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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608024

RESUMO

The Te…Te secondary bonding interactions (SBI) in solid heterocyclic telluroethers were explored by preparing and structurally characterizing a series of [Te(CH2)m]n (n = 1-4; m = 3-7) species.  The SBIs in 1,7-Te2(CH2)10, 1,8-Te2(CH2)12, 1,5,9-Te3(CH2)9, 1,8,15-Te3(CH2)18, 1,7,13,19-Te4(CH2)20, 1,8,15,22-Te4(CH2)24, and 1,9,17,25-Te4(CH2)28 led to the tubular packing of the molecules, as has been observed previously for related thio- and selenoether rings. The nature of the intermolecular interactions was explored by solid-state PBE0-D3/pob-TZVP calculations involving periodic boundary conditions. The packing of molecules in 1,7,13,19-Te4(CH2)20, 1,8,15,22-Te4(CH2)24, and 1,9,17,25-Te4(CH2)28 form infinite shafts. The electron densities at bond critical points indicate a narrow range of Te…Te bond orders of 0.12-0.14. The formation of the shafts can be rationalized by frontier orbital overlap and charge-transfer.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(51): 18610-18618, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613414

RESUMO

A study of the strong N-X⋅⋅⋅- O-N+ (X=I, Br) halogen bonding interactions reports 2×27 donor×acceptor complexes of N-halosaccharins and pyridine N-oxides (PyNO). DFT calculations were used to investigate the X⋅⋅⋅O halogen bond (XB) interaction energies in 54 complexes. A simplified computationally fast electrostatic model was developed for predicting the X⋅⋅⋅O XBs. The XB interaction energies vary from -47.5 to -120.3 kJ mol-1 ; the strongest N-I⋅⋅⋅- O-N+ XBs approaching those of 3-center-4-electron [N-I-N]+ halogen-bonded systems (ca. 160 kJ mol-1 ). 1 H NMR association constants (KXB ) determined in CDCl3 and [D6 ]acetone vary from 2.0×100 to >108 m-1 and correlate well with the calculated donor×acceptor complexation enthalpies found between -38.4 and -77.5 kJ mol-1 . In X-ray crystal structures, the N-iodosaccharin-PyNO complexes manifest short interaction ratios (RXB ) between 0.65-0.67 for the N-I⋅⋅⋅- O-N+ halogen bond.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(74): 11095-11098, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460525

RESUMO

The electrophilic borylation of 2,5-diarylpyrazines results in the formation of boron-nitrogen doped dihydroindeno[1,2-b]fluorene which can be synthesized using standard Schlenk techniques and worked up and handled readily under atmospheric conditions. Through transmetallation via diarylzinc reagents a series of derivatives were synthesized which show broad visible to near-IR light absorption profiles that highlight the versatility of this BN substituted core for use in optoelectronic devices. The synthesis is efficient, scalable and allows for tuning through changes in substituents on the planar heterocyclic core and at boron. Exploratory evaluation in organic solar cell devices as non-fullerene acceptors gave power conversion efficiencies of 2%.

4.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654590

RESUMO

[TiCp2S5] (phase A), [TiCp2Se5] (phase F), and five solid solutions of mixed titanocene selenide sulfides [TiCp2SexS5-x] (Cp = C5H5-) with the initial Se:S ranging from 1:4 to 4:1 (phases B⁻E) were prepared by reduction of elemental sulfur or selenium or their mixtures by lithium triethylhydridoborate in thf followed by the treatment with titanocene dichloride [TiCp2Cl2]. Their 77Se and 13C NMR spectra were recorded from the CS2 solution. The definite assignment of the 77Se NMR spectra was based on the PBE0/def2-TZVPP calculations of the 77Se chemical shifts and is supported by 13C NMR spectra of the samples. The following complexes in varying ratios were identified in the CS2 solutions of the phases B⁻E: [TiCp2Se5] (51), [TiCp2Se4S] (41), [TiCp2Se3S2] (31), [TiCp2SSe3S] (36), [TiCp2SSe2S2] (25), [TiCp2SSeS3] (12), and [TiCp2S5] (01). The disorder scheme in the chalcogen atom positions of the phases B⁻E observed upon crystal structure determinations is consistent with the spectral assignment. The enthalpies of formation calculated for all twenty [TiCp2SexS5-x] (x = 0⁻5) at DLPNO-CCSD(T)/CBS level including corrections for core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic, as well as spin-orbit coupling contributions indicated that within a given chemical composition, the isomers of most favourable enthalpy of formation were those, which were observed by 77Se and 13C NMR spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Selênio/química , Sulfetos/síntese química , Dissulfeto de Carbono/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Cristalografia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Teoria Quântica , Sulfetos/química
5.
J Comput Chem ; 40(3): 572-580, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575086

