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1.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 281-290, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596555

RESUMO

State-of-the-art computation and visualization of vortices in unsteady fluid flow employ objective vortex criteria, which makes them independent of reference frames or observers. However, objectivity by itself, although crucial, is not sufficient to guarantee that one can identify physically-realizable observers that would perceive or detect the same vortices. Moreover, a significant challenge is that a single reference frame is often not sufficient to accurately observe multiple vortices that follow different motions. This paper presents a novel framework for the exploration and use of an interactively-chosen set of observers, of the resulting relative velocity fields, and of objective vortex structures. We show that our approach facilitates the objective detection and visualization of vortices relative to well-adapted reference frame motions, while at the same time guaranteeing that these observers are in fact physically realizable. In order to represent and manipulate observers efficiently, we make use of the low-dimensional vector space structure of the Lie algebra of physically-realizable observer motions. We illustrate that our framework facilitates the efficient choice and guided exploration of objective vortices in unsteady 2D flow, on planar as well as on spherical domains, using well-adapted reference frames.

2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 573-582, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587033

RESUMO

Achieving high rendering quality in the visualization of large particle data, for example from large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, requires a significant amount of sub-pixel super-sampling, due to very high numbers of particles per pixel. Although it is impossible to super-sample all particles of large-scale data at interactive rates, efficient occlusion culling can decouple the overall data size from a high effective sampling rate of visible particles. However, while the latter is essential for domain scientists to be able to see important data features, performing occlusion culling by sampling or sorting the data is usually slow or error-prone due to visibility estimates of insufficient quality. We present a novel probabilistic culling architecture for super-sampled high-quality rendering of large particle data. Occlusion is dynamically determined at the sub-pixel level, without explicit visibility sorting or data simplification. We introduce confidence maps to probabilistically estimate confidence in the visibility data gathered so far. This enables progressive, confidence-based culling, helping to avoid wrong visibility decisions. In this way, we determine particle visibility with high accuracy, although only a small part of the data set is sampled. This enables extensive super-sampling of (partially) visible particles for high rendering quality, at a fraction of the cost of sampling all particles. For real-time performance with millions of particles, we exploit novel features of recent GPU architectures to group particles into two hierarchy levels, combining fine-grained culling with high frame rates.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653000

RESUMO

The rapidly growing size and complexity of 3D geological models has increased the need for level-of-detail techniques and compact encodings to facilitate interactive visualization. For large-scale hexahedral meshes, state-of-the-art approaches often employ wavelet schemes for level of detail as well as for data compression. Here, wavelet transforms serve two purposes: (1) they achieve substantial compression for data reduction; and (2) the multiresolution encoding provides levels of detail for visualization. However, in coarser detail levels, important geometric features, such as geological faults, often get too smoothed out or lost, due to linear translation-invariant filtering. The same is true for attribute features, such as discontinuities in porosity or permeability. We present a novel, integrated approach addressing both purposes above, while preserving critical data features of both model geometry and its attributes. Our first major contribution is that we completely decouple the computation of levels of detail from data compression, and perform nonlinear filtering in a high-dimensional data space jointly representing the geological model geometry with its attributes. Computing detail levels in this space enables us to jointly preserve features in both geometry and attributes. While designed in a general way, our framework specifically employs joint bilateral filters, computed efficiently on a high-dimensional permutohedral grid. For data compression, after the computation of all detail levels, each level is separately encoded with a standard wavelet transform. Our second major contribution is a compact GPU data structure for the encoded mesh and attributes that enables direct real-time GPU visualization without prior decoding.

4.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 283-293, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048741

RESUMO

Computing and visualizing features in fluid flow often depends on the observer, or reference frame, relative to which the input velocity field is given. A desired property of feature detectors is therefore that they are objective, meaning independent of the input reference frame. However, the standard definition of objectivity is only given for Euclidean domains and cannot be applied in curved spaces. We build on methods from mathematical physics and Riemannian geometry to generalize objectivity to curved spaces, using the powerful notion of symmetry groups as the basis for definition. From this, we develop a general mathematical framework for the objective computation of observer fields for curved spaces, relative to which other computed measures become objective. An important property of our framework is that it works intrinsically in 2D, instead of in the 3D ambient space. This enables a direct generalization of the 2D computation via optimization of observer fields in flat space to curved domains, without having to perform optimization in 3D. We specifically develop the case of unsteady 2D geophysical flows given on spheres, such as the Earth. Our observer fields in curved spaces then enable objective feature computation as well as the visualization of the time evolution of scalar and vector fields, such that the automatically computed reference frames follow moving structures like vortices in a way that makes them appear to be steady.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130222

RESUMO

Flow fields are usually visualized relative to a global observer, i.e., a single frame of reference. However, often no global frame can depict all flow features equally well. Likewise, objective criteria for detecting features such as vortices often use either a global reference frame, or compute a separate frame for each point in space and time. We propose the first general framework that enables choosing a smooth trade-off between these two extremes. Using global optimization to minimize specific differential geometric properties, we compute a time-dependent observer velocity field that describes the motion of a continuous field of observers adapted to the input flow. This requires developing the novel notion of an observed time derivative. While individual observers are restricted to rigid motions, overall we compute an approximate Killing field, corresponding to almost-rigid motion. This enables continuous transitions between different observers. Instead of focusing only on flow features, we furthermore develop a novel general notion of visualizing how all observers jointly perceive the input field. This in fact requires introducing the concept of an observation time, with respect to which a visualization is computed. We develop the corresponding notions of observed stream, path, streak, and time lines. For efficiency, these characteristic curves can be computed using standard approaches, by first transforming the input field accordingly. Finally, we prove that the input flow perceived by the observer field is objective. This makes derived flow features, such as vortices, objective as well.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 944-953, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866508

