

RESUMO

The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is an efficient non-viral gene transfer tool in mammalian cells, but its broad use has been hampered by uncontrolled transposase gene activity from DNA vectors, posing a risk of genome instability, and by the inability to use the transposase protein directly. In this study, we used rational protein design based on the crystal structure of the hyperactive SB100X variant to create an SB transposase (high-solubility SB, hsSB) with enhanced solubility and stability. We demonstrate that hsSB can be delivered with transposon DNA to genetically modify cell lines and embryonic, hematopoietic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), overcoming uncontrolled transposase activity. We used hsSB to generate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, which exhibit potent antitumor activity in vitro and in xenograft mice. We found that hsSB spontaneously penetrates cells, enabling modification of iPSCs and generation of CAR T cells without the use of transfection reagents. Titration of hsSB to modulate genomic integration frequency achieved as few as two integrations per genome.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Transposases/genética , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Células-Tronco
9.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(10): 1248-1260, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576060

RESUMO

While nuclear lamina abnormalities are hallmarks of human diseases, their interplay with epigenetic regulators and precise epigenetic landscape remain poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of the lysine acetyltransferase MOF or its associated NSL-complex members KANSL2 or KANSL3 leads to a stochastic accumulation of nuclear abnormalities with genomic instability patterns including chromothripsis. SILAC-based MOF and KANSL2 acetylomes identified lamin A/C as an acetylation target of MOF. HDAC inhibition or acetylation-mimicking lamin A derivatives rescue nuclear abnormalities observed in MOF-deficient cells. Mechanistically, loss of lamin A/C acetylation resulted in its increased solubility, defective phosphorylation dynamics and impaired nuclear mechanostability. We found that nuclear abnormalities include EZH2-dependent histone H3 Lys 27 trimethylation and loss of nascent transcription. We term this altered epigenetic landscape "heterochromatin enrichment in nuclear abnormalities" (HENA). Collectively, the NSL-complex-dependent lamin A/C acetylation provides a mechanism that maintains nuclear architecture and genome integrity.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética , Fibroblastos , Heterocromatina , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/química , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1784, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992455

RESUMO

The incomplete identification of structural variants (SVs) from whole-genome sequencing data limits studies of human genetic diversity and disease association. Here, we apply a suite of long-read, short-read, strand-specific sequencing technologies, optical mapping, and variant discovery algorithms to comprehensively analyze three trios to define the full spectrum of human genetic variation in a haplotype-resolved manner. We identify 818,054 indel variants (<50 bp) and 27,622 SVs (≥50 bp) per genome. We also discover 156 inversions per genome and 58 of the inversions intersect with the critical regions of recurrent microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Taken together, our SV callsets represent a three to sevenfold increase in SV detection compared to most standard high-throughput sequencing studies, including those from the 1000 Genomes Project. The methods and the dataset presented serve as a gold standard for the scientific community allowing us to make recommendations for maximizing structural variation sensitivity for future genome sequencing studies.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709874

RESUMO

Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of individual patients allow the study of rare and potentially causative genetic variation. In this study, we sequenced DNA of a trio comprising a boy with very-early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (veoIBD) and his unaffected parents. We identified a rare, X-linked missense variant in the NAPDH oxidase NOX1 gene (c.C721T, p.R241C) in heterozygous state in the mother and in hemizygous state in the patient. We discovered that, in addition, the patient was homozygous for a common missense variant in the CYBA gene (c.T214C, p.Y72H). CYBA encodes the p22phox protein, a cofactor for NOX1. Functional assays revealed reduced cellular ROS generation and antibacterial capacity of NOX1 and p22phox variants in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the identified NADPH oxidase complex variants affected NOD2-mediated immune responses, and p22phox was identified as a novel NOD2 interactor. In conclusion, we detected missense variants in a veoIBD patient that disrupt the host response to bacterial challenges and reduce protective innate immune signaling via NOD2. We assume that the patient's individual genetic makeup favored disturbed intestinal mucosal barrier function.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , NADPH Oxidase 1/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromossomos Humanos X , Homozigoto , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/enzimologia , Masculino , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Haematologica ; 104(2): 330-337, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213827