RESUMO

Composite quantum chemical methods W1X-1 and CBS-QB3 are used to calculate the gas phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity of 38 phosphines and phosphine oxides for which reliable experimental thermochemical information is limited or simply nonexistent. For alkyl phosphines and phosphine oxides, the W1X-1, and CBS-QB3 results are mutually consistent and in excellent agreement with available G3X values and empirical data. In the case of aryl-substituted species, different computational methods show more variation, with G3X enthalpies being furthest from experimental values. The calculated thermochemical data are subsequently used to determine Benson group additivity contributions for 24 Benson groups and group pairs involving phosphorus, thereby allowing fast and accurate estimations of thermochemical data of many organophosphorus compounds of any complexity. Such data are indispensable, for example, in chemical process design or estimating potential hazards of new chemical compounds. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 47(3): 734-741, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239418

RESUMO

The reactions of 1-bora-7a-azaindenide anions, prepared in moderate to excellent yields by reduction of the appropriate 1-bora-7a-azaindenyl chlorides with KC8 in THF, with alkyl halides and carbon dioxide were studied. With alkyl halides (CH2Cl2, CH3I and BrCH(D)CH(D)tBu), the anions behave as boron anions, alkylating the boron centre via a classic SN2 mechanism. This was established with DFT methods and via experiments utilizing the neo-hexyl stereoprobe BrCH(D)CH(D)tBu. These reactions were in part driven by a re-aromatization of the six membered pyridyl ring upon formation of the product. Conversely, in the reaction of the 1-bora-7a-azaindenide anions with CO2, a novel carboxylation of the C-2 carbon alpha to boron was observed. Computations indicated that while carboxylation of the boron centre was kinetically feasible, the products of B-carboxylation were not thermodynamically favored relative to the observed C-2 carboxylated species, which were formed preferably due to the generation of both C-C and B-O bonds. In these products, the pyridyl ring remains non-aromatic, in part accounting for the observed reversibility of carboxylation.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 56(2): 974-983, 2017 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045506

RESUMO

A convenient method for the preparation of strongly Lewis acidic tris-perfluoro-tert-butoxyborane B(ORF)3 (1), (ORF = OC(CF3)3) was developed, and its X-ray structure was determined. 1 was used as a precursor, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and volume-based thermodynamics, for the synthesis of [NEt4][NCB(ORF)3] (3) and [NMe4][FB(ORF)3] (5) and the novel large and weakly coordinating anion salts [Li 15-Crown-5][B(ORF)4] (2) and [NEt4][CN{B(ORF)3}2] (4). The stability of [B(ORF)4]- was compared with that of some related known weakly coordinating anions by appropriate DFT calculations.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 45(43): 17206-17215, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722527