RESUMO

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

7.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 911-920, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875204

RESUMO

In this paper we present a novel GPU-based data structure for spatial indexing. Based on Fenwick trees-a special type of binary indexed trees-our data structure allows construction in linear time. Updates and prefixes can be computed in logarithmic time, whereas point queries require only constant time on average. Unlike competing data structures such as summed-area tables and spatial hashing, our data structure requires a constant amount of bits for each data element, and it offers unconstrained point queries. This property makes our data structure ideally suited for applications requiring unconstrained indexing of large data, such as block-storage of large and block-sparse volumes. Finally, we provide asymptotic bounds on both run-time and memory requirements, and we show applications for which our new data structure is useful.

8.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 1025-34, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529746

RESUMO

Sparse volume data structures enable the efficient representation of large but sparse volumes in GPU memory for computation and visualization. However, the choice of a specific data structure for a given data set depends on several factors, such as the memory budget, the sparsity of the data, and data access patterns. In general, there is no single optimal sparse data structure, but a set of several candidates with individual strengths and drawbacks. One solution to this problem are hybrid data structures which locally adapt themselves to the sparsity. However, they typically suffer from increased traversal overhead which limits their utility in many applications. This paper presents JiTTree, a novel sparse hybrid volume data structure that uses just-in-time compilation to overcome these problems. By combining multiple sparse data structures and reducing traversal overhead we leverage their individual advantages. We demonstrate that hybrid data structures adapt well to a large range of data sets. They are especially superior to other sparse data structures for data sets that locally vary in sparsity. Possible optimization criteria are memory, performance and a combination thereof. Through just-in-time (JIT) compilation, JiTTree reduces the traversal overhead of the resulting optimal data structure. As a result, our hybrid volume data structure enables efficient computations on the GPU, while being superior in terms of memory usage when compared to non-hybrid data structures.

9.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 2388-96, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356953

RESUMO

Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang, an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization. A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in terms of run-time performance.

10.
Comput Graph ; 36(3): 201-213, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23576827

RESUMO

We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation.

11.
Comput Graph ; 34(4): 361-369, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20862189

RESUMO

In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for the compositing of interactively rendered 3D layers tailored to the needs of scientific illustration. Currently, traditional scientific illustrations are produced in a series of composition stages, combining different pictorial elements using 2D digital layering. Our approach extends the layer metaphor into 3D without giving up the advantages of 2D methods. The new compositing approach allows for effects such as selective transparency, occlusion overrides, and soft depth buffering. Furthermore, we show how common manipulation techniques such as masking can be integrated into this concept. These tools behave just like in 2D, but their influence extends beyond a single viewpoint. Since the presented approach makes no assumptions about the underlying rendering algorithms, layers can be generated based on polygonal geometry, volumetric data, point-based representations, or others. Our implementation exploits current graphics hardware and permits real-time interaction and rendering.

12.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 13(6): 1336-43, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17968082

RESUMO

Direct volume rendering techniques map volumetric attributes (e.g., density, gradient magnitude, etc.) to visual styles. Commonly this mapping is specified by a transfer function. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task and requires expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique. In the case of multiple volumetric attributes and multiple visual styles the specification of the multi-dimensional transfer function becomes more challenging and non-intuitive. We present a novel methodology for the specification of a mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple illustrative visual styles. We introduce semantic layers that allow a domain expert to specify the mapping in the natural language of the domain. A semantic layer defines the mapping of volumetric attributes to one visual style. Volumetric attributes and visual styles are represented as fuzzy sets. The mapping is specified by rules that are evaluated with fuzzy logic arithmetics. The user specifies the fuzzy sets and the rules without special knowledge about the underlying rendering technique. Semantic layers allow for a linguistic specification of the mapping from attributes to visual styles replacing the traditional transfer function specification.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Anatomia Artística/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Ilustração Médica , Modelos Anatômicos , Lógica Fuzzy , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Semântica , Interface Usuário-Computador
13.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 12(5): 1085-92, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17080838

RESUMO

Caricatures are pieces of art depicting persons or sociological conditions in a non-veridical way. In both cases caricatures are referring to a reference model. The deviations from the reference model are the characteristic features of the depicted subject. Good caricatures exaggerate the characteristics of a subject in order to accent them. The concept of caricaturistic visualization is based on the caricature metaphor. The aim of caricaturistic visualization is an illustrative depiction of characteristics of a given dataset by exaggerating deviations from the reference model. We present the general concept of caricaturistic visualization as well as a variety of examples. We investigate different visual representations for the depiction of caricatures. Further, we present the caricature matrix, a technique to make differences between datasets easily identifiable.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Face/anatomia & histologia , Expressão Facial , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Técnica de Subtração , Humanos , Interface Usuário-Computador
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