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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283013

RESUMO

Formation and characterization of low-dimensional nanostructures is crucial for controlling the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene. Here, we study the structure of low-dimensional adsorbates of cesium iodide (CsI) on free-standing graphene using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution. CsI is deposited onto graphene as charged clusters by electrospray ion-beam deposition. The interaction with the electron beam forms two-dimensional CsI crystals only on bilayer graphene, while CsI clusters consisting of 4, 6, 7, and 8 ions are exclusively observed on single-layer graphene. Chemical characterization by electron energy-loss spectroscopy imaging and precise structural measurements evidence the possible influence of charge transfer on the structure formation of the CsI clusters and layers, leading to different distances of the Cs and I to the graphene.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(25): 8336-8340, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018027

RESUMO

Saccharides are ubiquitous biomolecules, but little is known about their interaction with, and assembly at, surfaces. By combining preparative mass spectrometry with scanning tunneling microscopy, we have been able to address the conformation and self-assembly of the disaccharide sucrose on a Cu(100) surface with subunit-level imaging. By employing a multistage modeling approach in combination with the experimental data, we can rationalize the conformation on the surface as well as the interactions between the sucrose molecules, thereby yielding models of the observed self-assembled patterns on the surface.

3.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(4): 761-773, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468502

RESUMO

Transfer capillaries are the preferred means to transport ions, generated by electrospray ionization, from ambient conditions to vacuum. During the transfer of ions through the narrow, long tubes into vacuum, substantial losses are typical. However, recently it was demonstrated that these losses can be avoided altogether. To understand the experimental observation and provide a general model for the ion transport, here, we investigate the ion transport through capillaries by numerical simulation of interacting ions. The simulation encompasses all relevant factors, such as space charge, diffusion, gas flow, and heating. Special attention is paid to the influence of the gas flow on the transmission and especially the change imposed by heating. The gas flow is modeled by a one-dimensional gas dynamics description. A large number of ions are treated as point particles in this gas flow. This allows to investigate the influence of the capillary heating on the gas flow and by this on the ion transport. The results are compared with experimental findings. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

4.
Anal Chem ; 90(5): 3328-3334, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376333

RESUMO

Desorption/ionization induced by neutral SO2 clusters (DINeC) is used for mass spectrometry (MS) of surface-adsorbed molecules. The method is shown to be a surface-sensitive analysis tool capable of detecting molecular adsorbates in a wide range of molecular weights as well as their reactions on surfaces, which are otherwise difficult to access. Two different surface/adsorbate systems prepared by means of electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) were investigated: For the peptide angiotensin II on gold, intact molecules were desorbed from the surface when deposited by soft landing ES-IBD. By comparison to the well-controlled amount of substance deposited by ES-IBD, the sensitivity of DINeC-MS was shown to be on the order of 0.1% of a monolayer coverage, corresponding to femtomoles of analyte. Depending on deposition and sample conditions, the original state of charge of the molecules could be retrieved. Reaction of the adsorbed molecules both with surface atoms as well as with coadsorbed D2O was monitored. Rhodamine 6G was also desorbed as an intact molecule when deposited with kinetic energies below 50 eV. For higher deposition energy, fragmentation of the dye molecules was observed by means of DINeC-MS.

5.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(2): 304-315, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080207

RESUMO

Ionization processes have been discovered by which small and large as well as volatile and nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions when associated with a matrix and exposed to sub-atmospheric pressure. Here, we discuss experiments further defining these simple and unexpected processes. Charge separation is found to be a common process for small molecule chemicals, solids and liquids, passed through an inlet tube from a higher to a lower pressure region, with and without heat applied. This charge separation process produces positively- and negatively-charged particles with widely different efficiencies depending on the compound and its physical state. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that in the new ionization process, charged particles carry analyte into the gas phase, and desolvation of these particles produce the bare ions similar to electrospray ionization, except that solid particles appear likely to be involved. This mechanistic proposition is in agreement with previous theoretical work related to ion emission from ice. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