RESUMO

The reaction of 1-naphthyl bromide with n-butyl lithium, elemental tellurium, and 1,4-dibromobutane in THF affords both (C10H7)Te(CH2)4Te(C10H7) (1) and [(C10H7)Te(CH2)4]Br (2) in good yields. 1 is preferentially formed at low temperatures and is a rare example of a structurally characterized ditelluroether in which the tellurium atoms are bridged by a hydrocarbon chain. In the solid state, 1 shows secondary bonding TeTe interactions, which connect the molecules into layers which are further linked to 3-dimensional frameworks by TeH hydrogen bonds. [(C10H7)Te(CH2)4]Br (2) is formed concurrently during the synthesis of 1 and is the main product, when the reaction is carried out at room temperature. The revPBE/def2-TZVPP calculations of the reaction profiles indicate that the formation of 2 is somewhat more favourable than that of 1. Furthermore, at room temperature the activation energy for the formation of 2 is lower than that of 1. At low temperatures the activation energy of the reaction leading to 1 is lower than that to 2, which is consistent with the synthetic observations. When 1 was treated with CuBr, [Cu2(µ-Br)2{µ-(C10H7)Te(CH2)4Te(C10H7)}2] (3) was formed. It crystallizes as two polymorphs (3a) and (3b) in which both the packing and the conformation of the ditelluroether ligands are different. The reaction of 1 with HgCl2 produces [(C10H7)Te(CH2)4]2[HgCl4]·CH2Cl2 (4·CH2Cl2) and that of 1 with CuCl2 affords [(C10H7)Te(CH2)4]Cl (5). 2 and 5 are isomorphous.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 55(12): 5999-6009, 2016 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276103

RESUMO

One mole equivalent of gaseous SO2 is absorbed by purple TDAE[O2SSO2](s), producing red, essentially spectroscopically pure TDAE[O2SS(O)2SO2](s); under prolonged evacuation, the product loses SO2(g), regenerating TDAE[O2SSO2](s). Similarly, [NR4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) (R = Et, Me) can be prepared, albeit at lower purity, from the corresponding tetraalkylammonium dithionites (prepared by a modification of the known [NEt4]2[O2SSO2](s) preparation). While the [NEt4](+) salt is stable at rt; the [NMe4](+) salt has only limited stability at -78 °C. Vibrational spectra assignments for the anion in these salts were distinctly different from those for the anion in salts containing the long-known [O3SSSO3](2-) dianion, the most thermodynamically stable form of [S3O6](2-) (we prepared TDAE[O3SSSO3]·H2O(s) and obtained its structure by X-ray diffraction and vibrational analyses). The best fit between the calculated ((B3PW91/6-311+G(3df) and PBE0/6-311G(d)) and experimental vibrational spectra were obtained with the dianion having the [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) structure. Vibrational analyses of the three [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) salts prepared in this work showed that the corresponding [O3SSO2](2-) salts were present as a ubiquitous decomposition product. The formation of these new [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) dianion salts was predicted to be favorable for [NMe4](+) and larger cations using a combination of theoretical calculations (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) and volume based thermodynamics (VBT). Similar methods accounted for the greater stabilities of the TDAE(2+) and [NEt4](+) salts of [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) compared to [NMe4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) toward irreversible decomposition to the corresponding [O3SSO2](2-) salts. These salts represent the first known examples of a new class of poly(sulfur dioxide) dianion, [SO2]n(2-) in which n > 2.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 45(14): 6210-21, 2016 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26629863

RESUMO

The third member of the series of imidoselenium(II) chlorides ClSe[N(tBu)Se]nCl (n = 3) (9) has been isolated from the cyclocondensation reaction of tBuNH2 and SeCl2 in THF in a molar ratio of ca. 3:1 and characterized in the form of two polymorphs 9a and 9b by single crystal X-ray analysis. The unusual structural features of this nine-atom chain are explained satisfactorily in terms of a bonding model that invokes intra-molecular secondary bonding interactions and hyperconjugation. The reaction of the bifunctional reagent ClSe[N(tBu)Se]2Cl (8) with tBuNH2 in THF occurs via concurrent pathways to give 1,3,5-Se3(NtBu)3 (1) and 1,3-Se3(NtBu)2 (3a). The energetics of the reactions of tBuNH2 and SeCl2 in THF have been calculated at the PBE0/def2-TZVPP level of theory in order to assess the feasibility of ClSe[N(tBu)Se]nCl (7­9, n = 1­3) as intermediates in the formation of known cyclic selenium imides. DFT calculations were also employed to explore the energy profile of the pathway of the formation of the first member of the series ClSeN(tBu)SeCl (7) from tBuNH2 and SeCl2 in THF at 298 K. The neutral ligand ClSeN(tBu)SeCl (7) is Se,Se'-coordinated to the metal centre in the unusual adduct [PdCl2{Se,Se'-(SeCl)2N(tBu)}]·[PdCl2{Se,Se'-Se4(NtBu)3}]·MeCN (10·MeCN), which is the first metal complex of an imidoselenium(II) chloride.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 54(19): 9499-508, 2015 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26379047