RESUMO

T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma is a rare aggressive lymphoma showing histopathological overlap with nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite differences in tumor microenvironment and clinical behavior, the tumor cells of both entities show remarkable similarities, suggesting that both lymphomas might represent a spectrum of the same disease. To address this issue, we investigated whether these entities share mutations. Ultra-deep targeted resequencing of six typical and 11 histopathological variants of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and nine cases of T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma revealed that genes recurrently mutated in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma are affected by mutations at similar frequencies in T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma. The most recurrently mutated genes were JUNB, DUSP2, SGK1, SOCS1 and CREBBP, which harbored mutations more frequently in T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma and the histopathological variants of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma than in its typical form. Mutations in JUNB, DUSP2, SGK1 and SOCS1 were highly enriched for somatic hypermutation hotspot sites, suggesting an important role of aberrant somatic hypermutation in the generation of these somatic mutations and thus in the pathogenesis of both lymphoma entities. Mutations in JUNB are generally rarely observed in malignant lymphomas and thus are relatively specific for nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma at such high frequencies (5/17 and 5/9 cases with JUNB mutations, respectively). Taken together, the findings of the present study further support a close relationship between T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma by showing that they share highly recurrent genetic lesions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Histiócitos/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Mutação , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Fosfatase 2 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Feminino , Histiócitos/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Bioinformatics ; 35(14): 2489-2491, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520945

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Harmonizing quality control (QC) of large-scale second and third-generation sequencing datasets is key for enabling downstream computational and biological analyses. We present Alfred, an efficient and versatile command-line application that computes multi-sample QC metrics in a read-group aware manner, across a wide variety of sequencing assays and technologies. In addition to standard QC metrics such as GC bias, base composition, insert size and sequencing coverage distributions it supports haplotype-aware and allele-specific feature counting and feature annotation. The versatility of Alfred allows for easy pipeline integration in high-throughput settings, including DNA sequencing facilities and large-scale research initiatives, enabling continuous monitoring of sequence data quality and characteristics across samples. Alfred supports haplo-tagging of BAM/CRAM files to conduct haplotype-resolved analyses in conjunction with a variety of next-generation sequencing based assays. Alfred's companion web application enables interactive exploration of results and comparison to public datasets. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Alfred is open-source and freely available at https://tobiasrausch.com/alfred/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

14.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(12)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389682

RESUMO

We compared 24 primary pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) collected at the time of initial diagnosis and relapse from 12 patients and 24 matched patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). DNA methylation profile was preserved in PDX mice in 97.5% of the promoters (ρ = 0.99). Similarly, the genome-wide chromatin accessibility (ATAC-Seq) was preserved remarkably well (ρ = 0.96). Interestingly, both the ATAC regions, which showed a significant decrease in accessibility in PDXs and the regions hypermethylated in PDXs, were associated with immune response, which might reflect the immune deficiency of the mice and potentially the incomplete interaction between murine cytokines and human receptors. The longitudinal approach of this study allowed an observation that samples collected from patients who developed a type 1 relapse (clonal mutations maintained at relapse) preserved their genomic composition; whereas in patients who developed a type 2 relapse (subset of clonal mutations lost at relapse), the preservation of the leukemia's composition was more variable. In sum, this study underlines the remarkable genomic stability, and for the first time documents the preservation of the epigenomic landscape in T-ALL-derived PDX models.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Recidiva
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 243, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput bioinformatics analyses of next generation sequencing (NGS) data often require challenging pipeline optimization. The key problem is choosing appropriate tools and selecting the best parameters for optimal precision and recall. RESULTS: Here we introduce ToTem, a tool for automated pipeline optimization. ToTem is a stand-alone web application with a comprehensive graphical user interface (GUI). ToTem is written in Java and PHP with an underlying connection to a MySQL database. Its primary role is to automatically generate, execute and benchmark different variant calling pipeline settings. Our tool allows an analysis to be started from any level of the process and with the possibility of plugging almost any tool or code. To prevent an over-fitting of pipeline parameters, ToTem ensures the reproducibility of these by using cross validation techniques that penalize the final precision, recall and F-measure. The results are interpreted as interactive graphs and tables allowing an optimal pipeline to be selected, based on the user's priorities. Using ToTem, we were able to optimize somatic variant calling from ultra-deep targeted gene sequencing (TGS) data and germline variant detection in whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. CONCLUSIONS: ToTem is a tool for automated pipeline optimization which is freely available as a web application at https://totem.software .