6.
ACS Nano ; 11(3): 2420-2427, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122181

RESUMO

Herein we report the fabrication of molecular nanostructures on surfaces via two-dimensional (2D) folding of the nine amino acid peptide bradykinin. Soft-landing electrospray ion beam deposition in conjunction with high-resolution imaging by scanning tunneling microscopy is used to fabricate and investigate the molecular nanostructures. Subnanometer resolved images evidence the large conformational freedom of the molecules if thermal motion is inhibited and the formation of stable uniform dimers of only one specific conformation when diffusion can take place. Molecular dynamics modeling supported by density functional theory calculations give atomically precise insight into the induced-fit binding scheme when the folded dimer is formed. In the absence of solvent, we find a hierarchy of binding strength from polar to nonpolar, manifested in an inverted polar-nonpolar segregation which suppresses unspecific interactions at the rim of the nanostructure. The demonstrated 2D-folding scheme resembles many key properties of its native 3D counterpart and shows that functional, molecular nanostructures on surfaces fabricated by folding could be just as versatile and specific.


Assuntos
Bradicinina/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Difusão , Modelos Moleculares , Dobramento de Proteína , Teoria Quântica , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(7): 1474-1479, 2017 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087691

RESUMO

Imaging single proteins has been a long-standing ambition for advancing various fields in natural science, as for instance structural biology, biophysics, and molecular nanotechnology. In particular, revealing the distinct conformations of an individual protein is of utmost importance. Here, we show the imaging of individual proteins and protein complexes by low-energy electron holography. Samples of individual proteins and protein complexes on ultraclean freestanding graphene were prepared by soft-landing electrospray ion beam deposition, which allows chemical- and conformational-specific selection and gentle deposition. Low-energy electrons do not induce radiation damage, which enables acquiring subnanometer resolution images of individual proteins (cytochrome C and BSA) as well as of protein complexes (hemoglobin), which are not the result of an averaging process.


Assuntos
Holografia/métodos , Proteínas/ultraestrutura , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Citocromos c/ultraestrutura , Elétrons , Grafite , Hemoglobinas/ultraestrutura , Holografia/instrumentação , Soroalbumina Bovina/ultraestrutura , Imagem Individual de Molécula/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Eletricidade Estática , Vácuo
8.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) ; 9(1): 473-98, 2016 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089378

RESUMO

Measuring and understanding the complexity that arises when nanostructures interact with their environment are one of the major current challenges of nanoscale science and technology. High-resolution microscopy methods such as scanning probe microscopy have the capacity to investigate nanoscale systems with ultimate precision, for which, however, atomic scale precise preparation methods of surface science are a necessity. Preparative mass spectrometry (pMS), defined as the controlled deposition of m/z filtered ion beams, with soft ionization sources links the world of large, biological molecules and surface science, enabling atomic scale chemical control of molecular deposition in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Here we explore the application of high-resolution scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy to the characterization of structure and properties of large molecules. We introduce the fundamental principles of the combined experiments electrospray ion beam deposition and scanning tunneling microscopy. Examples for the deposition and investigation of single particles, for layer and film growth, and for the investigation of electronic properties of individual nonvolatile molecules show that state-of-the-art pMS technology provides a platform analog to thermal evaporation in conventional molecular beam epitaxy. Additionally, it offers additional, unique features due to the use of charged polyatomic particles. This new field is an enormous sandbox for novel molecular materials research and demands the development of advanced molecular ion beam technology.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/análise , Substâncias Macromoleculares/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Proteínas/análise , Microscopia de Varredura por Sonda , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10335, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26755352