RESUMO

The complexes [MCl2{N,N'-(t)BuNSe(µ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu}] [M = Cd (1), Hg (2)] were obtained in high yields by the reaction of tert-butylselenium diimide Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2 with CdCl2 or HgCl2 in tetrahydrofuran. Recrystallization of 1 and 2 from acetonitrile (MeCN) afforded yellow crystals of 1·MeCN and 2·MeCN, respectively. Isomorphic 1·MeCN and 2·MeCN contain an unprecedented dimeric selenium diimide ligand, which is N,N'-chelated to the metal through exocyclic imido groups. In addition to the complexes 1 and 2, the (77)Se NMR spectra of acetonitrile solutions of 1·MeCN and 2·MeCN indicated the presence of the dimeric (t)BuNSe(µ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu, monomeric Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2, and cyclic selenium imides. Density functional theory calculations at the PBE0/def2-TZVPP level of theory were used to assign the (77)Se resonances of the dimer. A comparison of Gibbs energies of formation of some metal dichloride complexes [MCl2{N,N'-Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2}] and [MCl2{N,N'-(t)BuNSe(µ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu}] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) indicated that the formation of complexes containing a dimeric selenium diimide ligand is favored over those containing a monomeric ligand for the group 12 metals. In the case of the group 10 metal halogenides (M = Ni, Pd, Pt), the Gibbs energies of the complexes with monomeric Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2 ligands are close to those containing dimeric (t)BuNSe(µ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu ligands. A plausible reaction pathway with a low activation energy involves the initial formation of [MCl2{N,N'-Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2}] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg), which then reacts with another molecule of Se(N(t)Bu)2, leading to the final [MCl2{N,N'-(t)BuNSe(µ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu}] complex. Without the presence of group 12 metal halogenides, the [2 + 2] cyclodimerization of Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2 is virtually thermoneutral, but the activation energy is relatively high, which accounts for the kinetic stability of (t)BuNSe(µ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu in solution. A minor byproduct, [Cd7Cl14{N,N'-Se(II)(NH(t)Bu)2}6]·4CH2Cl2, was identified by X-ray crystallography as a heptanuclear cluster with selenium(II) diamide ligands N,N'-chelated to the cadmium centers.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 54(10): 4990-7, 2015 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25932943

RESUMO

The cyclocondensation reaction of equimolar amounts of SeCl2 and (Me3Si)2NMe in THF affords 1,3,5,7-Se4(NMe)4 (5b) [δ((77)Se) = 1585 ppm] in excellent yield. An X-ray structural determination showed that 5b consists of cyclic, puckered crown-shaped molecules with a mean Se-N bond length of 1.841 Å typical of single bonds. A minor product of this reaction was isolated as unstable orange-red crystals, which were identified by X-ray analysis as the adduct 1,5-Se6(NMe)2·(1)/2Se8 (1b·(1)/2Se8), composed of cyclic 1,5-Se6(NMe)2 and disordered cyclo-Se8 molecules. A detailed reinvestigation of the cyclocondensation reaction of SeCl2 and (t)BuNH2 as a function of molar ratio and time by multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se) NMR spectroscopy revealed that the final product exhibits one (77)Se resonance at 1486 ppm and equivalent N(t)Bu groups. The shielding tensors of 28 selenium-containing molecules, for which the (77)Se chemical shifts are unambiguously known, were calculated at the PBE0/def2-TZVPP level of theory to assist the spectral assignment of new cyclic selenium imides. The good agreement between the observed and calculated chemical shifts enabled the assignment of the resonance at 1486 ppm to 1,3,5,7-Se4(N(t)Bu)4 (5a). Those at 1028 and 399 ppm (intensity ratio 2:1) could be attributed to 1,5-Se6(NMe)2 (1b).