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Software
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(6): 785-798, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED). Whole-genome sequences and exome sequences from blood and tumour samples were analysed for rare damaging germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. DNA methylation profiling was done to determine consensus molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGroup3), and group 4 (MBGroup4). Medulloblastoma predisposition genes were predicted on the basis of rare variant burden tests against controls without a cancer diagnosis from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Previously defined somatic mutational signatures were used to further classify medulloblastoma genomes into two groups, a clock-like group (signatures 1 and 5) and a homologous recombination repair deficiency-like group (signatures 3 and 8), and chromothripsis was investigated using previously established criteria. Progression-free survival and overall survival were modelled for patients with a genetic predisposition to medulloblastoma. FINDINGS: We included a total of 1022 patients with medulloblastoma from the retrospective cohorts (n=673) and the four prospective studies (n=349), from whom blood samples (n=1022) and tumour samples (n=800) were analysed for germline mutations in 110 cancer predisposition genes. In our rare variant burden analysis, we compared these against 53 105 sequenced controls from ExAC and identified APC, BRCA2, PALB2, PTCH1, SUFU, and TP53 as consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes according to our rare variant burden analysis and estimated that germline mutations accounted for 6% of medulloblastoma diagnoses in the retrospective cohort. The prevalence of genetic predispositions differed between molecular subgroups in the retrospective cohort and was highest for patients in the MBSHH subgroup (20% in the retrospective cohort). These estimates were replicated in the prospective clinical cohort (germline mutations accounted for 5% of medulloblastoma diagnoses, with the highest prevalence [14%] in the MBSHH subgroup). Patients with germline APC mutations developed MBWNT and accounted for most (five [71%] of seven) cases of MBWNT that had no somatic CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations. Patients with germline mutations in SUFU and PTCH1 mostly developed infant MBSHH. Germline TP53 mutations presented only in childhood patients in the MBSHH subgroup and explained more than half (eight [57%] of 14) of all chromothripsis events in this subgroup. Germline mutations in PALB2 and BRCA2 were observed across the MBSHH, MBGroup3, and MBGroup4 molecular subgroups and were associated with mutational signatures typical of homologous recombination repair deficiency. In patients with a genetic predisposition to medulloblastoma, 5-year progression-free survival was 52% (95% CI 40-69) and 5-year overall survival was 65% (95% CI 52-81); these survival estimates differed significantly across patients with germline mutations in different medulloblastoma predisposition genes. INTERPRETATION: Genetic counselling and testing should be used as a standard-of-care procedure in patients with MBWNT and MBSHH because these patients have the highest prevalence of damaging germline mutations in known cancer predisposition genes. We propose criteria for routine genetic screening for patients with medulloblastoma based on clinical and molecular tumour characteristics. FUNDING: German Cancer Aid; German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; German Childhood Cancer Foundation (Deutsche Kinderkrebsstiftung); European Research Council; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Institutes for Health Research; German Cancer Research Center; St Jude Comprehensive Cancer Center; American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities; Swiss National Science Foundation; European Molecular Biology Organization; Cancer Research UK; Hertie Foundation; Alexander and Margaret Stewart Trust; V Foundation for Cancer Research; Sontag Foundation; Musicians Against Childhood Cancer; BC Cancer Foundation; Swedish Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare; Swedish Research Council; Swedish Cancer Society; the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority; Danish Strategic Research Council; Swiss Federal Office of Public Health; Swiss Research Foundation on Mobile Communication; Masaryk University; Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic; Research Council of Norway; Genome Canada; Genome BC; Terry Fox Research Institute; Ontario Institute for Cancer Research; Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario; The Family of Kathleen Lorette and the Clark H Smith Brain Tumour Centre; Montreal Children's Hospital Foundation; The Hospital for Sick Children: Sonia and Arthur Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, Chief of Research Fund, Cancer Genetics Program, Garron Family Cancer Centre, MDT's Garron Family Endowment; BC Childhood Cancer Parents Association; Cure Search Foundation; Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation; Brainchild; and the Government of Ontario.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Meduloblastoma/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Cerebelares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/mortalidade , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 23, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Grainyhead-like (GRHL) transcription factors have been linked to many different types of cancer. However, no previous study has attempted to investigate potential correlations in expression of different GRHL genes in this context. Furthermore, there is very little information concerning damaging mutations and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms in GRHL genes that may be linked to cancer. METHODS: DNA and RNA were extracted from human non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) and adjacent normal tissues (n = 33 pairs of samples). The expression of GRHL genes was measured by quantitative real time PCR. Regulation of GRHL expression by miRNA was studied using cell transfection methods and dual-luciferase reporter system. Targeted deep sequencing of GRHL genes in tumor samples and control tissues were employed to search for mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Single marker rs141193530 was genotyped with pyrosequencing in additional NMSC replication cohort (n = 176). Appropriate statistical and bioinformatic methods were used to analyze and interpret results. RESULTS: We discovered that the expression of two genes - GRHL1 and GRHL3 - is reduced in a coordinated manner in tumor samples, in comparison to the control healthy skin samples obtained from the same individuals. It is possible that both GRHL1 and GRHL3 are regulated, at least to some extent, by different strands of the same oncogenic microRNA - miR-21, what would at least partially explain observed correlation. No de novo mutations in the GRHL genes were detected in the examined tumor samples. However, some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GRHL genes occur at significantly altered frequencies in the examined group of NMSC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Non-melanoma skin cancer growth is accompanied by coordinated reduced expression of epidermal differentiation genes: GRHL1 and GRHL3, which may be regulated by miR-21-3p and -5p, respectively. Some potentially damaging single nucleotide polymorphisms in GRHL genes occur with altered frequencies in NMSC patients, and they may in particular impair the expression of GRHL3 gene or functioning of encoded protein. The presence of these polymorphisms may indicate an increased risk of NMSC development in affected people.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(1): 107-120, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138229