RESUMO

The sequence of a peptide programs its self-assembly and hence the expression of specific properties through non-covalent interactions. A large variety of peptide nanostructures has been designed employing different aspects of these non-covalent interactions, such as dispersive interactions, hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions. Here we demonstrate the sequence-controlled fabrication of molecular nanostructures using peptides as bio-organic building blocks for two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals changes from compact or linear assemblies (angiotensin I) to long-range ordered, chiral honeycomb networks (angiotensin II) as a result of removal of steric hindrance by sequence modification. Guided by our observations, molecular dynamic simulations yield atomistic models for the elucidation of interpeptide-binding motifs. This new approach to 2D self-assembly on surfaces grants insight at the atomic level that will enable the use of oligo- and polypeptides as large, multi-functional bio-organic building blocks, and opens a new route towards rationally designed, bio-inspired surfaces.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/química , Angiotensina II/química , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
10.
Nat Mater ; 15(2): 164-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641019

RESUMO

Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic and quantum computing devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics and electrical spin manipulation. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unravelled. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets on graphene. Whereas the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain's threshold, gives rise to fully coherent, resonant spin tunnelling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin manipulation in graphene nanodevices.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(39): 13482-5, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25185758

RESUMO

Chemical functionalization of graphene is achieved by hyperthermal reaction with azopyridine molecular ions. The one-step, room temperature process takes place in high vacuum (10(-7) mbar) using an electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) setup. For ion surface collisions exceeding a threshold kinetic energy of 165 eV, molecular cation beams of 4,4'-azobis(pyridine) covalently attach to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. A covalent functionalization degree of 3% of the carbon atoms of graphene is reached after 3-5 h of ion exposure of 2 × 10(14) azopyridinium/cm(2) of which 50% bind covalently. This facile approach for the controlled modification of graphene extends the scope of candidate species that would not otherwise react via existing conventional methods.

12.
Nano Lett ; 14(10): 5609-15, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25198655

RESUMO

The physical and chemical properties of macromolecules like proteins are strongly dependent on their conformation. The degrees of freedom of their chemical bonds generate a huge conformational space, of which, however, only a small fraction is accessible in thermal equilibrium. Here we show that soft-landing electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) of unfolded proteins allows to control their conformation. The dynamics and result of the deposition process can be actively steered by selecting the molecular ion beam's charge state or tuning the incident energy. Using these parameters, protein conformations ranging from fully extended to completely compact can be prepared selectively on a surface, as evidenced on the subnanometer/amino acid resolution level by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, our results demonstrate that the final conformation on the surface is reached through a mechanical deformation during the hyperthermal ion surface collision. Our experimental results independently confirm the findings of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) studies of protein gas phase conformations. Moreover, we establish a new route for the processing of macromolecular materials, with the potential to reach conformations that would be inaccessible otherwise.

13.
Nano Lett ; 14(2): 563-9, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24471471

RESUMO

Dye-sensitized solar cells constitute a promising approach to sustainable and low-cost solar energy conversion. Their overall efficiency crucially depends on the effective coupling of the photosensitizers to the photoelectrode and the details of the dye's energy levels at the interface. Despite great efforts, the specific binding of prototypical ruthenium-based dyes to TiO2, their potential supramolecular interaction, and the interrelation between adsorption geometry and electron injection efficiency lack experimental evidence. Here we demonstrate multiconformational adsorption and energy level alignment of single N3 dyes on TiO2 anatase (101) revealed by scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The distinctly bound molecules show significant variations of their excited state levels associated with different driving forces for photoelectron injection. These findings emphasize the critical role of the interfacial coupling and suggest that further designs of dye-sensitized solar cells should target a higher selectivity in the dye-substrate binding conformations in order to ensure efficient electron injection from all photosensitizers.