13.
Inorg Chem ; 52(23): 13651-62, 2013 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24228766

RESUMO

Gaseous SO2 reacts with tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE) in acetonitrile in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio to give analytically pure insoluble purple (TDAE)(O2SSO2) (1) in about 80% yield. Crystals of (TDAE)(O2SSSSO2) (2) were obtained from orange solution over the purple solid. The Raman spectrum of [TDAE](2+) was established using (TDAE)(A) salts [A = 2Br(-), 2Br(-)·2H2O (X-ray), 2[Br3](-) (X-ray)]. Vibrational spectroscopy showed that [O2SSO2](2-) in 1 has C2h geometry. The X-ray structure of 2 showed that it contained [O2SSSSO2](2-), the first example of a new class of sulfur oxyanions, the polythionites. The geometry of [O2SSSSO2](2-) consists of S2 with an S-S bond length of 2.003(1) Å connected to two terminal SO2 moieties by much longer S-S bonds of 2.337(1) Å. Calculations (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) show that the structural units in [O2SSSSO2](2-) are joined by the interaction of electrons in two mutually perpendicular π* SOMOs of the triplet-state diradical S2 with unpaired electrons in the π*-antibonding orbitals of the two terminal [SO2](•-) and polarized to delocalize the negative charge equally onto the three fragments. Thermodynamic estimates show 2 to be stable with respect to loss of sulfur and formation of 1, in contrast to [O2SSSSO2](2-) salts of small cations that are unstable toward the related dissociation. Reaction of TDAE with an excess of liquid SO2 led to (TDAE)(O3SOSO3)·SO2 (preliminary X-ray, Raman), (TDAE)(O3SSSSO3)·2SO2 (preliminary X-ray, Raman), and (TDAE)(O3SSO2) (Raman).

14.
Inorg Chem ; 52(12): 7193-202, 2013 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23734691

RESUMO

One mole equivalent of SO2 reversibly reacts with [N(CH3)4]2SO4(s) to give [N(CH3)4]2S2O6(s) (1) containing the [O3SOSO2](2-), shown by Raman and IR to be an isomer of the [O3SSO3](2-) dianion. The experimental and calculated (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement, and the IR spectrum is similar to that of the isoelectronic O3ClOClO2. Crystals of [N(CH3)4]2(O2SO)2SO2·SO2 (2) were isolated from solutions of [N(CH3)4]2SO4 in liquid SO2. The X-ray structure showed that 2 contained the [(O2SO)2SO2](2-) dianion. The characterized N(CH3)4(+) salts 1 and 2 are the first two members of the (SO4)(SO2)x(2-) class of sulfur oxydianions analogous to the well-known small cation salts of the SO4(SO3)x(2-) polysulfates.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 52(6): 3113-26, 2013 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23445274