RESUMO

The transcriptome needs to be tightly regulated by mechanisms that include transcription factors, enhancers, and repressors as well as non-coding RNAs. Besides this dynamic regulation, a large part of phenotypic variability of eukaryotes is expressed through changes in gene transcription caused by genetic variation. In this study, we evaluate genome-wide structural genomic variants (SVs) and their association with gene expression in the human heart. We detected 3,898 individual SVs affecting all classes of gene transcripts (e.g., mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA) and regulatory genomic regions (e.g., enhancer or TFBS). In a cohort of patients (n = 50) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 80,635 non-protein-coding elements of the genome are deleted or duplicated by SVs, containing 3,758 long non-coding RNAs and 1,756 protein-coding transcripts. 65.3% of the SV-eQTLs do not harbor a significant SNV-eQTL, and for the regions with both classes of association, we find similar effect sizes. In case of deleted protein-coding exons, we find downregulation of the associated transcripts, duplication events, however, do not show significant changes over all events. In summary, we are first to describe the genomic variability associated with SVs in heart failure due to DCM and dissect their impact on the transcriptome. Overall, SVs explain up to 7.5% of the variation of cardiac gene expression, underlining the importance to study human myocardial gene expression in the context of the individual genome. This has immediate implications for studies on basic mechanisms of cardiac maladaptation, biomarkers, and (gene) therapeutic studies alike.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , RNA/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
19.
Viruses ; 9(8)2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749451

RESUMO

Although smallpox has been known for centuries, the oldest available variola virus strains were isolated in the early 1940s. At that time, large regions of the world were already smallpox-free. Therefore, genetic information of these strains can represent only the very last fraction of a long evolutionary process. Based on the genomes of 48 strains, two clades are differentiated: Clade 1 includes variants of variola major, and clade 2 includes West African and variola minor (Alastrim) strains. Recently, the genome of an almost 400-year-old Lithuanian mummy was determined, which fell basal to all currently sequenced strains of variola virus on phylogenetic trees. Here, we determined two complete variola virus genomes from human tissues kept in a museum in Prague dating back 60 and 160 years, respectively. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based proteomic, chemical, and microscopic examinations were performed. The 60-year-old specimen was most likely an importation from India, a country with endemic smallpox at that time. The genome of the 160-year-old specimen is related to clade 2 West African and variola minor strains. This sequence likely represents a new endemic European variant of variola virus circulating in the midst of the 19th century in Europe.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Museus , Varíola/virologia , Vírus da Varíola/genética , República Tcheca , DNA Viral/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteômica , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/história , Vírus da Varíola/classificação
20.
Mol Carcinog ; 56(11): 2414-2423, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28543713

RESUMO

The involvement of Grainyhead-like (GRHL) transcription factors in various cancers is well documented. However, little is known about their role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We discovered that the expression of two of these factors-GRHL1 and GRHL2-are downregulated in ccRCC samples, and their expression is correlated with the expression of VHL gene. This suggests a functional link between the GRHL transcription factors and one of the best known tumor suppressors. Although the GRHL genes are not mutated in ccRCC, some of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes may indicate an increased risk of ccRCC development and/or may allow to assess patients' prognoses and predict their responses to various forms of therapy. Silencing of GRHL2 expression in non-tumorigenic kidney cell line results in increased cell proliferation, increased resistance to apoptosis, as well as changes in the levels of selected proteins involved in the pathogenesis of ccRCC. These changes support the potential role for GRHL2 as a suppressor of ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Rim/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
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