14.
Nano Lett ; 12(5): 2452-8, 2012 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22530980

RESUMO

Imaging of individual protein molecules at the single amino acid level has so far not been possible due to the incompatibility of proteins with the vacuum environment necessary for high-resolution scanning probe microscopy. Here we demonstrate electrospray ion beam deposition of selectively folded and unfolded cytochrome c protein ions on atomically defined solid surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum (10(-10) mbar) and achieve unprecedented resolution with scanning tunneling microscopy. On the surface folded proteins are found to retain their three-dimensional structure. Unfolded proteins are observed as extended polymer strands displaying submolecular features with resolution at the amino acid level. On weakly interacting surfaces, unfolded proteins refold into flat, irregular patches composed of individual molecules. This suggests the possibility of two-dimensionally confined folding of peptides of an appropriate sequence into regular two-dimensional structures as a new approach toward functional molecular surface coatings.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/metabolismo , Citocromos c/química , Microscopia de Varredura por Sonda , Dobramento de Proteína , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
Adv Mater ; 24(20): 2761-7, 2012 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22517313

RESUMO

Crystalline inverted membranes of the nonvolatile surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate are found on solid surfaces after electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) of large SDS clusters in vacuum. This demonstrates the equivalence of ES-IBD to conventional molecular beam epitaxy.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Cristalização , Grafite/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Íons/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Vácuo
16.
Nano Lett ; 12(1): 518-21, 2012 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22181658

RESUMO

The high intrinsic spin and long spin relaxation time of manganese-12-acetate (Mn(12)) makes it an archetypical single molecular magnet. While these characteristics have been measured on bulk samples, questions remain whether the magnetic properties replicate themselves in surface supported isolated molecules, a prerequisite for any application. Here we demonstrate that electrospray ion beam deposition facilitates grafting of intact Mn(12) molecules on metal as well as ultrathin insulating surfaces enabling submolecular resolution imaging by scanning tunneling microscopy. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we detect spin excitations from the magnetic ground state of the molecule at an ultrathin boron nitride decoupling layer. Our results are supported by density functional theory based calculations and establish that individual Mn(12) molecules retain their intrinsic spin on a well chosen solid support.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Imãs , Manganês/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Campos Magnéticos , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(34): 11900-1, 2010 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20698538

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of isolated TbPc(2) molecules supported on a Cu(100) surface are investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at 8 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T. The crystal field and magnetic properties of single molecules are found to be robust upon adsorption on a metal substrate. The Tb magnetic moment has Ising-like magnetization; XMCD spectra combined with multiplet calculations show that the saturation orbital and spin magnetic moment values reach 3 and 6 mu(B), respectively.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Magnetismo , Adsorção , Anisotropia , Dicroísmo Circular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
ACS Nano ; 3(10): 2901-10, 2009 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19775085

RESUMO

The ion beam deposition (IBD) of rhodamine dye molecules on solid surfaces in high vacuum is explored in order to characterize the possibility of fabricating molecular coatings or nanostructures from nonvolatile molecules. Molecular ion beams with a well-defined composition are deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with a controlled kinetic energy. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) are employed in order to characterize the sample with respect to coverage, homogeneity, and the fraction of intact landed ions (soft-landing ratio). We find that homogeneous rhodamine films of defined composition can be produced at energies of 2-100 eV. The coverage is found to be proportional to the ion dose. Soft-landing is observed for energies up to 35 eV.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 129(50): 15662-7, 2007 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18027943

RESUMO

Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrate that a free [2]catenane consisting of two interlocking 30-membered rings (cat-30) can be deposited on a Ag(111) surface by vacuum sublimation without decomposition. The deposited cat-30 molecules self-organize as ordered dimer chain structures at the surface, presumably via intermolecular pi-pi stacking. An in situ addition of Cu atoms to the surface-adsorbed catenanes induces a drastic change in the molecular organization, i.e., from the dimer chain structure to isolated species. The nitrogen core level spectra suggest that the cat-30 phenanthroline units coordinate with Cu, indicating that the free catenane has been transformed into a Cu-complexed [2]catenane. Since it is known that the two interlocked macrocyclic rings of the free ligand cat-30 completely rearrange, i.e., circumrotate, upon complexation to copper, our results reveal that when adsorbed on the silver surface, the two macrocyclic rings of the free [2]catenane can glide within one another so as to generate the corresponding copper complex by in situ Cu complexation.


Assuntos
Antracenos/química , Cobre/química , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Adsorção , Ligantes , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Propriedades de Superfície
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