RESUMO

Two silver-cyclodimethylsiloxane cation salts [AgD6][Al] ([Al] = [Al(ORF)4](1) or [FAl(OR(F))3](2), R(F) = C(CF3)3, D = Me2SiO) were prepared by the reactions of Ag[Al] with D6 in SO2(l). For a comparison the [Ag(18-crown-6)]2[SbF6]2(3) salt was prepared by the reaction of Ag[SbF6] and 18-crown-6 in SO2(l). The compounds were characterized by IR, multinuclear NMR, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The structures of 1 and 2 show that D6 acts as a pseudo crown ether toward Ag(+). The stabilities and bonding of [MDn](+) and [M(18-crown-6)](+) (M = Ag, Li, n = 4-8) complexes were studied with theoretical calculations. The calculations predicted that D6 adopts a puckered C(i) symmetric structure in the gas phase in contrast to previous reports. 18-Crown-6 was calculated to bind more strongly to Li(+) and Ag(+) than D6. (29)Si[(1)H] NMR results in solution, and calculations in the gas phase established that a hard Lewis acid Li(+) binds more strongly to D6 than Ag(+). A comparison of the [MD(n)](+) complex stabilities showed D7 to form the most stable metal complexes in the gas phase and the solid state and explained why [AgD7][SbF6] was isolated in a previous reaction where ring transformations resulted in an equilibrium of [AgD(n)](+) complexes. In contrast, the isolations of 1 and 2 were possible because the corresponding equilibrium of [AgD(n)](+) complexes was not observed with [Al](-) anions. The formation of the dinuclear complex salt 3 instead of the corresponding mononuclear complex salt was shown to be driven by the gain in lattice enthalpy in the solid state. The bonding to Li(+) in D6 and 18-crown-6 metal complexes was described by a quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis to be mostly electrostatic while the bonding to Ag(+) also had a significant charge transfer component. The charge transfer from both D6 and 18-crown-6 to Ag(+) and Li(+) metal ions was depicted by the QTAIM analysis to be of similar strength, and the difference in the stabilities of the complexes was attributed mostly to more attractive electrostatic interactions between 18-crown-6 and the metal ions despite the more negative oxygen atomic charges calculated for D6.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 42(7): 2371-81, 2013 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23073390

RESUMO

A novel multitopic, two-pocket ligand HL(nit), containing the nitronyl nitroxide radical, has been designed for a self-assembled [2 × 2] grid system. HL(nit) is not stable in methanol and slowly undergoes a disproportionation, during which the nitronyl nitroxide radical converts to the diamagnetic amidino oxide. In situ reaction of HL(nit) with Cu(BF(4))(2) in methanol depending on the reaction time affords self-assembled [2 × 2] grids (L(nit))(2)(L)(2)Cu(II)(4)(BF(4))(4)·CH(3)OH (1) or (L(nit))(0.5)(L)(3.5)Cu(II)(4)(BF(4))(4)·CH(3)OH (2), in which L contains an amidino oxide arising from a 3-electron reduction of the nitronyl nitroxide radical. The percentages of stable radical in grids 1 and 2 as determined by X-ray are 50 and 12.5%, respectively. Structures 1 and 2 contain a six-coordinated distorted Cu(II) that is oxo-bridged at 140°. The nitronyl nitroxide radical coordinates via the oxo-atom of the N(+)-O(-) fragment in a chelating fashion and lies in the equatorial plane of the metal ion. The magnetic properties of 1 could be fitted to a 5-spin Hamiltonian with J(Cu-Cu) = +3.1 cm(-1) and J(Cu-Nit) = -278 cm(-1), while those of 2 to a 4-spin Hamiltonian with J(Cu-Cu) = +2.9 cm(-1). The Q-band EPR spectra of 1 and 2 recorded in solution at 20 K showed intricate anisotropic features of the Cu(II) ion and a much weaker signal of the -NO˙ fragment, associated with a strong Cu(II)-Nit antiferromagentic coupling. The DFT calculated (B3LYP/TZVP/6-31G*) magnetic coupling constants for the grid of 1 were J(Cu-Cu) = +5 cm(-1) and J(Cu-Nit) = -282 cm(-1), which are in very good agreement with the experimentally obtained values.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Teoria Quântica , Temperatura
17.
Inorg Chem ; 50(4): 1491-7, 2011 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21218779

RESUMO

[18-Crown-6 Na](2)S(2)O(4) complex was prepared in methanol solution but dissociates into 18-Crown-6 ((s)) and Na(2)S(2)O(4 (s)) on removal of the solvent. Evidence for complexation in methanol is supported by a quantitative mass analysis and the dissociation in the solid state by vibrational spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. These observations are accounted for by investigating the energetics of complexation in solution and dissociation in the solid state using calculated density functional theory (DFT) gas phase binding enthalpies and free energies combined with conductor-like screening model (COSMO) solvation energies and lattice enthalpy and free energy terms derived from volume based thermodynamics (VBT). Our calculations show that complexation of alkali metal dianion salts to crown ethers are much less favorable than that of the corresponding monoanion salts in the solid state and that the formation of alkali metal crown complexes of stable simple oxy-dianion (e.g., CO(3)(2-), SO(4)(2-)) salts is unlikely. The roles of complexation with 18-Crown-6 and ion pair formation in the process of dissolution of Na(2)S(2)O(4) to methanol are discussed.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 49(17): 7861-79, 2010 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20698504

RESUMO

The reaction of NC-CN with a 1:1 mixture of S(4)(MF(6))(2) and S(8)(MF(6))(2) (M = As, Sb) (stoichiometrically equivalent to four "S(3)MF(6)" units) results in the quantitative formation of S(3)NCCNS(3)(MF(6))(2) [7(MF(6))(2)], which is the thermodynamic sink in this reaction. The Sb(2)F(11)(-) salt 7(Sb(2)F(11))(2) is prepared by the addition of an excess of SbF(5) to 7(AsF(6))(2). Crystal structure determinations for all three salts show that 7(2+) can be viewed as two R-CNS(3)(+) radical cations joined together by a C-C single bond. The two rings are coplanar and in a trans orientation due to electrostatic N(delta-)...S(delta+) interactions. The classically bonded alternative (quinoidal structure), in which the octet rule is obeyed, is not observed and is much higher in energy based on calculated estimates and a simple comparison of pi bond energies. Calculated molecular orbitals (MOs) support this, showing that the MO corresponding to the quinoidal structure lies higher in energy than the nearly degenerate singly occupied MOs of 7(2+). The vibrational spectra of 7(2+) in all salts were assigned based on a normal-coordinate analysis and theoretical vibrational frequencies calculated at the PBE0/6-31G* level. In the solid state, 7(2+) is a planar disjoint diradical with essentially degenerate open-shell singlet and triplet states. The disjoint nature of the diradical cation 7(2+) is established by magnetic susceptibility studies of the Sb(2)F(11)(-) salt doped in an isomorphous diamagnetic host material (CNSNS)(2)(Sb(2)F(11))(2) [10(Sb(2)F(11))(2)]. Intramolecular spin coupling is extremely weak corresponding to a singlet-triplet gap (DeltaE(ST) = 2J) of <+/-2 cm(-1). CASPT2[12,12]/6-311G* calculations support a triplet ground state with a small singlet-triplet gap. The single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of 7(Sb(2)F(11))(2) doped in 10(Sb(2)F(11))(2) is in agreement with the triplet state arising from the weak coupling between the unpaired electrons residing in p(pi) orbitals in each of the rings. Variable-temperature susceptibility data for bulk samples of 7(A)(2) (A = SbF(6)(-), AsF(6)(-), Sb(2)F(11)(-)) are analyzed by employing both 1D chain and 2D sheet magnetic models. These studies reveal significant intermolecular exchange approximating that of a 1D chain for the SbF(6)(-) salt with |J| = 32 cm(-1). The exchange coupling is on the same order of magnitude as that for the AsF(6)(-) salt, although in this case it is likely that there are complex exchange pathways where no particular one is dominant. Intermolecular exchange in the Sb(2)F(11)(-) salt is an order of magnitude weaker. In solution, the EPR spectrum of 7(2+) shows a broad triplet resonance as well as a sharp resonance that is tentatively attributed to a rotomer of the 7(2+)/anion pair, which is likely the origin of the green species given on dissolution of the red 7(2+) salts in SO(2)/AsF(3)/MF(5). We account for the many similarities between O(2) and 7(2+), which are the only simple nonsterically hindered nonmetal diradicals to retain their paramagnetism in the solid state. 7(2+) is also the first isolable, essentially sulfur-based diradical as evidenced by calculated spin densities.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 39(10): 2587-96, 2010 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20179852

RESUMO

The (SO(2))(2)Li[AlF(OR(F))(3)]Li[Al(OR(F))(4)] (1) (R(F) = C(CF(3))(3)) molecular entity was obtained by thermal decomposition of Li[Al(OR(F))(4)] followed by crystallization from liquid SO(2). 1, containing two SO(2) molecules eta(1)-O coordinated to Li(+), was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy in SO(2)(l). Bonding analyses of 1 (bond valency units, AIM analysis, atomic charges, bond orders) show that 1 can be either considered as a Li(OSO)(2)(+) complex stabilized by the large WCA [AlF(OR(F))(3)](-)Li(+)[Al(OR(F))(4)](-) or as consisting of 2 SO(2), 2 Li(+), [AlF(OR(F))(3)](-), and [Al(OR(F))(4)](-) joined by electrostatic interactions into the discrete molecular entity 1. The bonding between Li(+) and SO(2) molecules is shown to be almost completely attributable to monopole-induced dipole electrostatic interactions. Theoretical gas phase lithium ion affinity of SO(2) is determined to be stronger than its silver(I) ion affinity owing largely to the shorter lithium SO(2) contacts in the calculated structures that increase the electrostatic interaction.

20.
Chemistry ; 15(26): 6504-17, 2009 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19449357

RESUMO

Pushing the limits of coordination chemistry: The most weakly coordinated silver complexes of the very weakly coordinating solvents dichloromethane and liquid sulfur dioxide were prepared. Special techniques at low temperatures and the use of weakly coordinating anions allowed structural characterization of [Ag(OSO)][Al{OC(CF(3))(3)}(4)], [Ag(OSO)(2/2)][SbF(6)], and [Ag(Cl(2)CH(2))(2)][SbF(6)] (see figure). An investigation of the bonding shows that these complexes are mainly stabilized by electrostatic monopole-dipole interactions.The synthetically useful solvent-free silver(I) salt Ag[Al(pftb)(4)] (pftb=--OC(CF(3))(3)) was prepared by metathesis reaction of Li[Al(pftb)(4)] with Ag[SbF(6)] in liquid SO(2). The solvated complexes [Ag(OSO)][Al(pftb)(4)], [Ag(OSO)(2/2)][SbF(6)], and [Ag(CH(2)Cl(2))(2)][SbF(6)] were prepared and isolated by special techniques at low temperatures and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The SO(2) complexes provide the first examples of coordination of the very weak Lewis base SO(2) to silver(I). The SO(2) molecule in [Ag(OSO)][Al(pftb)(4)] is eta(1)-O coordinated to Ag(+), while the SO(2) ligands in [Ag(OSO)(2/2)][SbF(6)] bridge two Ag(+) ions in an eta(2)-O,O' (trans,trans) manner. [Ag(CH(2)Cl(2))(2)][SbF(6)] contains [Ag(CH(2)Cl(2))(2)](+) ions linked through [SbF(6)](-) ions to give a polymeric structure. The solid-state silver(I) ion affinities (SIA) of SO(2) and CH(2)Cl(2), based on bond lengths and corresponding valence units in the corresponding complexes and tensimetric titrations of Ag[Al(pftb)(4)] and Ag[SbF(6)] with SO(2) vapor, show that SO(2) is a weaker ligand to Ag(+) than the commonly used weakly coordinating solvent CH(2)Cl(2) and indicated that binding strength of SO(2) to silver(I) in the silver(I) salts increases with increasing size of the corresponding counteranion ([Al(pftb)(4)](-)>[SbF(6)](-)). The experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical gas-phase ligand-binding energies of [Ag(L)(n)](+) (L=SO(2), CH(2)Cl(2); n=1, 2) and solid-state enthalpies obtained from Born-Fajans-Haber cycles by using the volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) approach. Bonding analysis (VB, NBO, MO) of [Ag(L)(n)](+) suggests that these complexes are almost completely stabilized by electrostatic interaction, that is, monopole-dipole interaction, with almost no covalent contribution by electron donation from the ligand orbitals into the vacant 5s orbital of Ag(+). All experimental findings and theoretical considerations demonstrate that SO(2) is less covalently bound to Ag(+) than CH(2)Cl(2) and support the thesis that SO(2) is a polar but non-coordinating solvent towards Ag(+).

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